Patron saints of places

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The idea of assigning a patron saint to a certain locality harks back to the ancient tutelary deities. This is a list of patron saints of places by nation, region, and town/city. If a place is not listed here, it may be listed in "Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary."


Patron saints by regions
Continent Patron saint Notes
Asia The Blessed Virgin Mary ( Our Lady of All Nations), Joseph, Francis Xavier
Africa Moses the Black
The Americas The Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus (as Our Lady of Guadalupe),[1][2]

Saint Rosa (Santa Rosa)[3]

Europe Benedict of Nursia,[4][5]
Saints Cyril and Methodius,[6][7]
Bridget of Sweden,[4]
Catherine of Siena,[4]
Edith Stein (Teresa Benedicta of the Cross)[4]
Benedict of Nursia is the main patron saint,[8] the others are considered co-patrons.[9]

Beorhthelm of Stafford, formally Bethnei, circa early 6th century[citation needed]

Oceania Peter Chanel[10]


Region Patron saint
Anatolia John the Apostle
Alsace Odile of Alsace
Australasia The Virgin Mary (as Mary Help of Christians[11])
Central Africa The Immaculate Heart of Mary[12]
North Africa (Libya, Tunisia) Cyprian[12]
Scandinavia Ansgar[4]
South America Rose of Lima[4]
West Indies Gertrude the Great
Pope Gregory I


Country Patron saint
 Albania The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Good Counsel[4])
 Algeria Cyprian of Carthage[13]
 Andorra The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Meritxell)
 Angola The Immaculate Heart of Mary[4][13]
 Argentina The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Luján[4])
Francis Solanus
Blessed Laura Vicuña
Martin of Tours
 Armenia Gregory the Illuminator[4]
Bartholomew the Apostle
Jude the Apostle
Mesrop Mashtots
 Azerbaijan Elisæus of Albania
 Australia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady Help of Christians)[14]

Mary of the Cross MacKillop[15]

 Austria Joseph[13]
Colman of Stockerau[16]
Leopold the Good
Severinus of Noricum
Vergilius of Salzburg
 Barbados Andrew[17]
 Belarus Cyril of Turov
Euphrosyne of Polotsk[18]
 Belgium Joseph[4]
 Bolivia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Candelaria,[4] Our Lady of Copacabana,[4] and Our Lady of Mount Carmel[19])
 Brazil The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Aparecida[4][19] and Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception[4])
Peter of Alcantara[4]
Anthony of Padua
 Brittany Anne
Ivo of Kermartin

Herve of Gwimilio
Seven Founder Saints (Corentin of Cornwall, Tudwal of Landreger, Pol-Aorelian of Leon, Padarn of Gwened, Samson of Dol, Brioc, and Malo[20]

 Bulgaria Cyril and Methodius
John of Rila
 Canada Anne[4]
Jean de Brébeuf
the North American Martyrs[1]
 Chile The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Mount Carmel)[4]
James the Greater[4]
Teresa of Los Andes
 China The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Sheshan)
Francis Xavier
 Colombia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquirá)
Louis Bertrand[4]
Peter Claver[4]
Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena[4]
 Costa Rica The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Angels)
 Croatia Jerome
Cyril and Methodius
 Cuba The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Charity[4])
 Cyprus Barnabas[21]
Marina the Martyr
 Czech Republic Adalbert of Prague
Agnes of Bohemia
John of Nepomuk
Cyril and Methodius

Norbert of Xanten

Jan Sarkander

 Democratic Republic of Congo The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception[22])
 Denmark Ansgar[4]
Canute IV[4]
 Dominican Republic The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Altagracia and Our Lady of Mercy[23][24][25])
 Ecuador The Sacred Heart of Jesus[4]
The Immaculate Heart of Mary[26]
Mary Anne de Paredes (Spanish: Mariana de Paredes y Flores)
Our Lady of El Cisne[27]
 England George

(previously Edward, Edmund the Martyr and Gregory the Great until replaced around 1348 when the Order of the Garter was founded by King Edward III with George as its patron)

 Egypt Mark the Evangelist[26]
 El Salvador The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Peace[4])
 Equatorial Guinea The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception[4])

The Transfiguration of Jesus (as the Divine Savior of the World)

 Ethiopia Frumentius
 Fiji Saint Peter[28]
 Finland Henry of Uppsala[4]
 France The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Assumption[4])
The Archangel Michael
Martin of Tours
Louis IX
Joan of Arc[4]
Thérèse de Lisieux[4]
 Georgia George[4]
 Germany Adalbert of Magdeburg
Bruno of Cologne
Peter Canisius
Kilian of Würzburg
The Archangel Michael He is the patron saint of the German People, Germany itself has no patron saint[4]
 Greece The Virgin Mary (as the Panagia)
Nicholas of Myra
Paul the Apostle[30]
 Guam The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Camarin)
 Guatemala James the Greater[30]
 Haiti The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Perpetual Succor[30])
 Honduras The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Suyapa[30])
 Hong Kong The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception)[31]
 Hungary The Virgin Mary
Adalbert of Prague
Emeric of Hungary (HungarianImre)
Gerard Sagredo
Stephen of Hungary[4]
Elizabeth of Hungary
 Iceland Ansgar[33]
Thorlac Thorhallsson[4]
 India Francis Xavier[33]
The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Assumption)
 Indonesia The Blessed Virgin Mary (Our Lady of Perpetual Help), Joseph, Thomas, Thérèse de Lisieux, Francis Xavier
 Iran Maruthas
 Ireland Patrick[citation needed]
Brigid of Kildare[34]
 Israel The Archangel Michael[35]
 Italy Catherine of Siena[4]
Francis of Assisi[4]
 Japan Peter Baptist[4]
Francis Xavier
 Jordan John the Baptist[33]
Kenya Kenya The Virgin Mary (as Mary, Queen of Love)[36]
 Korea, South The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception)
 Lebanon The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Lebanon)
Charbel Makhlouf
 Lesotho The Immaculate Heart of Mary[4][26]
 Lithuania Casimir[37]
Cunigunde of Luxemburg[4]
John of Dukla
John of Kanty
Kinga of Poland
 Luxembourg Cunigunde of Luxemburg[2][4]
 Macau The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception)
John the Baptist
Francis Xavier
Catherine of Siena
 Macedonia Clement of Ohrid
Cyril and Methodius
 Madagascar Vincent de Paul
 Malta The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Assumption and Our Lady of Victories)[4]
Paul the Apostle[4]
Agatha of Sicily
George (patron saint of Gozo, one of the Maltese islands)
 Mexico The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Guadalupe[4])
Philip of Jesus
 Moldova George
 Monaco Devota[39]
 Netherlands Plechelm
 New Caledonia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Assumption[10])
 New Zealand The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Assumption[4])
 Nicaragua James the Greater[10]
 Nigeria Patrick[10]
 Norway Olaf II (known as Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae)[4]
Magnus of Orkney[10]
 Pakistan Francis Xavier[40]
 State of Palestine The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady, Queen of Palestine)
 Papua New Guinea The Archangel Michael
 Paraguay The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Caacupé[40])
Martin of Tours[4]
 Peru Rose of Lima
Turibius of Mogroveio
 Philippines The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mary, Help of Christians, Our Lady of Perpetual Help[4][40] and her Immaculate Heart[4])
Lorenzo Ruíz
Pedro Calungsod
Rose of Lima
 Poland The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Częstochowa)[4]
Kinga of Poland[4]
Adalbert of Prague[41]
John of Kanty
Stanislaus of Cracow[4]
John Paul II
 Portugal The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Fátima and as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception)[4]
Anthony of Padua[4]
The Archangel Gabriel
John de Brito
James the Greater
 Puerto Rico The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Providence)
John the Baptist
 Romania John of Suceava
Nicetas of Remesiana
 Russia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady Derzhavnaya)[42]
Alexander Nevsky
Basil the Great[44]
Thérèse de Lisieux[4]
Vladimir I of Kiev
 Rwanda Christ the King
 San Marino Marinus
Nicholas of Myra[4][44]
 Scotland Andrew
Margaret of Scotland
 Serbia Sava[45][46]
 Slovakia The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Sorrows)[4]
Cyril and Methodius
 Slovenia Joseph
Cyril and Methodius
 Solomon Islands The Archangel Michael[47]
 South Africa Martin of Tours[4]
 Spain The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception)[47]
James the Greater (Spanish: Santiago)
Teresa of Ávila[4]
 Sri Lanka Lawrence[4]
Joseph Vaz
Thomas the Apostle
The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Lanka and Our Lady of Madhu)
 Sudan Josephine Bakhita
 Sweden Brigit[48]
Eric IX[4]
Sigfrid of Sweden
  Switzerland Gall
Nicholas of Flue[49]
 Syria Barbara
 Tanzania The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception[48])
 Turkey John the Apostle[50]
Uganda Uganda Uganda Martyrs [51]

The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Africa)[52]

 Ukraine Josaphat[53]
Vladimir I of Kiev
 Uruguay The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Thirty-Three[54])
James the Less
Philip the Apostle[55]
 United States The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception[48])
 Venezuela The Virgin Mary (as Our Lady of Coromoto[48])
 Vietnam Joseph
 Wales David

Former states[edit]


Country Province Patron saint
 Argentina  Buenos Aires Martin of Tours
 Buenos Aires Province Our Lady of the Rosary, Gervasius and Protasius, Mary Help of Christians, Rita of Cascia, Isidore the Laborer, Virgin of Mercy, Ignatius of Loyola, Pope Pontian, Black Virgin of Oropa,

Mary Magdalene, Joseph, Our Lady of Lourdes, Gabriel, Isidore the Laborer, Our Lady of the Pillar, Peter, Cecilia

 Córdoba Jerome
 Corrientes Our Lady of Itatí
 Misiones Joseph
 San Luis Louis IX of France
 Santa Fe Lawrence, Virgin of Mercy, Saint George, Saint Roch, John the Baptist, Our Lady of Itatí, Sacred Heart, Our Lady of the Rosary, Jerome
 Tucumán Isidore the Laborer
 Santa Cruz Mary (as Virgin of the Valley), Our Lady of the Rosary, Mary Help of Christians
 Chubut Our Lady of Guadalupe
La Rioja Province, Argentina La Rioja Patron Saint Nicholas of Bari, Our Lord of Good Health
 Upper Austria Florian
 Styria Joseph
 Carinthia Joseph
 Belgium  Hainaut Waltrude[60]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republic of Srpska Stephen
 Acre Mary (as Our Lady of Immaculate Conception)
 Alagoas Mary (as Our Lady of Joy)
 Amapá Joseph
 Amazonas Mary (as Our Lady of Immaculate Conception)
 Bahia Mary (as Our Lady of Immaculate Conception)
 Ceará Joseph
 Distrito Federal John Bosco
 Espírito Santo Holy Spirit
 Goiás Mary ( as Our Lady of Abadia)
 Maranhão Saint Joseph (as Saint Joseph of Ribamar)
 Mato Grosso Jesus Christ (as Our Lord, the Good Jesus)
 Mato Grosso do Sul Mary, as Our Lady of the Abbey
 Minas Gerais Mary (as Our Lady of Piety)
 Pará Mary (as Our Lady of Nazareth)
 Paraíba Mary (as Our Lady of Snows)
 Paraná Mary (as Our Lady of Rocio)
 Pernambuco Mary (as Our Lady of Mount Carmel)
 Piauí Mary (as Our Lady of Victory)
 Rio de Janeiro Sebastian
 Rio Grande do Norte Saint Martyrs of Cunhaú and Uruaçu
 Rio Grande do Sul Peter
 Rondônia Mary (as Our Lady of Nazareth)
 Roraima Mary (as Our Lady of Mount Carmel)
 Santa Catarina Catherine of Alexandria
 São Paulo Paul
 Sergipe Mary (as Our Lady of Immaculate Conception)
 Tocantins Mary (as Our Lady of Nativity)
 Canada  Newfoundland and Labrador John the Baptist
 Nova Scotia Ninian
 Quebec Anne
John the Baptist
 Croatia Dalmatia Blaise
 Czech Republic  Bohemia Wenceslas, Ludmila, Vitus, Adalbert of Prague, Agnes of Bohemia,

Procopius, Sigismund of Burgundy, Norbert of Xanten, Joseph,[4] John of Nepomuk

 Moravia Cyril and Methodius,[4] Wenceslas, Jan Sarkander
 France  Alsace Odile of Alsace
 Auvergne Gerald Aurillac
 Brittany Dedicated: Anna, Ivo of Kermartin; Seven Founders: Corentin of Cornwall, Tudwal of Landreger, Pol-Aorelian of Leon, Padarn of Gwened, Samson of Dol, Brioc, Malo.[20]
 Corsica Julia of Corsica, Devota, Alexander Sauli
 Île-de-France (Paris) Denis, Genevieve
 Lorraine Saint Nicholas, Joan of Arc
 Germany  Bavaria St. Mary Patroness of Bavaria (feast on May 1), St. Rupert and St. Emmeram (Bavaria proper), St. Kilian and St. Sebaldus (Franconia) and St. Hedwig of Andechs
 Saxony Willehad of Bremen
 Greece Chios Markella
Crete Saint Titus
Corfu Spyridon
Euboea Paraskevi of Rome
Laconia Nikon the Metanoeite
Rhodes Phanourios
Tinos Pelagia
Zakynthos Dionysios of Zakynthos
 Indonesia Borneo Francis Xavier
 Italy Cremona Homobonus
Sicily Andrew Avellino, Nicholas of Myra, Rosalia
Kenya Kenya Malindi Francis Xavier
Nyeri Irene Stefani
 Lebanon North Lebanon Awtel
South Lebanon Christina of Bolsena
 Mexico Chihuahua Our Lady of La Soledad de Parral
Veracruz Rafael Guizar y Valencia
 Philippines Bicol Mary (as Our Lady of Peñafrancia)
Cagayan Mary (as Our Lady of Piat)
Western Visayas Mary (as Our Lady of Candelaria)
 Portugal Lisbon Saint Vincent, Saint Anthony, Mary (as Saint Mary Major)
Oporto Mary (as Nossa Senhora de Vandoma, Our Lady of Assumption), Saint John
Coimbra Saint Augustine, Saint Elizabeth, Thomas of Villanova
Braga Saint Martin of Braga, Saint Gerald, Mary (as Our Lady of Assumption), Saint John
 Russia Kaliningrad Oblast Adalbert of Prague
 Serbia Vojvodina Cyril and Methodius
 Spain  Andalusia John of Avila
 Aragon Agathoclia, Braulio, George
 Asturias Our Lady of Covadonga
Castile Emilian of Cogolla
 Canary Islands Mary (as Our Lady of Candelaria)
 Cantabria Virgen de la Bien Aparecida,
 Catalonia George, Virgin of Montserrat
 Ceuta Our Lady of Africa
 Euskadi Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Saint Prudence
 Extremadura Virgen of Guadalupe, John the Baptist
 Galicia James the Greater,[4]
La Rioja (Spain) La Rioja Virgen of Valvanera
 León Marcellus of Tangier, Saint Froilan, Madonna of the Way (Virgen del Camino)
 Madrid Saint Isidore the Laborer, Virgin of Almudena
 Navarre Fermin, Francis Xavier, Saturnin, Santa María the Royal of Pamplona
 Valencia Vincent Ferrer, Our Lady of the Forsaken
 United Kingdom  England George,[4] Edmund the Martyr, Edward the Confessor, Michael the Archangel[26]
Berkshire Birinus[citation needed]
Cornwall Piran, Michael the Archangel, Petroc[citation needed]
Devon Petroc, Nechtan
Dorset Wite
East Anglia Edmund the Martyr; Suffolk
Essex Cedd
The English Fens Guthlac[citation needed]
Herefordshire Dubricius[citation needed]
Kent Augustine of Canterbury
London Saint Paul
Mercia Chad of Mercia, Bertelin,[61] Alban
Northumbria Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, Oswald
Sussex Richard of Chichester, Wilfrid
Wessex Aldhelm, Swithun
West Riding of Yorkshire Wilfrid
Wiltshire Osmund
 Scotland Andrew the Apostle,[43] Margaret of Scotland, Columba,[4][33] Palladius
Barra Finbarr
Eigg Donnán
Galloway Ninian
Lennox Kessog
Orkney Islands Magnus
 Wales David of Wales[48] (Welsh: Dewi Sant)
 Gibraltar (territory) Bernard of Clairvaux,[62] Mary (as Our Lady of Europe)
(sovereign dependency)
Samson of Dol
 Isle of Man
(sovereign dependency)
(sovereign dependency)

Cities and towns[edit]

Catherine of Siena writing









Czech Republic

















The Netherlands











Sri Lanka




United Kingdom

United States

Archdioceses and dioceses[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Walsh, p. 6.
  2. ^ a b Walsh, p. 13.
  3. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Rose of Lima". Retrieved 2016-09-30. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb Bunson, p. 214.
  5. ^ "St. Benedict and the key to European unity". 9 April 2008. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  6. ^ Jones, Terry. "Methodius". Patron Saints Index. Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007. 
  7. ^ "Egregiae Virtutis". Retrieved 26 April 2009.  Apostolic letter of Pope John Paul II, 31 December 1980 (in Latin)
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c d e Walsh, p. 15.
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b Walsh, p. 3.
  13. ^ a b c d e Walsh, p. 4.
  14. ^ "Patroness of Australia". Retrieved 2017-06-01. 
  15. ^ "Saint Mary of the Cross MacKillop named second patron of Australia - ACBC Media Blog". ACBC Media Blog. 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2017-06-01. 
  16. ^ Holweck, p. 225.
  17. ^ Who was St. Andrew?,
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b Walsh, p. 5.
  20. ^ a b List of religious figures of Brittany#The Seven Founder Saints of Brittany
  21. ^ Holweck, p. 133.
  22. ^ a b Walsh, p. 22.
  23. ^ "Feast of Our Lady of Mercy". CatholicSaints.Info. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2017-10-30. 
  24. ^ "Hoy es Día de las Mercedes, Patrona de la República Dominicana". El Día (in Spanish). 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-10-30. 
  25. ^ "Santo Cerro | La Vega, República Dominicana". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-10-30. 
  26. ^ a b c d Walsh, p. 9.
  27. ^ "Official website of the National Shrine of Our Lady of El Cisne". 
  28. ^ Cite error: The named reference The second half of 1 Peter 2:17 was translated to Fijian and then made it into the ribbon of the country's coat of arms. was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ a b c Walsh, p. 8.
  30. ^ a b c d Walsh, p. 11.
  31. ^
  32. ^ Holweck, p. 256.
  33. ^ a b c d Walsh, p. 12.
  34. ^ Holweck, p. 171.
  35. ^ "Jewish Encyclopedia - Michael". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-02-26. 
  36. ^ "Catholic Church in Kenya". Retrieved 2018-08-28. 
  37. ^ a b Holweck, p. 182.
  38. ^ Walsh, p. 14.
  39. ^ Holweck, p. 273.
  40. ^ a b c d Walsh, p. 16.
  41. ^ Walsh, p. 17.
  42. ^ ru:Икона Божией Матери «Державная»[better source needed]
  43. ^ a b c Holweck, p. 72.>
  44. ^ a b c d Walsh, p. 18.
  45. ^ A History of the Balkan Peoples. Ardent Media. 1971. p. 33. GGKEY:69RCKY1X0FZ. 
  46. ^ Jennifer Lawler (2004). Encyclopedia of the Byzantine Empire. McFarland. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-4766-0929-4. 
  47. ^ a b Walsh, p. 19.
  48. ^ a b c d e Bunson, p. 215.
  49. ^ Walsh, p. 20.
  50. ^ Catholic Saints
  51. ^ "Saint of the Day - June 3 - Martyrs of Uganda". Catholic Saint of the Day. 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2018-08-28. 
  52. ^ "Catholic Church in Uganda". Retrieved 2018-08-28. 
  53. ^ Saint Josaphat Kuncevyc
  54. ^ Virgin of the Thirty-Three, proclaimed patron saint of Uruguay by Pope John XXIII (in Spanish)
  55. ^ a b Walsh, p. 21.
  56. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (January 2007). The Bosnian Church: Its Place in State and Society from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century. Saqi. ISBN 978-0-86356-503-8. This would also explain how St Gregory came to be the patron saint of Bosnia in 1461 (AB, p. 244). Thus we conclude that at least some Bosnians celebrated a family saint, the slava, and also some, like the Sankovici, honored the saints, ... 
  57. ^ Georgiana Muir Mackenzie (1877). Travels in the Slavonic Province of Turkey-in-Europe. Daldy, Isbister & Company. St. Peter was in his lifetime Vladika Peter I. ; now he is the patron saint of Montenegro, 
  58. ^ The Fortnightly. 93-99. Chapman and Hall. 1913. From one and all their offers met with savage refusal, the answer given by Peter Petrovic, ancestor of King Nikolas, and to-day- Patron Saint of Montenegro, is typical of the spirit of the Crnagora : to the offer of a gift of territory and a Turkish title ... 
  59. ^ Dennis Cove; Ian Westwell (January 2002). History of World War I. Marshall Cavendish. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7614-7231-5. ... was scheduled for June 28. This was a significant date for both Princip the archduke. It was the day of St. Vitus, the patron saint of Serbia, 
  60. ^ a b Saint Waltrude at Retrieved 26 March 2013
  61. ^ Patron saint of Stafford, formerly Bethnei, circa early 6th century, Prince of Mercia, Anglo Saxon follower of Christ, Holy man. See earlier notes Church of Saint Bertelin Stafford
  62. ^ Holweck, p. 154.
  63. ^ Guy of Anderlecht at Retrieved 26.March 2013.
  64. ^ Andrew the Apostle at Retrieved 26.March 2013
  65. ^ Holweck, p. 35.
  66. ^ St. Berach at Retrieved 05.April 2013
  67. ^ a b Alexander of Bergamo at Retrieved 05.April 2013
  68. ^ Holweck, p. 29.
  69. ^ a b c d e Holweck, p. 52.
  70. ^ a b c Holweck, p. 20.
  71. ^ a b Holweck, p. 3.
  72. ^ Holweck, p. 40
  73. ^ Michael Schuman (14 May 2014). Serbia and Montenegro. Infobase Publishing. pp. 83–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2252-6. 
  74. ^ Thomas J. Craughwell (12 July 2011). Saints Preserved. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-307-59074-9. 
  75. ^ Hellēnikē Hetaireia Slavikōn Meletōn (1999). Thessaloniki, Magna Moravia: proceedings of the International conference, Thessaloniki, 16-19 october 1997. Hellenic Association for Slavic Studies. 
  76. ^ "ST. PROCOPIUS". Retrieved 2 March 2017. 
  77. ^ Holweck, p. 11.
  78. ^ Holweck, p. 53.
  79. ^ Saint Joseph
  80. ^ Mary MacKillop at Retrieved 06.April 2013
  • Holweck, Frederick G. (1924). A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. B. Herder. 
  • Bunson, Matthew, ed. (2012). Our Sunday Visitor's 2012 Catholic Almanac. Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 9781592760770. 
  • Walsh, Michael, ed. (1987). Butler's Lives of Patron Saints. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060692626.