click links in text for more info

Paul Feyerabend

Paul Karl Feyerabend was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, where he worked for three decades. At various different points in his life, he lived in England, the United States, New Zealand, Italy and Switzerland, his major works include Against Science in a Free Society and Farewell to Reason. Feyerabend became famous for his purportedly anarchistic view of science and his rejection of the existence of universal methodological rules, he was an influential figure in the sociology of scientific knowledge. Asteroid Feyerabend is named in his honour. Feyerabend was born in 1924 in Vienna, where he attended high school. In this period he got into the habit of frequent reading, developed an interest in theatre, started singing lessons. After graduating from high school in April 1942 he was drafted into the German Arbeitsdienst. After basic training in Pirmasens, Germany, he was assigned to a unit near Brest. Feyerabend described the work he did during that period as monotonous: "we moved around in the countryside, dug ditches, filled them up again."

After a short leave he volunteered for officer school. In his autobiography he writes that he hoped the war would be over by the time he had finished his education as an officer; this turned out not to be the case. From December 1943 on, he served as an officer on the northern part of the Eastern Front, was decorated with an Iron cross, attained the rank of lieutenant; when the German army started its retreat from the advancing Red Army, Feyerabend was hit by three bullets while directing traffic. One bullet hit him in the spine; as a consequence he needed to walk with a stick for the rest of his life and experienced severe pain. He spent the rest of the war recovering from his wounds; when the war was over, Feyerabend first got a temporary job in Apolda. He was influenced by the Marxist playwright Bertolt Brecht and was invited by Brecht to be his assistant at the East Berlin State Opera but turned down the offer. Feyerabend took various classes at the Weimar Academy, returned to Vienna to study history and sociology.

He became dissatisfied and soon transferred to physics, where he met Felix Ehrenhaft, a physicist whose experiments would influence his views on the nature of science. Feyerabend changed his course of studies to philosophy and submitted his final thesis on observation sentences. In his autobiography, he described his philosophical views during this time as "staunchly empiricist". In 1948 he visited the first Alpbach Forum in Alpbach. There Feyerabend. In 1949 he was a founding member of the Kraft Circle. In 1951, Feyerabend was granted a British Council scholarship to study under Wittgenstein. However, Wittgenstein died. Feyerabend chose Popper as his supervisor instead, went to study at the London School of Economics in 1952. In his autobiography, Feyerabend explains that during this time, he was influenced by Popper: "I had fallen for ". After that, Feyerabend was involved in various projects. In 1955, Feyerabend received his first academic appointment at the University of Bristol, where he gave lectures about the philosophy of science.

In his life he worked as a professor at Berkeley, Kassel, Yale, Berlin and ETH Zurich. During this time, he developed a critical view of science, which he described as'anarchistic' or'dadaistic' to illustrate his rejection of the dogmatic use of rules, a position incompatible with the contemporary rationalistic culture in the philosophy of science. At the London School of Economics, Feyerabend met a colleague of K. R. Popper, Imre Lakatos with whom he planned to write a dialogue volume in which Lakatos would defend a rationalist view of science and Feyerabend would attack it; this planned joint publication was put to an end by Lakatos's sudden death in 1974. Against Method became a famous criticism of current philosophical views of science and provoked many reactions. In his autobiography, he reveals that the energy in his writings came at great cost to himself: The depression stayed with me for over a year. I would wake up, open my eyes, listen – Is it here or isn't? No sign of it. It's asleep.

It will leave me alone today. Carefully, I get out of bed. All is quiet. I go to start breakfast. Not a sound. TV -- Good Morning America --, David What's - his-name, a guy. I watch the guests; the food fills my stomach and gives me strength. Now a quick excursion to the bathroom, out for my morning walk – and here she is, my faithful depression: "Did you think you could leave without me?" Feyerabend moved to the University of California, Berkeley in California in 1958 and became a U. S. citizen. Following professorships at University College London and Yale, he taught at the University of Auckland, New Zealand in 1972 and 1974, always returning to California, he enjoyed alternating between posts at ETH Zurich and Berkeley through the 1980s but left Berkele

St. Julien Ravenel

St. Julien Ravenel was an American physician and agricultural chemist. During the American Civil War, he designed the torpedo boat CSS David, used to attack the Union ironclad USS New Ironsides. Following the war, he helped pioneer the use of fertilizers in agriculture and led the growth of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing in Charleston, South Carolina. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, St. Julien was the oldest child of merchant and ship owner John Ravenel and his wife Anna Eliza Ford. After attending grammar schools in Charleston, he left for Morristown, New Jersey to continue his education. In 1840 he graduated from the Medical College in Charleston after studying medicine under J. E. Holbrook continued his studies for a summer in Philadelphia and a year at Paris, France. Returning to Charleston, he began to practice medicine and was named Demonstrator of Anatomy at the Medical College. Finding the medical work distasteful and disliking the drudgery of being a doctor, he began an association with Professor Louis Agassiz, studying microscopy, natural history, physiology.

When the American Association for the Advancement of Science met in Charleston during 1850, Dr. Ravenel was the treasurer. On March 20, 1851, he married writer and historian Harriott Horry Rutledge, the sole child of Edward Cotesworth Rutledge and Rebecca Motte Lowndes. Between 1852 and 1872, St. Julien and Harriott would have nine children, their son Francis' Gualdo Ravenel married the poet Beatrice Witte. St. Julien undertook the study of chemistry beginning in 1852. However, he did not forsake his previous work; when an outbreak of Yellow Fever struck Norfolk, Virginia in 1855, he was one of the first on the scene and worked throughout the epidemic to aid the patients. At his Stony Landing Plantation along the Cooper River, he experimented with the production of lime from marl deposits located along the river banks. After cement was discovered under the limestone layers, in 1856 he partnered with Clement H. Stevens to establish the Colleton Lime Works at his plantation which sold lime for 0.90c per barrel.

This company would provide most of the lime used by the southern states during the American Civil War. With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Dr. Ravenel volunteered with the Phoenix rifles and served as a private during the siege of Fort Sumter. Thereafter he was commissioned as a surgeon with the 24th South Carolina infantry, under the command of Colonel Clement H. Stevens; the following year, he was placed in charge of the Confederate Hospital in Columbia, South Carolina where Confederate soldiers from Virginia and elsewhere were being treated. With the Northern fleet blockading the South's ports, the torpedo boat was devised as a counterblockade weapon. In 1863, the first purpose-built torpedo boat was conceived and built near Charleston, South Carolina using private funding. Using an earlier concept of Ross Winans, Dr. Ravenel provided the initial design for the vessel and the construction was completed with the aid of David C. Ebaugh. Named the David, this cigar-shaped, semi-submersible vessel was fitted with a torpedo at the end of 14-foot iron spar mounted at the bow.

The idea was to drive the steam-powered boat at an enemy ship and detonate the torpedo along the hull. On October 5, 1863, the CSS David was used to attack the USS New Ironsides near Charleston Harbor, causing damage but failing to breach the hull. Ravenel's knowledge of chemistry was put to use when he was placed in charge of a laboratory in Columbia, South Carolina, used to manufacture nearly all of the South's medical supplies, including drugs and medicines; as General Sherman's army approached, the laboratory was ordered to entrain for a location in North Carolina. His wife Harriott stayed behind with their provisions and thus was witness to the arrival of the Union army and the burning of the city. Prior to the war, Dr. Ravenel had begun experimenting with chemistry for improvement of agricultural conditions, he resumed his investigations in 1866, where he discovered the benefit of using phosphate of lime in agriculture. He was able to increase the cotton yield in one section of his plantation from 100–150 pounds per acre up to 300–400 pounds.

In August, 1867, Ravenal and N. A. Pratt discovered a rich concentration of this mineral at Lambs, South Carolina; as a result, he helped to found the fertilizer manufacturer Wando Phosphate Company. Over time, this led to a burgeoning fertilizer industry that helped the commercial recovery of South Carolina. For the remainder of his career, he served as chemist to the larger phosphate companies. Among his accomplishments were the development of simpler fertilizer manufacturing techniques, a method of growing abundant short grain and hay on the sandy South Carolina coast, the boring of artesian wells of moderate depth in the Charleston area to supply water to local manufacturing industries. For the last, he is now known as the "father of Charleston's artesian well system". St. Julien Ravenel died of cirrhosis of the liver, March 15, 1882, was survived by his wife, four sons, five daughters. Writing under the pseudonym of H. Hilton Broom, his wife Harriott won a Charleston newspaper prize for her 1879 novel Ashurst.

She published Eliza Pinckney, The Life and Times of William Lowndes of South Carolina, Charleston, the Place and the People. Effect of earthquake 1886. Dr. St. Julien Ravenel's house. East Battery. Charleston, S. C. University of South Carolina. South Caroliniana Library, 1886, retrieved 2013-05-18. Stony Landing Plantation, Berkeley Chamber of Commerce, Berkeley County, SC, retrieved 2013-05-18

Marc Bassingthwaighte

Marc Bassingthwaighte is a Namibian cyclist who specialises in cross-country events. Bassingthwaighte represented Namibia at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, where he competed in the men's cross-country, he has competed in a Commonwealth Games, an African Mountain Bike Championships, a Namibian National Road Race Championships, two Namibian National Time Trial Championships, a Namibian National Mountain Bike Championships and two Giro del Capos. Bassingthwaighte is a two time medalist at the Namibian National Road Race Championships. Bassingthwaighte made his debut in international competitions at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, he finished 14th in the men's cross-country in a time of 26 minutes and 33 seconds. He was over thirteen minutes behind Englishman Liam Killeen. In 2007, Bassingthwaighte competed in the Namibian National Time Trial Championships, he finished third, behind Dan Craven. Bassingthwaighte competed in the 2008 Giro del Capo. In the five stage race, Bassingthwaighte's best result came on the second stage, held around Durbanville, where he finished 41st of 121 riders.

In 2009, Bassingthwaighte again competed in the Giro del Capo. His best stage result was again on the second stage in Durbanville. Bassingthwaighte won the 2010 Namibian National Mountain Bike Championships, he rode a time of one hour, 59 minutes and 29 seconds, eight minutes and nine seconds quicker than second-place finisher Mannie Heymans. At the 2011 Namibian National Road Race Championships, Bassingthwaighte won the silver medal, he finished 31 seconds behind the winner, Lotto Petrus, two minutes and fifteen seconds ahead of the bronze medalist, Heiko Redecker. In 2012, Bassingthwaighte again gained a medal in the Namibian National Road Race Championships, he finished third behind Craven. In 2012 at the 2012 African Mountain Bike Championships Bassingthwaighte won a silver medal, he finished 44 seconds behind South African Philip Buys. The bronze medalist was Rwandan Adrien Niyonshuti. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, Bassingthwaighte competed in the men's cross-country.

In the race on 11 August, Bassingthwaighte finished 30th. Bassingthwaighte's time of one hour, 37 minutes and 17 seconds was eight minutes and ten seconds slower than the time of the gold medalist, Jaroslav Kulhavý of the Czech Republic

Constitution of the German Confederation (1871)

The Constitution of the German Confederation or November Constitution was the constitution of the German federal state at the beginning of the year 1871. It was enacted on January 1, 1871; this is a changed version of the Constitution of the North German Confederation. The Constitution of the German Confederation of 1871 incorporated agreements between the North German Confederation and some the South German states that joined the Confederation: with Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt, but not Bavaria and Württemberg; the new constitution appeared on 31 December 1870 in the Bundesgesetzblatt des Norddeutschen Bundes and came into effect the following day. On 16 April 1871 the country exchanged it with another constitution, valid until the end of the German Empire in 1918. There are four different constitutions or texts to distinguish between: The'Constitution of the North German Confederation' from 16 April 1867, it came into effect on 1 July 1867. The'Constitution of the German Confederation' as a text, added to one of the November treaties: the agreement between the North German Confederation and Hessen-Darmstadt and Baden.

The'Constitution of the German Confederation' as the constitutional text which appeared in the Federal Law Gazette on 31 December 1870. The Constitution, in spite of its title names the federal state'German Empire', it came into effect the following day, 1 January 1871. The'Constitution of the German Empire' of 16 April 1871, which came into effect on 4 May 1871; this is the constitution called the Bismarcksche Reichsverfassung. In all of those four texts, the political system remains the same; the changes relate to the agreements with the South German states regarding their accession to the North German Confederation. For example the number of delegates to the Federal Council were adjusted. All this was executed in a rather messy way. Constitutional historian Ernst Rudolf Huber called the constitution of 1 January 1871 a'Monstrum'; the constitution of 1 January 1871 was one step from the North German Confederation to the German Empire. Those steps concerned the accession of the South German states.

The North German Confederation was renamed, some of its organs received a new title. The constitution of 1 January 1871 did have lasting significance in the German Empire despite of the new constitution of 4 May 1871: article 80 transformed most of the North German laws into Imperial laws


WCHL is a radio station based in Chapel Hill, North Carolina broadcasting on 1360 AM, with a translator on 97.9 FM. It is the flagship station of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill radio sports broadcasts and an affiliate of the CBS Radio Network. Much of its programming is geared towards the Chapel Hill/Carrboro community, with a focus on local news and community-affairs programming. Chapel Hill's oldest continuous broadcaster signed on January 25, 1953 under the ownership of Sandy McClamroch, who went on to become the town's longest-serving mayor. A 1,000-watt station, the station boosted its daytime power to 5,000 watts in 1978. WCHL served as the launching point for the Village Broadcasting Companies, which bought Burlington's WBAG-FM in 1983, moving it to Raleigh as WZZU. Over the years, the station developed a loyal following for being community-oriented; the WCHL news department brought home many Associated Press awards. WCHL played top 40 music, adult contemporary before going news/talk in the early 1990s.

In 1997, The Village Companies sold WCHL to the Raleigh-based Curtis Media Group for $400,000. Curtis moved WCHL's studios to the WDNC studios at the Durham Bulls Athletic Park and dumped the acclaimed local news and community-driven talk for an automated middle-of-the-road/oldies format, limited news and a simulcast morning show with co-located WDNC. However, in 2002, Vilcom regained control of its former property's sales and programming under a local marketing agreement. Vilcom moved the station back to Chapel Hill and returned the station's format to local news and talk on November 25, 2002, just two months before the station celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2003. In June 2004, Vilcom bought the station back from Curtis Media Group for $775,000. Vilcom's longtime owner, Jim Heavner, sold a minority stake in WCHL to Barry Leffler, former president of WNCN in Raleigh, in late 2009. By this time WCHL had become a progressive talk-formatted station. Leffler became the station's CEO and managing partner.

Heavner remained as chairman. Under Leffler, WCHL added more local news, an FM signal, the Chapelboro web site. On January 21, 2010, WCHL's affiliated network Air America filed for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy and ceased live programming the same night. Reruns of Air America's programming continued to air until January 25 at 9PM Eastern Time. In 2014, who had run WCHL since 2009, left the station for Tenet Healthcare in Dallas, Texas. In August 2015, WCHL was purchased by Leslie Rudd who brought in several local investors, Chris Ehrenfeld, Jim Kitchen and Mark Vitali to form Chapel Hill Media Group, LLC. Soon after, the station switched formats to incorporate music along with its lineup of live shows each weekday morning and afternoon, it is an Adult Album Alternative station. At the end of 2016 WCHL moved to University Place and re-branded as 97.9 The Hill WCHL. It is known for continuing the tradition of community programming by providing information about community news and sports, while incorporating local and hit music into the programming.

Its website is a daily local news source for Chapel Hill and the surrounding area. WCHL is best known as the flagship station of basketball. Vilcom was the rights holder for Tar Heel sports until selling them to Learfield Communications in the early 21st century, Heavner was Woody Durham's color commentator on Tar Heel broadcasts for 18 years. Ron Stutts, the station's morning drive-time host since 1977, hosts an hour-long pregame show before the Tar Heel Sports Network begins its coverage. WCHL airs high school sports. WCHL's 5,000-watt non-directional daytime signal cuts back to 1,000 watts directional toward the southeast at sunset. With all the changes in recent years, the station has continuously broadcast from its two-tower array on Franklin Street, noticeable for being emblazoned with metal call letters on one and frequency on the other. In 2012, WCHL expanded to the FM band by acquiring a translator station from Liberty University in Virginia; the station licensed to Creedmoor, North Carolina at 98.5 FM, moved to Chapel Hill and to 97.9 FM under the callsign W250BP.

The new signal is intended to improve nighttime coverage of the station. Starting in the fall of 2012, WCHL rebranded itself as 97.9 WCHL, while retaining its AM 1360 signal. Using materials produced by its news team, WCHL owns and operates the online local newspaper Chapelboro. Query the FCC's AM station database for WCHL Radio-Locator Information on WCHL Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WCHL

The Preserving Machine

The Preserving Machine is a collection of science fiction stories by American writer Philip K. Dick, it was first published by Ace Books in 1969 with cover art by Leo and Diane Dillon as part of their Ace Science Fiction Specials series. The stories had appeared in the magazines Fantasy and Science Fiction, Galaxy Science Fiction, Beyond Fantasy Fiction, If, Amazing Stories, Planet Stories, Worlds of Tomorrow and Satellite. A hardcover issue of this book was released through the Book-of-the-Month Club in late 1969 and remained available through 1970, it is an octavo-sized book, bound in gray textured paper boards, stamped in green on the spine, in a dust-cover with "Book Club Edition" printed in lieu of the price on the bottom front flap. Other hardcover editions were published in 1971 and 1972 by Victor Gollancz Ltd and the Science Fiction Book Club, Newton Abbot, Devon. "The Preserving Machine" "War Game" "Upon the Dull Earth" "Roog" "War Veteran" "Top Stand-By Job" "Beyond Lies the Wub" "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale" "Captive Market" "If There Were No Benny Cemoli" "Retreat Syndrome" "The Crawlers" "Oh, to be a Blobel!"

"What the Dead Men Say" "Pay for the Printer" "Internet Speculative Fiction Database". Retrieved 2008-01-10. Contento, William G. "Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections". Archived from the original on 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2008-01-10