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James Hope (physician)

James Hope was an English physician. He has been called "the first cardiologist in the modern sense", he is known for discovering the early diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis in 1829. He was born at Stockport in Cheshire 23 February 1801, the son of Thomas Hope and manufacturer, he of Prestbury Hall near Macclesfield. After four years at Macclesfield grammar school, James resided for about 18 months at Oxford, where his elder brother was an undergraduate, but never became a member of the university. In October 1820 Hope went as a medical student to Edinburgh University, where he studied for five years; the subject of his inaugural medical dissertation was aneurism of the aorta, he began a collection of drawings of pathological specimens coming under his notice. A president of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, he held the posts of house-physician and house-surgeon at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Leaving Edinburgh in December 1825, Hope became a medical student at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in the spring of 1826 obtained the diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons.

That summer he left England for the continent, stayed a year at Paris as one of the clinical clerks of Auguste François Chomel at the Hôpital de la Charité. He visited Switzerland, Italy and the Netherlands, returned England in June 1828. In September he became a licentiate the Royal College of Physicians. Hope went into medical practice in December 1828 in Lower Seymour Street, Portman Square and entered himself as a pupil at St. George's Hospital, where he was one of the early champions of auscultation. "He described a soft early diastolic murmur due to mitral stenosis and was the first to distinguish it from the diastolic murmur of aortic reflux. It was once called Hope's murmur." In 1829 he established a private dispensary linked to the Portman Square and Harley Street district visiting societies. In 1831 he was elected physician to the Marylebone Infirmary. In the autumn of 1832 he delivered at his own home a course of lectures, intended for practitioners only, on diseases of the chest, he afterwards lectured at St. George's Hospital, where he was elected assistant physician in 1834, at the Aldersgate Street School of Medicine.

Hope's investigations into the causes of heart sounds involved vivisection. A series of his experiments led in February 1835 to controversy with Charles James Blasius Williams. In July 1839, on the resignation of William Frederick Chambers, he was appointed full physician at St. George's Hospital, after some opposition from Williams, he suffered spitting of blood, his health began to decline. In July 1840 he was elected a fellow of the College of Physicians. Towards the end of 1840 Hope had to give up most duties, but he continued to see a few patients till he moved in March 1841 to Hampstead, where he died on 12 May of pulmonary consumption, he was buried in the cemetery at Highgate. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in June 1832, was a corresponding member of several foreign societies; when he retired, his professional income was £4,000 per year. He was a member of the Church of England, had strong religious convictions. In 1829 Hope began building up to a projected work on the heart.

Four papers on Aneurisms of the Aorta, based on Observations as House Physician and House Surgeon to the Royal Infirmary, appeared in the London Medical Gazette, 1829, in 1830 he sent to the same journal four papers relating to the sounds of the heart and the physiology of its action. He wrote for the Cyclopædia of Practical Medicine about the same time the articles "Aorta, Aneurism of", "Arteritis", "Dilatation of the Heart", "Heart, Diseases of", "Heart, Degeneration of", "Heart, Hypertrophy of", "Palpitation", "Pericarditis and Carditis", "Valves of the Heart, Diseases of". Hope's major work came out at the end of 1831 with the title A Treatise on the Diseases of the Heart and Great Vessels; the book was well received internationally, it was translated into German by an old Edinburgh friend, Ferdinand Wilhelm Becker. A third edition appeared in 1839, corrected and enlarged, with the addition of plates. Hope's conclusions about the sounds of the heart became accepted, his usage of the term "myosclerosis" was, unclear.

Hope based a work about morbid anatomy on his own drawings. The first part appeared at the beginning of 1833, the last at the end of the following year. With articles in medical periodicals, he contributed the article on Inflammation of the Brain to Alexander Tweedie's Library of Medicine. Notes on the Treatment of Chronic Pleurisy was finished days before his death. Hope married Anne Fulton on 10 March 1831, they had Theodore Hope. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Hope, James". Dictionary of National Biography. 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co

History of Lithuanian culture

The culture of Lithuania, dating back to 200 BC, with the settlement of the Balts and has been independent of the presence of a sovereign Lithuanian state. The Lithuanian nation rose between the 7th and 9th centuries CE. Earlier, the Balts, ancestors of Lithuanians and Latvians, had arrived at the territories between the Dnepr and Daugava rivers and the Baltic Sea. An Indo-European people, the Balts are presumed to have come from a hypothetic original homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans; the Balts, who are believed to have arrived with the main wave of Indo-Europeans, were unconnected with the formation of Indo-European nations in Southern and Western Europe. Thus, the Balts' culture is believed to have preserved primeval features of Indo-European culture for a longer time; when contacts with newly formed European nations increased, differences between the Balts' primeval culture and the culture of the new European nations were so great that closer cultural interchange was difficult. This resulted in preservation of the Balts' Indo-European roots but may have contributed to their isolation.

After the period of Gothic domination in Europe, the culture of the Balts appeared in a more restricted territory between the Wisla and Daugava rivers. Anything said about the Balts' cultural isolation level in these times is speculation, but it was decreasing. Still, the Balts conserved forms of ancient Indo-European proto-language until much times; the most archaic language forms were preserved by the Western Balts, who lived in the territory of Prussia. These dialects developed into Old Prussian language, which became extinct by the beginning of the 18th century; the Eastern Balts had less archaic forms of language. For example, some popular simplifications took hold, such as a decrease in the number of verb forms, which happened when the ancient cultural elite lost its influence over the people, it may have taken place, for example, in times of "barbarian" invasions. Eastern dialects of Balts developed into the modern Lithuanian and Latvian languages. Knowledge about the Balts' cultural life in these times is scanty.

It is known that Balts at the end of this period had a social structure comparable with that of Celtic people in South-West Europe during the 2nd—1st centuries BC. In the 10th century, religious life of the Balts was not unified, with various forms of cults present. An important feature of Balt culture was willful avoidance of using material attainments in their religious life; some more complicated forms of architecture and literacy were disapproved of when these things were allowed by and were well-known from neighbouring nations. Religious life was concentrated on verbal tradition, with singing and with some elements of mystery theatre. Material forms of this life were connected with unsophisticated wooden shrines, nature objects, special ornamented vestments and their accessories; the Lithuanian nation began to form in about 7th – 8th centuries CE. The growing difference between Western and Eastern Balts was a result of some cultural modernization of the Eastern Balts before this period. Differences grew between northern and southern parts of the Eastern Balts.

Lithuanians derived from the southern parts of Eastern Balts till 9th century CE. At this time, the Eastern Balts did not form any political unit, they were divided into some autonomous clans, but culturally and religiously, they were part of the Balts. The common name for them, was known. Historians have attributed the name "Lithuania" of this period only to one of the Eastern Balts' tribes, it is not known for certain in what political circumstances Lithuanians acquired their common name, whether it took place before the beginning of the 11th century, when the name was first mentioned in written sources, or later. Traditionally, historians consider religion-based union of the Balts; this theory is supported by historical sources that wrote about existence of centers of religious life, concentrated around more significant shrines and mystic areas. Servants of these religious centers have influences on other not central shrines; this influence was based more on authority than on formal structure of organization.

There is some historical data about the main religious center of all Balts. The level of organization and extent of this religious cooperation are under discussion. For example, some historians argue that union was more local and included only southern Balts, but Northern Balts did not participate in it. Information concerning religious unity is influenced by Lithuanian and Latvian myths and is not based on historical sources and archaeological research; the new point of distinguishing the Balts' nations and their cultural development was the occupation of a significant part of the land by Catholic military orders in the 13th century. The main areas of Western Balts, known under the name of Prussia, were occupied by Teutonic order. Livonian order occupied northern territories, beginning from areas around the Gulf of Riga, creating so-called Livonia; therefore cultural development of these two and the third unoccupied part of Balts' areas was different. Old Prussians never regained a nation; the third unoccupied part was a basis for the Lithuanian nation to form.

Outer aggression forced Baltic nations to form more strict institutions of political life. A Lithuanian state, was founded in

Rapa, Poland

Rapa is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Banie Mazurskie, within Gołdap County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, close to the border with the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. It lies 9 kilometres north of Banie Mazurskie, 20 km west of Gołdap, 116 km north-east of the regional capital Olsztyn; the village existed in the early seventeenth century. In 1750, the owner Jacob John Hoffmann built a palace, taken in 1793 by Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von Fahrenheid. Before 1945, the area was part of Germany. In 1811, a mausoleum was built in Rapa for the Fahrenheid family, designed by sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen; the building is shaped like a pyramid with a height of 15.9 metres and is loosely inspired by the architecture of ancient Egypt. The family members buried. In 1945, the mausoleum was damaged by soldiers of the Red Army

Calvert County, Maryland

Calvert County is located in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 88,737, its county seat is Prince Frederick. The county's name is derived from the family name of the Barons of Baltimore, the proprietors of the English Colony of Maryland. Calvert County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, it occupies the Calvert Peninsula, bordered on the east by Chesapeake Bay and on the west by the Patuxent River. Calvert County is part of the Southern Maryland region; the county has one of the highest median household incomes in the United States. First colonized as part of Charles County circa 1650, it was renamed. Patuxent County was established in 1654 by an Order in Council. In 1658, the county was renamed Calvert County, it is one of the older counties in Maryland, after St. Mary's, Kent County and Anne Arundel counties. Once made up of farms and tobacco fields, the county has become a fast-growing exurban neighbor of Washington.

Many home prices have nearly quadrupled in the past decade, with many four-bedroom homes in the northern half of the county averaging over $1,000,000. The popular weekend resort towns of Solomons, Chesapeake Beach, North Beach are notable; the county has numerous properties on the National Register of Historic Places. Calvert County is governed by a group of five county commissioners, the traditional form of county government in the State of Maryland. In Presidential elections Calvert County has and at present leaned towards the Republican Party, it was won by that party in every election from 1884 to 1936 – with the sequence broken in 1940 due to local support for Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s efforts at helping Britain in World War II – and in modern times no Democratic presidential nominee has won Calvert County since Jimmy Carter did so in 1976. It is part of the 5th Congressional District, along with much of Southern Maryland; the current representative is Democratic House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 345 square miles, of which 213 square miles is land and 132 square miles is water, it is the smallest county in Maryland by land third-smallest by total area. Calvert County lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and mild to chilly winters with plentiful precipitation year-round, its proximity to the Chesapeake Bay has a moderating effect on temperatures compared with locales further inland. Anne Arundel County Prince George's County Charles County Dorchester County Talbot County St. Mary's County As of the census of 2000, there were 74,563 people, 25,447 households, 20,154 families residing in the county; the population density was 346 people per square mile. There were 27,576 housing units at an average density of 128 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.93% White, 13.11% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races.

1.52 % of the population were Latino of any race. 15.5% were of Irish, 15.0% German, 12.0% English, 11.5% United States or American and 7.1% Italian ancestry. There were 25,447 households out of which 41.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.80% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.80% were non-families. 16.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.26. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 31.70% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 8.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $65,945, the median income for a family was $71,545. Males had a median income of $48,664 versus $32,265 for females.

The per capita income for the county was $25,410. About 3.10% of families and 4.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.10% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 88,737 people, 30,873 households, 23,732 families residing in the county; the population density was 416.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,780 housing units at an average density of 158.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.4% white, 13.4% black or African American, 1.4% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 19.6% were German, 17.6% were Irish, 13.9% were English, 8.4% were Italian, 7.4% were American. Of the 30,873 households, 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.1% were non-families, 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals.

The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age was 40.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $90,838 and the median income for a family was $102,638. Males had a median income of $66,909 versus $49,337 for females; the per capita income for the county was $36,323. About 2.8% of families and 4.4% of the population were belo


Artsakhbank is an Armenian bank with headquarters in Yerevan. As of January 1, 2011, the bank had 6 branches in Yerevan and 11 branches in the unrecognized Republic of Artsakh; the bank was established on February 12, 1996. On November 6, 1996 Artsakhbank, Closed joint-stock company was transformed into Artsakhbank, Open Joint-Stock Company, according to the resolution of the Bank’s Shareholders General Meeting. On June 24, 2001 Artsakhbank, OJSC, was reorganized back into Artsakhbank, Closed joint-stock company; the bank is a shareholder of Armenian Card and a full member of ArCa the Armenian national payment system, a member of Europay/MasterCard international payment system, a member of SWIFT system. Artsakhbank is a member of international money transfer systems, such as MoneyGram, Leader, Anelik; the Bank has correspondent relations with 25 banks, both foreign. As of November 20, 2017, the Bank has 7 branches in Yerevan and 11 branches in the unrecognized Republic of Artsakh; the Bank serves 43,787 customers.

The Bank has 482 employees, as of January 1, 2011. As of the same period, the Bank’s total equity came to AMD 8 960,358mln, total assets - AMD 52 618,110 mln and liabilities - AMD 43 657,752 mln. Armenian dram Artsakh dram List of banks in Armenia Economy of Armenia Economy of the Republic of Artsakh Artsakhbank