SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Patroclus

In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus was a close friend and wartime companion of Achilles. He was the son of Actor, King of Opus. According to Hyginus, Patroclus was the child of Menoetius by either Sthenele, Polymele, Philomela, or Damocrateia. Homer references Menoetius as the individual who gave Patroclus to Peleus. Menoetius was king of Opus in Locris by Aegina, daughter of Asopus. During his childhood, Patroclus had killed another child in anger over a game. Menoetius gave Patroclus to Peleus, Achilles' father, who named Patroclus Achilles' "squire" as Patroclus and Achilles grew up together. Patroclus acted as a male role model for Achilles, as he was both older than Achilles and wise regarding counsel. According to the Iliad, when the tide of the Trojan War had turned against the Greeks and the Trojans were threatening their ships, Patroclus convinced Achilles to let him lead the Myrmidons into combat. Achilles consented, giving Patroclus the armor Achilles had received from his father, in order for Patroclus to impersonate Achilles.

Achilles told Patroclus to return after beating the Trojans back from their ships. Patroclus pursued the Trojans back to the gates of Troy. Patroclus killed Trojan allies, including a son of Zeus, Sarpedon. While fighting, Patroclus' wits were removed by Apollo, after which Patroclus was hit with the spear of Euphorbos. Hector killed Patroclus by stabbing him in the stomach with a spear. Achilles retrieved his body, stripped of armor by Hector and protected on the battlefield by Menelaus and Ajax. Achilles did not allow the burial of Patroclus' body until the ghost of Patroclus appeared and demanded his burial in order to pass into Hades. Patroclus was cremated on a funeral pyre, covered in the hair of his sorrowful companions; as the cutting of hair was a sign of grief while acting as a sign of the separation of the living and the dead, this points to how well-liked Patroclus had been. The ashes of Achilles were said to have been buried in a golden urn along with those of Patroclus by the Hellespont.

Although there is no sexual dynamic between Achilles and Patroclus in the Homeric tradition Greek authors reinterpreted and expanded upon their relationship. Morales & Mariscal point out that there are several other authors who do draw a romantic connection between the two characters, such as Aeschylus and Phaedrus, who refers to Achilles as the eromenos. Morales and Mariscal state "there is a polemical tradition concerning the nature of the relationship between the two heroes". According to Ledbetter, there is a train of thought that Patroclus could have been a representation of the compassionate side of Achilles, known for his rage, mentioned in the first line of Homer's Iliad. Ledbetter connects the way that Achilles and his mother Thetis communicate to the communication between Achilles and Patroclus. Ledbetter does so by comparing how Thetis comforts the weeping Achilles in Book 1 of the Iliad to how Achilles comforts Patroclus as he weeps in Book 16. Achilles uses a simile containing a young girl tearfully looking at her mother to complete the comparison.

Ledbetter believes. However, as Patroclus is explicitly stated to be the elder of the two characters, this is not evidence of their ages or social relation to each other. James Hooker describes the literary reasons for Patroclus' character within the Iliad, he states that another character could have filled the role of confidant for Achilles, that it was only through Patroclus that we have a worthy reason for Achilles' wrath. Hooker claims that without the death of Patroclus, an event that weighed upon him, Achilles' following act of compliance to fight would have disrupted the balance of the Iliad. Hooker describes the necessity of Patroclus sharing a deep affection with Achilles within the Iliad. According to his theory, this affection allows for the deeper tragedy that occurs. Hooker argues that the greater the greater the loss. Hooker continues to negate Ledbetter's theory that Patroclus is in some way a surrogate for Achilles. Hooker reminds us that it is Patroclus who pushes the Trojans back, which Hooker claims makes Patroclus a hero, as well as foreshadowing what Achilles is to do.

Achilles and Patroclus grew up together. During this time, Peleus made Patroclus one of Achilles' "henchmen". While Homer's Iliad never explicitly stated that Achilles and Patroclus were lovers, this concept was asserted by some authors. Aeschines asserts that there was no need to explicitly state the relationship as a romantic one, for such "is manifest to such of his hearers as are educated men." Greek writings such as Plato's Symposium, the relationship between Patroclus and Achilles is discussed as a model of romantic love. However, Xenophon, in his Symposium, had Socrates argue that it was inaccurate to label their relationship as romantic, their relationship is said to have inspired Alexander the Great in his own close relationship with his life-long companion Hephaestion. Achilles was younger than Patroclus; this reinforces Dowden's explanation of the relationship between an eromenos, a youth in transition, an erastes, an older male who had made the same transition. Dowden notes the common occurrence of such relationships as a form of initiation.

Plato. Symposium. Plato in Twelve Volumes. 9. Translated by Fowler, Harold N. Cambridge, MA.

Fida Muhammad Nashad

Fida Muhammad Nashad is a pro Pakistani politician from Gilgit Baltistan, serving as the 2nd speaker of the Gilgit Baltistan legislative assembly. He is a member of the Pakistan Muslim League N, he is the chairman of Development Foundation. Fida Muhammad Nashad belongs to The Great Royal family of Baltistan"The Maqpons", he was born in a village in Skardu called Hussain Abad to a great father Mr Kacho Amir Baig Maqpon, who had contributed a lot for the freedom of Baltistan from Dogra raaj during the 1940s. Fida Muhammad Nashad started his early education from his own hometown Hussain Abad. Muhammad Nashad is an active member of PML from district Skardu, he is the member of MDGs task force from the Legislative Assembly of Gilgit Baltistan. He was elected as a member of Northern Areas Council in 1994, he was elected for the 2nd term in 1999 as member of Northern Areas Council. He was elected as Deputy Chief Executive of the council, he was elected for the 3rd term in 2004 as member of NAs council. Fida Muhammad Nashad won his seat in GBLA-9 in the 2015 Gilgit Baltistan elections.

He was elected as the speaker of Gilgit Baltistan Assembly. Fida Muhammad Nashad made a book Slachen which he presented to Pakistan's former president Mamnoon Hussain. Fida Muhammad Nashad is a well known poet of Gilgit Baltistan, he writes qasida,manqabat and hamdia but has an interest in ghazaliat. His first poetry collection is in publication now

Muslim Reform Movement

The Muslim Reform Movement is an organization dedicated to reform in Islam based on values of peace, human rights, secular governance. The organization was founded on December 4, 2015, when the founders read a "Declaration of Reform" at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C; the founders went to the Saudi-affiliated Islamic Center of Washington and posted the Declaration of Reform on the doors of mosque "denouncing violent jihad, rejecting Islamic statism and opposing the'ideology of violent Islamic extremism.'" Founding signatories of the Muslim Reform Movement are Asra Nomani, Tahir Aslam Gora, Tawfik Hamid, Usama Hasan, Arif Humayun, Farahnaz Ispahani, Zuhdi Jasser, Naser Khader, Courtney Lonergan, Hasan Mahmud, Raheel Raza, Sohail Raza, Salma Siddiqui. Announcing the founding of the Muslim Reform Movement on NBC's Meet the Press on December 6, 2015, Asra Nomani said... we are opposing a real interpretation of Islam that espouses violence, social injustice, political Islam... The problem is sitting in the birthplace of Islam, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, where this interpretation of Islam has gone out into the world over the last four decades, creating militancy groups from Indonesia, to now, San Bernardino, vicious attack.

We have to take back the faith. And we have to take it back with the principles of peace, social justice, human rights, women's rights, secularize governance... we've had enough. Islamic Modernism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam Islam and modernity Official website