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Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is a biological research center in Maryland. It is one of 17 research centers in the United States run by the U. S. Geological Survey; the center is located on the grounds of the 12,841-acre Patuxent Research Refuge, managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; this is the only National Wildlife Refuge with the purpose of supporting wildlife research. Since its establishment in 1936 as the first wildlife experiment station in the United States, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has been a leading international research institute for wildlife and applied environmental research, for transmitting research findings to those responsible for managing the United States's natural resources, for providing technical assistance in implementing research findings so as to improve natural resource management. Patuxent's scientists have been responsible for many important advances in natural resource conservation in such areas as migratory birds, national monitoring programs for amphibians and birds, wildlife population analysis, waterfowl harvest, habitat management, coastal zone and flood plain management, endangered species, urban wildlife, ecosystem management, management of national parks and national wildlife refuges.

The Center develops and manages national inventory and monitoring programs and is responsible for the North American Bird Banding Program and leadership of other national bird monitoring programs. The Center's scientific and technical assistance publications, wildlife databases, electronic media are used nationally and worldwide in managing biological resources; the focus of the Center's mission and vision for the future is to continue its dynamic international and regional leadership in wildlife research. The Center will enhance its accomplishments in generating, interpreting and transmitting the scientific information needed to better address the pressing problems of managing the United States's biological resources those under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior, other Federal and non-Federal partners. Today's challenges in natural resource management involve new approaches such as adaptive management and ecosystem scale management, partnerships among multiple stakeholders, transfer and use of the huge store of existing information using modern technology.

The Center is a Federal research facility which supports programs in the Department of the Interior. The USGS Biological Resources Division, of which the Center is a part, works with others to provide the information needed to manage the United States's biological resources. Thus, scientific information needs of partner agencies influence much of the Center's scientific agenda; the Center receives funds directly from agencies benefiting from our research and from other partner organizations, such as those co-located at its Laurel headquarters. Such support provides critical resources that enhance the scope and value of the Center's activities, within the mission of the Division. Science conducted at the Center, like any scientific enterprise is driven by the pressing public natural resource needs coupled with the intellectual creativity and motivation of its scientists and technical staff. No research program will succeed; the research of Center scientists must be engaged at the cutting edge of scientific understanding to assure the long term success of natural resources management.

Note: much of this material was copied directly from the USGS web page on Patuxent, a public domain resource. Please edit to make more encyclopedic; the land that now comprises the 12,841 acres of the Patuxent Research Refuge was farmland from the colonial period through at least World War I. Well-known landholders such as the Snowden and Duvall families owned substantial amounts of land during the colonial period and well through the 19th century; the legacy of the Snowden family can still be found in two historic homes of the area, one of which stands on Patuxent Research Refuge property. In addition to these dwellings, there still exists 19 cemeteries between the center and Fort Meade whose headstones bear the inscriptions of both the Snowdens and Duvalls, in addition to lesser-known surnames such as the Woodwards and Waters families. All of the 8,100 acres that makes up what is now called the "North Tract" were transferred in 1991 from the Defense Department's Fort Meade landholdings, it is here.

Prior to the Department of Defense's ownership of the land in 1917, many old roads that would be incorporated into use for training exercises by the Army existed. Part of the DOD's Trainfire Road, now known as the Wildlife Loop, once linked the railroad town of Woodwardville with Laurel, Maryland. Long before the area became a densely wooded haven for wildlife amidst a populated urban corridor, the old Duvall and Lemons Bridges transported people between Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties; the former still exists as a newer bridge rebuilt in the 1940s, whereas only cement posts along either side of the river offer any vestige of what was Lemon's Bridge. The most historic old road of all, which utilized Duvall Bridge, was the old Telegraph Road, it once linked Baltimore and Washington, today it is still possible to see century-old telegraph poles along the road in both the Central and South Tracts. In 1946, scientists found that DDT tests was killing wildlife in tree canopies and causing significant fish kills in the

James McGarry

James McGarry is an Irish retired hurler who played as a goalkeeper for the Kilkenny senior team. Born in Bennettsbridge, County Kilkenny, McGarry first played competitive hurling whilst at school in Kilkenny CBS, he arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of twenty-one when he first linked up with the Kilkenny junior team. He joined the senior team for the 1997 championship. McGarry went on to play a key part for Kilkenny for over a decade, won five All-Ireland medals, seven Leinster medals and three National Hurling League medals, he was an All-Ireland runner-up on two occasions. As a member of the Leinster inter-provincial team on a number of occasions, McGarry won three Railway Cup medals. At club level he enjoyed a lengthy but unsuccessful career with Bennettsbridge. Throughout his career McGarry made 35 championship appearances, his retirement came following Kilkenny's defeat of Waterford in the 2008 championship. In retirement from playing McGarry became involved in team coaching, he was joint-manager of the Ballyhale Shamrocks team that claimed county and All-Ireland titles during the 2009-10 season.

In September 2013 McGarry was appointed as a selector to the Kilkenny senior team. McGarry was born in Bennettsbridge, County Kilkenny, plays his club hurling with his local club in Bennettsbridge. Although best known as a goalkeeper, McGarry began his playing career as an outfield player. While Bennettsbridge were once regarded as one of the best clubs in the county championship their fortunes have taken a downturn in the last few decades. In spite of this McGarry has still had some success with the club, winning intermediate league county medals and county junior football medals. McGarry never lined out at minor or under-21 levels for his native county. Instead he first came to prominence as a goalkeeper on the Kilkenny junior hurling team in the 1990s, he first tasted success in 1993. McGarry lined out against Clare in the All-Ireland final, Kilkenny were outclassed on that occasion. A final score of 3-10 to 0-8 gave Clare the victory. In 1994 McGarry added a second Leinster junior title to his collection as Wexford fell again in the provincial decider.

Once again Kilkenny qualified for the All-Ireland final where Cork provided the opposition. After a close and exciting game it was Cork. In 1995 McGarry collected a third consecutive Leinster medal. Once again Kilkenny subsequently qualified for the All-Ireland final, it was their third consecutive championship decider in-a-row. Clare were the opponents on this occasion, Kilkenny won 1-20 to 1-6, giving McGarry an All-Ireland junior medal. McGarry subsequently joined the Kilkenny senior hurling panel in 1997 as sub goalkeeper to Joe Dermody. At the age of 26 it appeared. All this changed in 1999 when he took over as the first-choice goalkeeper on the senior team under the new manager Brian Cody; that year he won his first senior Leinster title following a comprehensive victory over reigning All-Ireland champions Offaly. McGarry lined out in his first All-Ireland final, with arch-rivals Cork providing the opposition. Although he kept a clean sheet, a Cork team, with an average age of 22, came back from four points down to win the game by a solitary point.

In 2000, McGarry captured a second Leinster title as Kilkenny steamrolled Offaly once again in the provincial final. The ‘back-door system’ allowed the two sides to meet again in the All-Ireland final; the game turned out to be a complete mismatch. It was one of the most one-sided All-Ireland finals in decades as ‘the Cats’ won by 5-15 to 1-14; this victory gave McGarry his first senior All-Ireland medal. In 2001 McGarry added a third successive Leinster medal to his collection as Kilkenny overpowered Wexford in the provincial final once again. After such a huge win ‘the Cats’ were hot favourites to retain their All-Ireland title. ‘The Cats’ bounced back in 2002 with McGarry claiming a first National Hurling League medal. He subsequently claimed a fourth Leinster title before lining out in a third All-Ireland final. Clare, who were defeated in the first-round of the Munster championship but had made it to the final via the newly introduced qualifier system, put up a good fight, however, McGarry claimed another clean sheet in a championship decider.

A combined tally of 2-13 for Henry Shefflin and D. J. Carey gave McGarry a second All-Ireland medal. In 2003, McGarry captured a fifth consecutive Leinster medal after another huge win; the subsequent All-Ireland final saw ‘the Cats’ take on arch-rivals Cork. It was a tense affair as the Leinster men never led by more than four points. Kilkenny only secured victory with a late Martin Comerford goal and won the day with a 1-14 to 1-11 score line, it was McGarry’s third All-Ireland medal in four years. In 2004, Kilkenny were aiming for a third All-Ireland victory in-a-row. For the first time in seven years Kilkenny failed in their bid to become Leinster champions as a last-gasp Wexford goal ended a run of success in the provincial championship. Kilkenny took the scenic route via the qualifiers system. Once again Cork provided the opposition on a overcast day; the sides were level for much of the game.

White space (visual arts)

In page layout and sculpture, white space is referred to as negative space. It is the portion of a page left unmarked: margins and space between columns, lines of type, figures, or objects drawn or depicted; the term arises from graphic design practice, where printing processes use white paper. White space should not be considered "blank" space — it is an important element of design which enables the objects in it to exist at all. Inexpert use of white space, can make a page appear incomplete; when space is at a premium, such as in some types of magazine and yellow pages advertising, white space is limited in order to get as much vital information on to the page as possible. A page crammed full of text or graphics with little white space runs the risk of appearing busy or cluttered, is difficult to read; some designs compensate for this problem through the careful use of leading and typeface. Conversely, judicious use of white space can give a page a classic, rich appearance. For example, upscale brands use ad layouts with little text and a lot of white space.

For publication designers, white space is important. Publications can be printed on a variety of different papers, which can have different colours, etc. In these cases, white space is used for showcasing the different stocks. Composition Ma Minimalism Negative space Type color On White Space in Graphic Design 16 Things about White Space

Frodsham Castle

Frodsham Castle was in the market town of Frodsham, England. It served a military purpose, it became a manor house and a gaol. After being damaged in the Civil War it was replaced by Park Place; the castle stood on rising ground at the foot of Overton Hill at the western end of the town of Frodsham and guarded the narrow pass between Frodsham Marsh and the hill. It is that the castle was built by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester around 1070; this was a timber structure which collapsed during the 14th century. A new castle was built on the site, occupied by the bailiff who administered the site on behalf of the Lord of the Manor, the Earl of Chester or the sovereign, it is thought that the building was more a fortified manor house than a castle because there is evidence of only minimal fortification and there is no record of any attempt to obtain permission to crenelate. The walls had "enormous thickness", it became the gaol of the Manor. In the early 17th century Sir Thomas Savage of Clifton purchased from the Crown the Manor, the Lordship and the Castle of Frodsham.

Sir Thomas died in 1635 to be succeeded by his son, who four years inherited the title of Earl Rivers. During the Civil War, John Savage was living in the nearby mansion of Rocksavage, he was a Royalist and his house was damaged by Parliamentary forces. He died in Frodsham Castle in 1654 but while his corpse was still in the castle awaiting burial, the building was destroyed in a fire; the ruins were bought by John Daniels of Daresbury and in about 1750 by Daniel Ashley, a local solicitor. His son, Robert Wainwright Ashley, a lawyer, demolished the ruins and built a house, Park Place. Part of the foundations of the castle formed the cellars of this house; the site is now occupied by a larger house, Castle Park House, owned and administered by Cheshire West and Chester Council. List of castles in Cheshire Citations Sources


Yazidis (also written as Yezidis are an endogamous and Kurmanji-speaking group of contested ethnic origin, indigenous to Iraq and Turkey. The majority of Yazidis remaining in the Middle East today live in Iraq in the Nineveh and Dohuk governorates; the Yazidi religion is monotheistic and can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamian religions and it has some similarities with Abrahamic religions. In August 2014, the Yazidis became victims of a genocide by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in its campaign to rid Iraq and its neighbouring countries of non-Islamic influences; the Yazidis lived in communities located in present-day Iraq and Syria and had significant numbers in Armenia and Georgia. However, events since the end of the 20th century have resulted in considerable demographic shift in these areas as well as mass emigration; as a result, population estimates are unclear in many regions, estimates of the size of the total population vary. The majority of the Yazidi population lives in Iraq, where they make up an important minority community.

Estimates of the size of these communities vary between 70,000 and 500,000. They are concentrated in northern Iraq in Nineveh Governorate; the two biggest communities are in Shekhan, northeast of Mosul and in Sinjar, at the Syrian border 80 kilometres west of Mosul. In Shekhan is the shrine of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir at Lalish. In the early 1900s most of the settled population of the Syrian Desert were Yazidi. During the 20th century, the Shekhan community struggled for dominance with the more conservative Sinjar community; the demographic profile has changed since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003 and the fall of Saddam Hussein's government. Traditionally, Yazidis in Iraq had their own villages. However, many of their villages were destroyed by the Saddam regime; the Ba'athists created collective villages and forcibly relocated the Yazidis from their historical villages which would be destroyed. According to the Human Rights Watch, Yazidis were under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein between 1970 and 2003.

In 2009, some Yazidis who had lived under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein complained about the political tactics of the Kurdistan Region that were intended to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds. A report from Human Rights Watch, in 2009, declares that to incorporate disputed territories in northern Iraq—particularly the Nineveh province—into the Kurdish region, the KDP authorities had used KRG's political and economical resources to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds; the HRW report criticises heavy-handed tactics." Yazidis in Syria live in two communities, one in the Al-Jazira area and the other in the Kurd-Dagh. Population numbers for the Syrian Yazidi community are unclear. In 1963, the community was estimated at about 10,000, according to the national census, but numbers for 1987 were unavailable. There may be between about 12,000 and 15,000 Yazidis in Syria today, though more than half of the community may have emigrated from Syria since the 1980s. Estimates are further complicated by the arrival of as many as 50,000 Yazidi refugees from Iraq during the Iraq War.

The Yazidi population in Georgia has been dwindling since the 1990s due to economic migration to Russia and the West. According to a census carried out in 1989, there were over 30,000 Yazidis in Georgia. However, by other estimates, the community fell from around 30,000 people to fewer than 5,000 during the 1990s. Today they number as little 6,000 by some estimates, including recent refugees from Sinjar in Iraq, who fled to Georgia following persecution by ISIL. On 16 June 2015, Yazidis celebrated the opening of a temple and a cultural centre named after Sultan Ezid in Varketili, a suburb of Tbilisi; this is the third such temple in the world after those in Iraqi Armenia. According to the 2011 census, there are 35,272 Yazidis in Armenia, making them Armenia's largest ethnic minority group. Ten years earlier, in the 2001 census, 40,620 Yazidis were registered in Armenia, they have a significant presence in the Armavir province of Armenia. Media have estimated the number of Yazidis in Armenia to be between 30,000 and 50,000.

Most of them are the descendants of refugees who fled to Armenia in order to escape the persecution that they had suffered during Ottoman rule, including a wave of persecution which occurred during the Armenian Genocide, when many Armenians found refuge in Yazidi villages. There is a Yazidi temple called Ziarat in the village of Aknalich in the region of Armavir. Construction on a new Yazidi temple in Aknalich, called "Quba Mere Diwan," is underway; the temple is slated to become the largest Yazidi temple in the world and is funded by Mirza Sloian, a Yazidi businessman based in Moscow, from the Armavir region. A sizeable part of the autochthonous Yazidi population of Turkey fled the country for present-day Armenia and Georgia starting from the late 19th century. There are additional communities in Germany due to recent migration; the Yazidi community of Turkey declined precipitously during the 20th century. Most of them have immigrated to Europe Germany; this mass emigration has resulted in the establishment of large Yazidi diaspora communities abroad.

The most significant of these is in Germany, which now has a Yazidi community of more than 200,000 living in Hannover, Celle, Bad Oeynhausen and Oldenburg. Most are from Turke


Pozole, which means "hominy", is a traditional soup or stew from Mexican cuisine. It is made from hominy, with meat, can be seasoned and garnished with shredded lettuce or cabbage, chile peppers, garlic, avocado, salsa or limes. Pozole is served on New Year's Eve to celebrate the new year. Pozole is served as a celebratory dish throughout Mexico and in Mexican communities outside Mexico. Common occasions include Mexico Independence Day, birthdays and other holidays, it is a typical dish in various states such as Nayarit, Michoacán, Zacatecas and Morelos. Pozole is served in Mexican restaurants worldwide and is popular in New Mexico where it was a common dish among the Pueblo Indians residing along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico. Pozole can be prepared in many ways. All variations include a base of cooked hominy in broth. Pork, or sometimes chicken, is included in the base. Vegetarian recipes substitute beans for the meat; the three main types of pozole are verde/green and rojo/red. White pozole is the preparation without any additional red sauce.

Green pozole adds a rich sauce based on green ingredients including tomatillos, cilantro, jalapeños, or pepitas. Red pozole is made without the green sauce, instead adding a red sauce made from one or more chiles, such as guajillo, piquin, or ancho; when pozole is served, it is accompanied by a wide variety of condiments including chopped onion, shredded lettuce, sliced radish, avocado, oregano, chicharrón, or chiles. Pozole was mentioned in the 16th century Florentine Codex by Bernardino de Sahagún. Since maize was a sacred plant for the Aztecs and other inhabitants of Mesoamerica, pozole was made to be consumed on special occasions. According to research by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, on these special occasions, the meat used in the pozole was human. After the prisoners were killed by having their hearts torn out in a ritual sacrifice, the rest of the body was chopped and cooked with maize, the resulting meal was shared among the whole community as an act of religious communion.

After the Conquest, when cannibalism was banned, pork became the staple meat as it "tasted similar", according to Bernardino de Sahagún. The conjunction of maize and meat in a single dish is of particular interest to scholars as the ancient Americans believed the gods made humans out of masa Fricasé List of maize dishes List of Mexican dishes List of soups List of stews Menudo – a similar dish made with tripe Mexican cuisine