1977 Formula One season
The 1977 Formula One season was the 31st season of the FIAs Formula One motor racing. Niki Lauda won his championship, despite Mario Andretti winning more races. Jody Scheckters Wolf won first time out, Shadow took their only victory, renault entered grand prix racing with a turbocharged car which was initially not very successful. The German ATS team took over the Penske cars and the South African Grand Prix was the last race a BRM ever qualified to start. Lauda departed Ferrari even before the season ended, so did not complete the season, Ferrari won its third consecutive Constructors title with new driver Carlos Reutemann having a solid season. The season was marred by one of the most horrific accidents in Formula One history. During the South African GP on 5 March, TV cameras captured how Tom Pryce was unable to avoid 19-year-old race marshall Frederik Jansen van Vuuren, there was further tragedy as Carlos Pace lost his life in an aviation accident only a couple of weeks after Pryces accident.
The 1977 season started in Argentina, returning after a years absence and it was reigning world champion James Hunt who started off his title defence with pole position in his McLaren. Countryman John Watson shared the front row with him in the Brabham, the weather was, as was very often the case in Buenos Aires oppressively hot, which contributed to the attrition of this race. Watson took the lead at the start with Hunt second, Watson led for the first 10 laps until Hunt moved ahead and pulled away, with Mario Andrettis Lotus third, but soon the other McLaren of Jochen Mass took the place. Mass had to soon after with an engine failure which caused him to spin. Watson took the lead again, but he had suspension failures, Watson eventually retired, and Pace struggled towards the end due to heat in his cockpit and was passed by Jody Scheckters Wolf and Andretti, but the latter retired with a wheel bearing failure. Scheckter took the first win of 1977, with Pace second, the second round took place at the longest circuit of the year – the very demanding and difficult 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo, Brazil.
Hunt took pole again with Reutemann second and Andretti third on the grid, home hero Pace took the lead at the start, with Hunt dropping behind Reutemann as well but soon Hunt was back behind Pace and attacking. There was contact, and Hunt took the lead whereas Pace had to pit for repairs, Hunt led Reutemann until he began to suffer from tyre troubles and was passed by Reutemann. Hunt pitted for new tyres, and rejoined fourth and soon passed Niki Lauda in the Ferrari, Reutemann marched on to victory, Hunt was second and Lauda third after Watson crashed out. The race in South Africa was over a month later, but Hunt still continued his streak of poles, with Pace alongside, Hunt led off at the start, with Lauda and Scheckter following him after Pace struggled. The order stayed put until the lap when Lauda took the lead and was never headed again
Renault in Formula One
Renault are currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault Sport Formula One Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977, in 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams, although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, again from 1989 to 1997, Renault returned to Formula One in 2000 when it acquired the Enstone-based Benetton Formula team. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as Renault F1 Team and started to use Renault as their constructor name, for the 2011 Formula One season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015.
Renault has supplied engines to teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors Championships and two Drivers Championships, as a supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers Championships. It has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier, ranking third in Formula One history, Renaults first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car, the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V61.5 L turbocharged engine, the first regularly used turbo engine in Formula One history. The first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the round of the season. The teams début was delayed until the round, the British Grand Prix. The cars first qualifying session was not a success, and Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters,1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren.
Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the turbo failed on lap 17. The team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment and they returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, and the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth. He had a start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The teams poor qualifying form returned in Italy, as Jabouille qualified 20th and he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. After this, Renault did not travel to the finale in Japan
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
1983 San Marino Grand Prix
The 1983 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Imola on May 1,1983. Frenchman Patrick Tambay took a victory in his Ferrari in front of a delighted Tifosi. Tambay, who drove the #27 Ferrari dedicated his win to the man he replaced in the Ferrari team and it was almost a perfect weekend for the Maranello based team with René Arnoux qualifying on pole and finishing 3rd. Renaults Alain Prost finished in place, passing Arnoux with 3 laps left after the #28 Ferrari spun in the Acque Mineralli chicane. Brabham driver Riccardo Patrese had taken the lead from Tambay with only 6 laps remaining, showing their love for Ferrari more than for an Italian driver in a non-Italian car, the Tifosi cheered when Patrese crashed out of the lead and handed it back to the Ferrari. Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings, Patrick Tambays win for Ferrari was the last win at Imola for the Maranello based team until Michael Schumacher won the 1999 race. As of 2016, this was the last race where all three drivers on the podium were of the same nationality
Michele Alboreto was an Italian racing driver. He is famous for finishing runner up to Alain Prost in the 1985 Formula One World Championship, Alboreto competed in Formula One from 1981 until 1994, racing for a number of teams, most notably his five seasons driving for Ferrari. The Italians career in began in 1976, racing a car he. The car, achieved little success and two years Alboreto moved up to Formula Three. Wins in the Italian Formula Three championship and a European Formula Three Championship crown in 1980 paved the way for the Italians entrance into Formula One with the Tyrrell team. Two wins, the first in the round of the 1982 season in Las Vegas. Alboreto took three wins for the Italian team and challenged Alain Prost for the 1985 Championship, eventually losing out by 20 points, further seasons with Footwork, Scuderia Italia and Minardi followed during the tail end of his F1 career. In 1995, Alboreto moved on to sportscars and a year the American IndyCar series and he took his final major victories, the 1997 Le Mans 24 Hours and 2001 Sebring 12 Hours, with German manufacturers Porsche and Audi respectively.
In 2001, a month after his Sebring victory, he was killed testing an Audi R8 at the Lausitzring in Germany, Michele Alboreto started his career in 1976 racing in Formula Monza with a car he and his friends built, known as the CMR. The car itself proved to be uncompetitive and in 1978 Alboreto, now in a more competitive March, Two years Alboreto moved up to Formula Three, racing in a Euroracing-entered March-Toyota in both the European and Italian series. In his début Formula Three season, Alboreto finished 6th and 2nd respectively in the two championships, scoring three wins in the Italian series, an appearance in the British Championship was made that year. Alboretos European title earned him a move into Formula Two, a series for Formula One. He scored Minardis only F2 victory, at Misano, during the 1981 season where he finished eighth in the championship. He shared the Group 5 category Lancia Beta Montecarlo with Walter Röhrl or Eddie Cheever on four occasions during the 1980 season, Alboreto again ran a partial schedule in 1981 even though he was running Formula Two and Formula One.
This season included his first participation in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and he earned an eighth-place finish overall, second in class, and was the highest finishing Lancia. He followed this with his first win in the championship, at the Six Hours of Watkins Glen with co-driver Riccardo Patrese, Alboreto finished the year 52nd in the Drivers Championship, the highest ranked Lancia driver. When Lancia chose to move to a new class of competition with the Lancia LC1 as the championship concentrated solely on endurance races in 1982, a small schedule for the championship, as well as an emphasis on European circuits allowed him to compete in every race that year. Although the LC1 suffered from mechanical problems on its debut, teo Fabi joined the duo for the 1000 km of the Nürburgring, where they once again earned a victory
Theodore Racing was a Formula One constructor from Hong Kong founded by real estate magnate and millionaire Teddy Yip. They participated in 51 grands prix, entering a total of 64 cars, in the present day Theodore Racing is an international motor racing team owned by Teddy Yip Jr. competing in the Macau Grand Prix with a Junior Team contesting the Japanese Super FJ Series. Following its last race in 1992, the made a successful return to racing at the Macau Grand Prix in 2013 under Teddy Yip Jnr. In the early 1970s, amateur racer Yip met Sid Taylor and this led to Yip backing Schuppan in Formula One with Ensign in 1974. There followed further involvement in America with Schuppan and support of Alan Jones in the US F5000 series in 1976, in Australia, Schuppan won the Rothmans International Series for Yip driving a Lola T332-Chevrolet in 1976. That year Yip established Theodore Racing and it was run by Taylor and entered an Ensign for Patrick Tambay in F1. After a difficult year in 1977, Yip commissioned Ron Tauranac to build him an F1 car, the car was abandoned in the mid-season.
In the US, Yip supported Dan Gurneys Eagle team, in 1979, Yip helped to fund Ensign but the car was not a success. The car was driven by Derek Daly, Patrick Gaillard, and Marc Surer but there were no points scored. At the end of the year Teddy funded a British F1 programme with a Wolf WR6 for David Kennedy, with Sid Taylor and Julian Randles he established Theodore Racing Ltd. and recruited Tony Southgate and team manager Jo Ramírez. The new car was dubbed the TY01 and was driven by Patrick Tambay at the start of 1981, in mid-season Tambay moved to Ligier and Yip gave the drive to Marc Surer. The same car was developed in 1982 and it became obvious that small teams could not easily survive in the turbo era, Yip merged Theodore with Ensign and used the Nigel Bennett-designed Ensign N183 design as a Theodore. Yip ran a team each year at the Macau GP until the late 1980s, the result was a huge success and Theodore Racing has won the event a record seven times, notably with Ayrton Senna in the first year of F3.
After Briton Alex Lynn won the race, Teddy Yip Jr. said, to be with SJM to witness Alexs victory is an emotional day, and a fitting tribute to my fathers contribution to this great Macau event. Teddy Yip Jr. Nicholas Latifi finished 5th with Ocon crashing out suring a battle for the lead,38 and for Steve Krisiloff to drive as No.39. At the season-opening Datsun Twin 200 at Ontario Motor Speedway with Simpson finishing in 9th, Krisiloff would leave the team. At the Indianapolis 500 Simpson would retire from driving and Formula One driver Clay Regazzoni would first drive the No.38, the car was destroyed in a practice crash by Regazzoni. Regazzoni qualified the No.39 in 29th place but retired from the race with a leak after 25 laps
Riccardo Gabriele Patrese is an Italian former racing driver, who raced in Formula One from 1977 to 1993. He became the first Formula One driver to achieve 200 Grand Prix starts when he appeared at the 1990 British Grand Prix, and he was runner-up in the 1992 Formula One season and third in 1989 and 1991. He won six Formula One races, with a gap of over six years between two of these – the 1983 South African Grand Prix and 1990 San Marino Grand Prix. Patrese competed at the World Sportscar Championship for the Lancia factory team, finishing runner-up in 1982, born in Padua, Patrese started driving karts at age 9. In 1974, he won the Karting World Championship and received an offer to drive in Formula Italia the following year, in 1976, he moved to European Formula 3 and won the championship. The following year he moved to Formula 2 before making his Formula One debut midway through the year and he made his debut at the 1977 Monaco Grand Prix with the Shadow racing team sponsored by Italian businessman Franco Ambrosio, replacing Renzo Zorzi.
Later that year team-leader Jackie Oliver and sponsor Ambrosio left Shadow to form the Arrows team, Shadow took Arrows to court, arguing that the design of the Arrows car was so similar to their own that Arrows had stolen it. The court agreed, forcing Arrows to redesign their car, which they did in just six weeks, in 1978 Patrese very nearly won Arrows second race, the South African Grand Prix, until engine failure forced him to retire 15 laps from the end. Later that year, Patrese was involved in a pile-up when he together with James Hunt. One of the drivers involved was Ronnie Peterson, although his injuries were not in themselves life-threatening. An injunction was filed by the Grand Prix Drivers Association to ban Patrese from the next race and this went through and Patrese took no part in that Grand Prix weekend at Watkins Glen. Hunt believed that it was Patreses muscling past that caused the McLaren and Lotus to touch, together with the official who started the race, stood trial in 1981 for Petersons death but both were declared not guilty of any wrongdoing.
In 1982 Patrese moved to Brabham and gained a win at that years Monaco Grand Prix when there were five leaders. He took the lead when Alain Prost crashed out, only to spin in dampening conditions on the next lap. This left him third behind Didier Pironi and Andrea de Cesaris, a second win followed in 1983 at the South African Grand Prix. He crashed out late in the race while leading at San Marino and it would be seven years before he made another visit to the top step of the podium. A move to Alfa Romeo in 1984 delivered two lacklustre seasons resulting in eight world championship points and a visit to the podium at the 1984 Italian Grand Prix. Patrese and team mate, American Eddie Cheever, were hampered by cars with Alfa Romeo 890T V8 turbo engines that proved too thirsty for the amount of fuel they were allowed to carry
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
An agreement to use Ford engines for three seasons faltered after a change of management at Beatrice. The firing of CEO Jim Dutt, led to the US-based company withdrawing their funding of the project, the team was unable to continue in Formula One after the 1986 season. 1980 World Champion Alan Jones was coaxed out of retirement to drive the teams first car at the end of the 1985 season and on into 1986. The team was known as Haas Lola due to Haass association with Lola Cars International. Their cars were designed by Haas-owned design and construction company known as FORCE. Lola however earned the points towards the Constructors Championships as the teams designated constructor. In autumn 1984, Carl Haas had successfully negotiated a deal with Beatrice Foods for Haass entry into the Formula One World Championship. At the urging of Beatrice Foods CEO, Jim Dutt, Haas dropped sponsor Budweiser, with the aid of Beatrice, that year Haas announced an engine supplier for the program. The deal was announced to last for three seasons, with Haas being the receiver of the new engines.
As part of the announcement, former World Champion Alan Jones announced his return from retirement to drive the teams first car in 1985, the development of the GBA engine at Cosworth was documented for Channel 4s Equinox series and broadcast on TV in 1986. With cash flow and engines, Carl Haas began creating the team as well as organising a design team to develop a new car. The FORCE base housed the teams designers, led by former Williams engineer Neil Oatley, the teams cars were to be built in the same factory. Even with FORCE designing and building the cars, Carl Haas chose to enter the cars in the 1985 Formula One season under the name of Lola. Haas was the importer of cars from British firm Lola Cars International to the United States. Lola was however not involved in the project, and played no part in the design or construction of the teams cars. Team Haass first car, the Oatley-designed THL1, was still under development at the start of the 1985 season and would only be ready to race at the twelfth round, in the meantime, the teams promised Ford TEC engines not ready.
This forced Haas to do a deal with Brian Hart Ltd. to use their 1.5 litre turbocharged,4 cylinder 415T engines until the Ford units could be completed, while Goodyear became the teams tyre supplier. When the team made their first race appearance at Monza, Jones qualified 25th out of 27 cars, the team returned at the European Grand Prix at Brands Hatch, where Jones qualified 22nd but retired after 13 laps due to radiator damage