Paul Éluard, born Eugène Émile Paul Grindel, was a French poet and one of the founders of the surrealist movement. Éluard was born in Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, the son of Eugène Clément Grindel and wife Jeanne-Marie née Cousin. His father was an accountant when Paul was born but soon opened a real estate agency, his mother was a seamstress. Around 1908, the family moved to Paris, rue Louis Blanc. Éluard attended the local school in Aulnay-sous-Bois before obtaining a scholarship to attend the Ecole Superieure de Colbert. At the age of 16, he contracted tuberculosis, interrupted his studies, remained hospitalized until April 1914 in the Clavadel sanatorium near Davos. There he met a young Russian girl of his age, Helena Diakonova, whom he nicknamed Gala, he confided in her of his dream of becoming a poet, of his admiration for “poets dead of hunger, sizzling dreams” and of his parents’ disapproval. She wrote to him that “you will become a great poet”, they became inseparable. She believed in him and gave him confidence and encouragement and provided him with the sense of security he needed to write.
She listened and was involved in the creation of his verses. She became his muse and the critic, always honest, told him which images she preferred, which verses she disliked, he was particularly inspired by Walt Whitman. In Clavadel, Éluard met the Brazilian youngster Manuel Bandeira, who would become one of the foremost poets of the Portuguese language, they became friends during their hospitalization in the sanatorium, kept in touch by mail after returning to their respective countries. In April 1914, Paul Éluard and Gala were both declared healthy again and sent home, to Paris and Moscow respectively; the separation was brutal. Europe was on the brink of war. Paul was mobilised, he passed his physical and was assigned to the auxiliary services because of his poor health. He suffered from migraine, cerebral anaemia and chronic appendicitis and spent most of 1915 under treatment in a military hospital not far from home. Paul’s mother came to visit him and he talked for hours about his beloved, opening his heart to her and rallying her to his cause.
Her initial hostility towards Gala faded away, she started calling her “the little Russian”. However, Paul’s father, mobilized, remained adamant that she could not come to Paris. In Moscow, Gala listened to no one, her love for Paul gave her an unshakable faith that they would be reunited again. She wrote to Paul’s mother to befriend her and convinced her stepfather to let her go to Paris to study French at the Sorbonne, she took a boat to Helsinki reached Stockholm before embarking for England. Once in London, she took a train to Southampton before taking a boat to rally Dieppe, took a train to Paris. In June 1916, Paul was sent to Hargnicourt to work in one of the military evacuation hospital, 10 kilometers from the front line; the ‘poet’ was given a chair, a desk and a pen to painfully write to the families of the dead and the wounded. He wrote more than 150 letters a day. At night he dug graves to bury the dead. For the first time since Clavadel, shaken by the horrors of the war, Paul started writing verses again.
Gala wrote to him “I promise you our life will be glorious and magnificent”. On 14 December 1916, Paul Éluard turned 21 and wrote to his mother “I can assure you, that your approval will be infinitely precious to me. However, for all our sake, nothing will change my mind”, he married Gala on 20 February 1917. However, he announced to his parents and newlywed wife that when he went back to the front line he would voluntarily join the “real soldiers” in the trenches. Gala protested and threatened to go back to Russia to become a nurse on the Russian front, but nothing would do, for the first time Paul resisted her. “Let me live a tougher life”, he wrote her, “less like a servant, less like a domestic”. Two days after getting married, Paul left for the front line. There, living conditions were severe. Éluard wrote to his parents “Even the strongest are falling. We advanced 50 kilometres, three days without bread or wine.” His health suffered. On 20 March 1917, he was sent to a military hospital with incipient pleurisy.
On 11 May 1918, Gala gave birth to a baby girl, named Cécile. In 1919, Éluard wrote to Gala: “War is coming to an end. We will now fight for happiness after having fought for Life”. Waiting to be sent home, he published "Duty and Anxiety" and "Little Poems for Peace". Following the advice of his publisher, he sent the poems to various personalities of the literary world who took a stand against the war. Gala helped him to prepare and send the letters. In 1919, Jean Paulhan, an eminent academic and writer, responded to his letter expressing his admiration, he referred him to three young writers who had started a new journal called Literature. He encouraged Paul to go and meet them; the three young poets Jean Paulhan recommended to Paul were André Breton, Philippe Soupault and Louis Aragon. The meeting with Paul took place in March 1919. Paul was intimidated, he was shy and blushing. He was still a soldier and wearing his war uniform, it was the best omen for the three poets, who all showed great courage during the war.
Paul brought with him his poems and read them to the ‘jury’. They were seduced by the young man and liked his work, they decided to publish one of his texts in the next edition of Literature. Wounded and scarred by the war the four poets found solace in their friendship and poetry. Against a society that wanted to channel them into being good and useful citizens, they chose a life of bohemia, they refused the bourgeois middle-class aspirations of money and comfort and rejecte
The 1997–98 San Jose Sharks season was the Sharks' seventh season of operation in the National Hockey League. Following their second last-place finish in as many years, the Sharks unceremoniously fired first-year head coach Al Sims. At the time of his hiring, Sutter was the first head coach in franchise history to have coached another NHL team; the Sharks' coaching switch was accompanied by a handful of player debuts. Of these, the addition of five-time NHL All-Star goaltender Mike Vernon proved most important. On August 18th, 1997, the Sharks acquired Vernon from the Detroit Red Wings for a pair of second-round picks. Additionally, the Sharks drafted highly-touted forward Patrick Marleau with the second overall pick in the 1997 NHL Entry Draft. Despite a lackluster rookie season, Marleau would enjoy considerable success with the Sharks over the following two decades. Lastly, 1996 first-found pick. Sturm and Marleau, in particular, supplemented a burgeoning collection of young forwards that included mainstays Jeff Friesen and Owen Nolan.
In Sutter's first season at the helm, the Sharks' play improved substantially. While they once again failed to post a winning record, the team managed to clinch the Western Conference's eighth playoff berth. In the first round of the 1998 Stanley Cup Playoffs, the Sharks faced the top-seeded Dallas Stars; the Sharks dropped their first two games in Dallas. An upset was not to be, however, as the Stars responded with a pair of one-goal victories to win the series in six games. Despite a quick exit from the playoffs, the 1997-98 season would prove to be a turning point for the franchise. After finishing with the Western Conference's worst record in four of their first six seasons of play, the Sharks would miss the postseason just twice between 1998 and 2018. Captain Todd Gill is traded in March. Note: CR = Conference rank. Divisions: CEN – Central, PAC – Pacific bold – Qualified for playoffs; the Sharks were eliminated by the Stars in six games. Note: Pos = Position.
I'm the Man is Joe Jackson's second album, released in October 1979. Taken from the album, "It's Different for Girls", was his biggest UK chart single, peaking at number five in the UK Singles Chart. I'm the Man was re-released in 2001 with one bonus track, a live version of "Come On". "Come On" was released as the b-side to Jackson's single "I'm the Man" issued in October 1979. On the album cover, Jackson appears in the guise of a particular type of petty criminal known in the United Kingdom as a spiv, a character who, in Jackson's own words, "always wears a gross polka-dot tie and a pencil-thin mustache, he's always trying to sell you a watch or something like that real cheap. I think people always want to put a label on what you do, so I thought I'd be one step ahead of them and invent one myself - spiv rock."The album was recorded to follow-up Jackson's successful debut album Look Sharp!. Since the album has been described by Jackson as "Part Two of Look Sharp!". He said on his website, This is Part Two of Look Sharp! – it was released less than a year later.
I don't know how I had the time to write and record a more mature record, but I think it is, the best of the first three. I'm the Man was released as a 7" album in a package as'The 7" Album' and included a poster. Jackson pushed for "I'm the Man" to be the leading single from the album, professed bemusement when it failed to chart; the record label decided on its own to release "It's Different for Girls" which went straight to the UK Top Ten. Jackson confessed: "I was amazed when that one was a hit." All songs arranged by Joe Jackson, except where noted. Produced by David Kershenbaum. MusiciansJoe Jackson – vocals, harmonica, melodica Gary Sanford – guitar Graham Maby – bass, vocals David Houghton – drums, vocalsProductionJoe Jackson - arrangements David Kershenbaum - producer Alan Winstanley - recording engineer Aldo Bocca - mixing engineer Neil King - assistant mixing engineer Michael Ross - art direction Bruce Rae - cover photography Fiona Lehn covered "On Your Radio" and Maxine Young covered "It's Different for Girls" on the 2004 album Different for Girls: Women Artists and Female-Fronted Bands Cover Joe Jackson.
Album Singles I'm The Man album information at The Joe Jackson Archive
C. Crawford Hollidge was a women's clothing store of Boston in the 20th century; the business was started by Clarence Crawford Hollidge in 1920, as a dry goods store in Milton, Massachusetts just south of Boston. By 1930 he had transformed the store into a high-end women’s apparel and accessories store. At its height, C. Crawford Hollidge had four locations in wealthy towns in eastern Massachusetts: Boston, Cohasset on the South Shore, Hyannis, a Cape Cod resort town; the flagship downtown Boston store was located at 141 Tremont Street at Temple Place, directly across Temple Place from rival R. H. Stearns. On February 18, 1967 the building was engulfed by a five alarm fire, it had to be demolished. Crawford Hollidge reopened on Boylston Street, but closed within a few years, its branch stores eventually closed
Water privatization is short for private sector participation in the provision of water services and sanitation. Private sector participation in water supply and sanitation is controversial. Proponents of private sector participation argue that it has led to improvements in the efficiency and service quality of utilities, it is argued that it has contributed to expanded access. They cite Manila, Guayaquil in Ecuador, several cities in Colombia and Morocco, as well as Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal as success stories. Critics however, contend that private sector participation led to tariff increases and has turned a public good into a private good. Many believe that the privatization of water is incompatible with ensuring the international human right to water. Aborted privatizations in Cochabamba and Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, as well as managed water systems in Jakarta and Berlin are highlighted as failures. In 2019, Austria forbid the privatization of water provision via its constitution. Water privatization in Buenos Aires, Argentina and in England is cited by both supporters and opponents, each emphasizing different aspects of these cases.
The figures about how many people receive water from the private sector are controversial: One source claims that 909 million people were served by "private players" in 2011 globally, up from 681 million people in 2007. This figure includes people served by publicly owned companies that have sourced out the financing and operation of part of their assets, such as water or wastewater treatment plants, to the private sector; the World Bank estimated the urban population directly served by private water operators in developing countries to be much lower at 170 million in 2007. Among them only about 15 million people, all living in Chile, are served by owned utilities; the remainder are served by managed, but publicly owned companies under concession and management contracts. Owned water utilities were common in Europe, the United States and Latin America in the mid and late 19th century, their importance faded away until the early 20th century as they proved unable to expand access and publicly owned utilities became stronger.
A second global dawn of private water utilities came in the early 1990s in the aftermath of the Thatcher privatizations in England and Wales, the fall of communism and the ensuing global emphasis on free market policies. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund played an important role in this process through the conditionality of their lending. However, some water privatizations failed, most notably in 2000 in Cochabamba, paving the way for a new pragmatism and a reduced emphasis on privatization. In England and Wales, the emergence of the first private water companies dates back to the 17th century. In 1820, six private water companies operated in London. However, the market share of private water companies in London declined from 40% in 1860 to 10% in 1900. In the 1980s, their share all over England and Wales was about 25%; the tide turned in 1989 when the conservative government of Margaret Thatcher privatized all public water and sewer companies in England and Wales. In Scotland local governments dominated by the Labour party kept water systems in public hands.
The water sector in France has always been characterized by a coexistence of public and private management, with their respective shares fluctuating over time. The two largest private companies are Veolia Environnement the Compagnie Générale des Eaux and Vivendi Environnement, Suez Environnement Lyonnaise des Eaux and Ondeo; the Compagnie Générale des Eaux was founded in 1853 and Lyonnaise des Eaux in 1880. In the late 19th century, municipal governments, dissatisfied with high tariffs and the lack of expansion of networks to poor neighborhoods, did not renew private concessions and created instead municipally owned utilities; the share of private water operators declined to 17% in 1936. The share of the private sector increased to 32% in 1954, 50% in 1975 and 80% in 2000 using a new model: Instead of the concession contracts, which gave the responsibility to finance investments to the private company, the new lease contracts made the private operator only responsible for operation and maintenance, while major investments became a responsibility of the municipalities.
The French water companies escaped the nationalizations after the war and under President François Mitterrand, because the central government did not want to interfere with the autonomy of municipalities and was unwilling to finance heavy investments. The water supply of Paris was privatized in 1985 when a conservative mayor awarded two lease contracts, each covering one half of the city. In 2010, a socialist mayor remunicipalized the water system of the French capital. In Spain, private water companies maintained their position, budging the global trend during the late 19th and early 20th century; the largest private water company in Spain is Aguas de Barcelona. Created by French and Belgian investors, it was sold to Spanish investors in 1920, only to come back under French control in the early 21st century. In Germany, a British private water company had set up the first piped water system and treatment plant in Berlin in 1852, but the city, dissatisfied with the lack of investment in particular in sewerage, cancelled the contract in 1873.
In 1887 Gelsenwasser was created, which remains an important regional water supplier in the Ruhr district. The German water sector has always been dominated by municipally owned utilities. Despite this, the water system of Berlin was privatized in 1999 for fiscal reasons. In the United States, 60% of piped water syste
The Domaine de Marie is a Catholic convent in Da Lat, Vietnam. The church's history goes back to its initial construction in 1940 and is French and Vietnamese style of architecture, it is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Đà Lạt and contains a nunnery which operates schooling for local children. The construction of the complex started in 1940; the cathedral in the Domaine holds the remains of Suzanne Humbert, wife of Jean Decoux, who died in a traffic accident in 1944. Her tomb is located behind the church lobby, situated in a spacious site with many flowers; the church is located atop a hill in Da Lat. It is built in a style reminiscent of 17th Century French architecture; the walls are made of pink limestome. The church features stained-glass windows and a large 3m of statue of the Virgin Mary standing upon a globe of the world; the statue resembles a Vietnamese woman and was designed by French architect Jonchère in 1943. It was donated by Mrs. Decoux. Nicknamed the "Cherry Church" by locals, it is described as a fusion of French and Vietnamese architecture.
The French influence can be seen in the walls that allow a "creative manipulation of lights" with the various roofs of the complex designed in the style of the Nha Rong, a type of stilt house typical of the Central Highlands area of Vietnam. The church's façade is designed as an isosceles triangle and is noted for the number of small arch-shaped windows. A cross is located on top of the main triangular portion of the building; the church is part of a complex spanning 29.6 acres, which contains two convents. As of 2007, 23 nuns of the order of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul still live in the convent, along with numerous young women and children that are hard-of-hearing; the Daughters have been present in French Indo-China since 1940. Having cleared the area on the top of the hill, 30 nuns arrived at the end of October 1941 from various locations around the French Indochinese colonies; when the church was inaugurated in November 1942 it had a priest. Over the years the convent would accept Vietnamese girls.
They would run an orphanage at the Church. The revenue from this operation helps keep the Domaine open; the complex is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Đà Lạt. As of 2015, the church still holds services weekdays at 17:00 and twice Sundays at 5:45 and 16:30; the facility is open to tourists and to the public