A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
Sir John Young "Jackie" Stewart, is a British former Formula One racing driver from Scotland. Nicknamed the "Flying Scot", he competed in Formula One between 1965 and 1973, winning three World Drivers' Championships, twice finishing as runner-up over those nine seasons. Outside of Formula One, he narrowly missed out on a win at his first attempt at the Indianapolis 500 in 1966, competed in the Can-Am series in 1970 and 1971. Between 1997 and 1999, in partnership with his son, Paul, he was team principal of the Stewart Grand Prix Formula One racing team. Stewart was instrumental in improving the safety of motor racing, campaigning for better medical facilities and track improvements at motor racing circuits. Stewart was born in Milton, Scotland, a village 15 miles west of Glasgow. Stewart's family were Austin Jaguar, car dealers and had built up a successful business, his father had been an amateur motorcycle racer, his brother Jimmy was a racing driver with a growing local reputation who drove for Ecurie Ecosse and competed in the 1953 British Grand Prix at Silverstone.
Jackie attended Hartfield primary school in the nearby town of Dumbarton, moved to Dumbarton Academy at the age of 12. He experienced learning difficulties owing to undiagnosed dyslexia, due to the condition not being understood or widely known about at the time, he was berated and humiliated by teachers and peers alike for being "dumb" and "thick". Stewart was unable to continue his secondary education past the age of 16, began working in his father's garage as an apprentice mechanic, he was not diagnosed with dyslexia until 1980, when his oldest son Mark was diagnosed with the condition. On learning that dyslexia can be genetically passed on, seeing similar symptoms with his son that he had experienced himself as a child, Stewart asked if he could be tested, was diagnosed with the disorder, by which time he was 41 years old, he has said: "When you've got dyslexia and you find something you're good at, you put more into it than anyone else. He won the British, Irish and Scottish skeet shooting championships and twice won the "Coupe de Nations" European championship.
He competed for a place in the British trap shooting team for the 1960 Summer Olympics, but finished third behind Joseph Wheater and Brett Huthart. Stewart's first car was a light green Austin A30 with "real leather seats" which he purchased shortly before his seventeenth birthday for £375, a detail he was able to recall for an interviewer sixty years later, he had saved up the purchase price from tips received from his job at the family garage. He took up an offer from Barry Filer, a customer of the family business, to test in a number of his cars at Oulton Park. For 1961, Filer provided a Marcos, in which Stewart scored four wins, competed once in Filer's Aston DB4GT. In 1962, to help decide if he was ready to become a professional driver, he tested a Jaguar E-type at Oulton Park, matching Roy Salvadori's times in a similar car the year before, he won two races, his first in England, in the E-type, David Murray of Ecurie Ecosse offered him a ride in the Tojeiro EE Mk2, their Cooper T49, in which he won at Goodwood.
For 1963, he earned fourteen wins, a second, two thirds, with six retirements. In 1964, he again signed with Ecurie Ecosse. Ken Tyrrell running the Formula Junior team for the Cooper Car Company, heard of the young Scotsman from Goodwood's track manager and called up Jimmy Stewart to see if his younger brother was interested in a tryout. Jackie came down for the test at Goodwood, taking over a new, competitive, Formula Three T72-BMC which Bruce McLaren was testing. Soon Stewart was bettering McLaren's times, causing McLaren to return to the track for some quicker laps. Again, Stewart was quicker, Tyrrell offered Stewart a spot on the team. In 1964 he drove in Formula Three for Tyrrell, his debut, in the wet at Snetterton on 15 March, was dominant. Within days, he was offered a Formula One ride with Cooper, but declined, preferring to gain experience under Tyrrell. After running John Coombs' E-type and practising in a Ferrari at Le Mans, he took a trial in an F1 Lotus 33-Climax, in which he impressed Colin Chapman and Jim Clark.
Stewart again refused a ride in F1, but went instead to the Lotus Formula Two team. In his F2 debut, he was second at the difficult Circuit Clermont-Ferrand in a Lotus 32-Cosworth. While he signed with BRM alongside Graham Hill in 1965, a contract which netted him £4,000, his first race in an F1 car was for Lotus, as stand-in for an injured Jim Clark, at the non-championship Rand Grand Prix in December 1964. On his World Championship F1 debut in South Africa, he finished sixth, his first major competition victory came in the BRDC International Trophy in the late spring, before the end of the year he won his first World Championship race at Monza, fighting wheel-to-wheel with teammate Hill's P261. Stewart finished his rookie season with a win, three seconds, a third, a fifth, a sixth, third place in the World Drivers' Championship, he piloted Tyrrell's unsuccessful F2 Cooper T75-BRM, drove the Rover Company's revolutionary turbine car at the 24 Hours of Le Mans alongside Graham Hill
Albert François Cevert Goldenberg was a French racing driver who took part in the Formula One World Championship. He competed in 47 World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one win, 13 podium finishes and 89 career points; the son of Charles Goldenberg, a Parisian jeweler, Huguette Cevert. Charles was a Russian Jewish émigré brought to France as a young boy by his parents, to escape the persecution of the Jews under the Tsarist autocracy. During World War II, under the Nazi occupation of France, Goldenberg joined the French Resistance to avoid forced deportation to Poland, as he was a registered Jew. In order not to draw further attention and Huguette's four children were all registered with her surname rather than his; some years after the liberation of France, Cevert's father wanted to rename his children Goldenberg, but the family objected as by now they had become known as Cevert. Cevert was the brother-in-law of Grand Prix driver Jean-Pierre Beltoise; when he was 16, François Cevert began his motorsport career on two wheels, rather than four racing his mother's Vespa scooter against friends, before graduating to his own Norton at the age of 19.
After completing his National Service, Cevert switched his attention to cars. In 1966 he completed a training course at the Le Mans school, before enrolling at the Magny-Cours racing school. At the same time he registered for the Volant Shell scholarship competition, which offered the top finisher the prize of an Alpine Formula Three car. Cevert duly won, his first season in F3, at the wheel of his prize Alpine, did not go well. He experience to properly set up and maintain his car. After finding sponsorship for the 1968 season, Cevert traded in his Alpine for a more competitive Tecno car. With his new mount Cevert started to win races, by the end of the season he was French Formula 3 Champion, just ahead of Jean-Pierre Jabouille. After winning the French Formula 3 Championship, Cevert joined the works Tecno Formula Two team in 1969, finished third overall, as well as driving in the F2 class of the 1969 German Grand Prix. At the time, Formula Two was an ideal training ground for ambitious drivers, as many top Grand Prix drivers competed in the F2 class, when their Formula One schedules permitted.
When Jackie Stewart had a hard time getting around Cevert in an F2 race at Crystal Palace the same year, Stewart told his team manager Ken Tyrrell to keep an eye on the young Frenchman. This personal recommendation was to pay off in 1970, as when Tyrrell needed a new driver at short notice Stewart's recommendation was still in his mind. Tyrrell commented on the reason for Cevert's appointment to the Formula One team that "everybody said it was Elf, but it was what Jackie said about him." When Johnny Servoz-Gavin retired from the Tyrrell Formula One team three races into the 1970 season, Tyrrell called upon Cevert to be his number two driver, alongside defending World Champion Stewart. Over the next four seasons, Cevert became the veteran Stewart's devoted protégé. After making his debut at the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort in Tyrrell's second customer March-Ford, he increased his pace and closed the gap to Stewart with every race, he earned his first World Championship point by finishing sixth in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza.
In 1971, with the Tyrrell team now building their own cars, Cevert finished second in France and Germany, both times behind team leader Stewart. In the season-ending United States Grand Prix at the newly extended Watkins Glen race course, the Frenchman earned his first and only Grand Prix win: Having started from fifth spot, Cevert took the lead from Stewart on lap 14 as the Scot's tires began to go off in the 100° heat. At about half-distance, Cevert began to struggle with the same understeer that had plagued Stewart much earlier. Jacky Ickx was closing, his Firestones were getting better as the race went on. On lap 43, Ickx set the fastest lap of the race, the gap was down to 2.2 seconds. On lap 49, the alternator on Ickx's Ferrari fell off, punching a hole in the gearbox and spilling oil all over the track! Denny Hulme's McLaren spun into the barrier, bending his front suspension. Hulme was standing beside the track when Cevert came by and slid off and hit the barrier, but he kept going, now 29 seconds in the lead!
Cevert coasted home. Cevert became only the second Frenchman to win a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix, received 50,000 U. S. dollars as award. It was the high point of his career, helping him take third place in the 1971 Drivers' Championship behind Stewart and Ronnie Peterson. Great expectations for Cevert and Tyrrell were not fulfilled in 1972, Cevert finished in the points only three times, with second places in Belgium and the USA, a fourth at his home race in France at the Clermont-Ferrand circuit. One bright spot in a disappointing year for Cevert was his second-place finish at the 24 hours of Le Mans, driving a Matra-Simca 670 with New Zealand's Howden Ganley. In 1973, the Tyrrell team was back on top in Formula One and Cevert showed he was capable of running with Stewart at every race, he finished second six times, three times behind Stewart, who acknowledged that at times the Frenchman had been a "obedient" teammate. As Cevert began to draw with Stewart's driving abilities, the Scot was secretly planning to retire after the last race of the season in the United States.
For the 1974 season, Cevert would be Tyrrell's team leader. At Watkins Glen, with Stewart having clinche
Hockenheim is a town in northwest Baden-Württemberg, about 20 km south of Mannheim and 10 km west of Walldorf. It is located in the Upper Rhine valley on the tourist theme routes Baden Asparagus Route and Bertha Benz Memorial Route; the town is known for its Hockenheimring, a motor racing course, which has hosted over 30 Formula One German Grand Prix races since 1970. Hockenheim is one of the six largest towns in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district, it is twinned with the French town of Commercy, the German town of Hohenstein-Ernstthal in Saxony and the American town of Mooresville, North Carolina. Hockenheim is located in the Upper Rhine valley on an old trade route from Frankfurt to Basel; the brook Kraichbach divides the town in an eastern and a smaller western area, flows into the Rhine to the north near Ketsch. Hockenheim's total municipal area covers 3,484 ha, with ca. 28.8 percent used for settlement and transportation and ca. 45.9 percent for agriculture. The remaining area consists of ca. 22 percent forests and ca. 2.4 percent seas.
The municipal area is divided into two large natural regions, the "Rheinaue" to the west and the higher "Niederterrasse" to the east. The so-called "Hockenheimer Rheinbogen" is a meander area of the Rhine, which stretches over the municipalities of Ketsch and Altlußheim. 30 parts of it with a total of 656 ha are under nature conservation. An additional area three times larger is designated as landscape conservation area, with less strict usage limitations; the "Rheinbogen" offers biologically diverse, secondary wetlands as habitat for endangered plants and animals, it is an internationally important resting and feeding area for migrating birds in winter. The central urban area forms one unit and is only divided into five districts for statistical purposes. Together with the central town several small settlements belong to Hockenheim: the industrial areas "Bahnstation Talhaus" and "Wasserwerk", the farms and houses "Insultheimerhof", "Herrenteich, Ziegelei" and "Ketschau, Ziegelei“ as well as the deserted settlement "Westeheim".
Stamped bricks of the Roman Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix were found 1984 in a brick kiln during an excavation in Hockenheim. The stationing of this legion near Mainz from 71AD until 92AD indicates an early settlement in this area. Hockenheim was first mentioned 769 as "Ochinheim" in a donation document of the Lorsch Codex, an early monastery gift documentation; the name "Hockenheim" itself appeared first in 1238 in official documents. In the Middle Ages Hockenheim was owned by several alternating local authorities: the castle district Wersau, the Diocese of Speyer during the 12th and 13th century, various Palatinate rulers since 1286 and the Electoral Palatinate since 1462. In the 17th century Hockenheim was devastated twice by French troops, 1644 in the Thirty Years' War and 1674 in the Franco-Dutch War. During this period the former cultivation of hops in the area was replaced with tobacco, brought into the country by the French. 1803 the Electoral Palatinate was dissolved and the village was integrated in Baden.
With the growing tobacco crop the village flourished and was awarded town rights on 22 July 1895 by Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden. With the beginning of the 20th century asparagus cultivation replaced most of the remaining hops industry. At 29 May 1932 the Hockenheimring was opened with a motorcycle race. After World War II the decline of the cigar industry had begun, but Hockenheim was known for its Hockenheimring and could expand in other industrial branches. January 1973 Hockenheim was assigned to the newly formed Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district. In 1991, Hockenheim was the host of the 11th Baden-Württemberg State Horticultural Show; the town is led by the Lord Mayor, elected directly by the population every 8 years. Its Permanent Representative is the "Erste Beigeordnete", with the office designation of mayor; as of the local election on 25 May 2014, the local council of Hockenheim consists of 22 members, who hold the title "Stadtraetin/Stadtrat", the Lord Mayor presiding the council. In 1975 the Hockenheim government agreed upon a municipal association with the neighboring villages Altlußheim, Neulußheim and Reilingen.
Hockenheim is one of the six largest towns in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis district. Adopted in 1609, the coat of arms of Hockenheim has diagonally crossed silver hooks in a sign, below a crowned golden lion; the lion is the animal of the Electoral Palatinate. The form of the symbols was changed several times, but has been specified in its current form by municipal law since 1895; the Hockenheimring, a motor racing course built in 1932, has become the home of the Formula One German Grand Prix. It has hosted this event over 30 times since 1970, including every year between 1986 and 2006. Since 2007 Formula One races in Germany are alternating annually between the Hockenheimring and the Nürburgring; the course is used for several other motor racing events and open-air concerts. After Nurburgring's withdrawal from 2015, Hockenheimring started hosting German Grand Prix annually since 2018. A museum for tobacco cultivation was founded 1984 as the first of its kind in Baden-Württemberg; the motors
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh