Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow was a German technician and inventor. He invented one of the first successful technologies for television transmission. Hundreds of stations experimented with television broadcasting using the Nipkow system in the 1920s and 1930s, until it was superseded by all-electronic systems in the 1940s. Nipkow was born in Lauenburg in the Prussian province of Pomerania, now part of Poland. While at school in neighbouring Neustadt, in the province of West Prussia, Nipkow experimented in telephony and the transmission of moving pictures. After graduation, he went to Berlin, he studied physiological optics with Hermann von Helmholtz, electro-physics with Adolf Slaby. While still a student he conceived an "electric telescope" known for the idea of using a spiral-perforated disk, to divide a picture into a linear sequence of points. Accounts of its invention state that the idea came to him while sitting alone at home with an oil lamp on Christmas Eve, 1883. Alexander Bain had transmitted images telegraphically in the 1840s but the Nipkow disk improved the encoding process.
He applied to the imperial patent office in Berlin for a patent covering an "electric telescope" for the "electric reproduction of illuminating objects", in the category "electric apparatuses". This was granted on 15 January 1885, retroactive to January 6, 1884, it is not known whether Nipkow attempted a practical realization of this disk but one may assume that he himself never constructed one. The patent lapsed after 15 years owing to lack of interest. Nipkow took up a position as a designer at an institute in Berlin-Buchloh and did not continue work on the broadcasting of pictures; the first television broadcasts used an optical-mechanical picture scanning method, the method that Nipkow had helped create with his disk. Nipkow recounted his first sight of television at a Berlin radio show in 1928: "the televisions stood in dark cells. Hundreds stood and waited patiently for the moment at which they would see television for the first time. I waited among them, growing more nervous. Now for the first time, I would see.
I reached the front row. The system demonstrated was from the company Telefunken. From the early 1930s, total electronic picture scanning, based on the work of Manfred von Ardenne, became prevalent and Nipkow's invention was no longer essential to further development of television. Germany's first public television channel, started in Berlin in 1935, was named Fernsehsender "Paul Nipkow" after Nipkow – the "spiritual father" of the core element of first-generation television technology, he became honorary president of the "television council" of the "Imperial Broadcasting Chamber". Nipkow's glory was used by Hitler the Nazi government as a tool of nationalist scientific propaganda. Nipkow died in Berlin in 1940 two days after his 80th birthday and had an official ceremony organised by the Nazi government. In one of the last episodes of the British spy drama series Secret Army, Nipkow is credited with being the sole inventor of television by as he unveils the closed-circuit TV surveillance cameras and monitors he has set up at Gestapo headquarters in Brussels.
German inventors and discoverers History of television SCHMIDT, Claus-Dietrich, Paul Nipkow. Erfinder des Fernsehens. Sein Leben in den technischen Fortschritt, Lebork Museum, 2009; the only detailed biography on Nipkow. Works by or about Paul Gottlieb Nipkow at Internet Archive "Seeing by Electricity" The Electrical World, New York, November, 14, 1885 The Television System of Paul Nipkow "Une idée et son mythe: le disque de Nipkow" at Histoire de la télévision, site edited by André Lange Newspaper clippings about Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
HD 119124 is a wide binary star system in the circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major. With an apparent visual magnitude of 6.3, it lies below the normal brightness limit of stars that are visible with the naked eye under most viewing conditions. An annual parallax shift of 39.24 mas for the A component provides a distance estimate of 83 light years. The pair are candidate members of the Castor Moving Group, which implies a youthful age of around 200 million years. HD 119124 is moving closer to the Sun with a radial velocity of −12 km/s; this system was first identified as a double star by Friedrich von Struve and catalogued as the 1774th entry in his list. As of 2015, the magnitude 10.5 K-type companion star was located at an angular separation of 18.10 arc seconds along a position angle of 135° from the brighter primary. They appear to be gravitationally bound with an estimated orbital period of around 7,000 years; the primary, component A, is a Sun-like star with a stellar classification of F8 V, indicating it is an F-type main-sequence star, generating energy via hydrogen fusion at its core.
It is larger and more massive than the Sun and appears mildly variable. The star is radiating 1.5 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 6,149 K. HD 119124 A displays a strong infrared excess at a wavelength of 70 μm, indicating an orbiting circumstellar disk of cold dust; the emission fits a model with a grain temperature of 40 K, indicating a minimum orbital radius of 60 AU from the host star. The estimated grain lifetimes are 84,000 years – much shorter than the star's lifespan; this suggests the grains are being replenished via collisions between some number of larger bodies totaling around 1−6 times the mass of the Moon. This system is a source of the strong X-ray emission coming from these coordinates
Robert John Sprowl is a retired professional baseball player, a pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1978 to 1981. He played for the Boston Red Sox and Houston Astros. Sprowl was a star pitcher at the University of Alabama. In 1976, he played collegiate summer baseball with the Wareham Gatemen of the Cape Cod Baseball League, received the league's Outstanding Pro Prospect award, helped lead Wareham to the league title. Sprowl led the nation in strikeouts per nine innings in 1977, was selected by the Red Sox in that year's amateur draft. Sprowl is best known for losing two critical games in the 1978 pennant race between the Red Sox and the New York Yankees. Before he was called up to the majors, Sprowl had compiled a 9-3 record in the AA Eastern League. Boston's minor league organization claimed that he "had ice water in his veins," and manager Don Zimmer gave Sprowl three starts late in the season. Sprowl's first start was in Baltimore on September 5, where he went seven innings, allowing four runs on five hits and three walks, but took the loss when Orioles ace Jim Palmer stifled the Red Sox, who got a second-inning run on a Dwight Evans RBI double, nothing more.
Sprowl carried the 1-0 lead into the bottom of the seventh, having allowed only two hits to that point, but surrendered a game-tying home run to Lee May. It was alleged that if Boston left-fielder Jim Rice had not turned the wrong way, he could have caught May's hit, which cleared a seven-foot fence in left field. Instead he knocked the ball into the bullpen. Andres Mora grounded through the legs of Red Sox third baseman Butch Hobson, reaching second base.. Sprowl retired Rick Dempsey on a grounder to shortstop, as pinch-runner Mike Dimmel advanced to third, with the infield playing in, Carlos Lopez hit a soft liner that didn't reach the outfield on the fly, but dropped for a hit and allowed Dimmel to score the eventual winning run; the Red Sox players lauded Sprowl's effort and Zimmer decided to give him a second start. His second start was on September 10 against the New York Yankees, in the fourth game of a four-game series at Fenway Park, after the Yankees had defeated Mike Torrez, Jim Wright, Dennis Eckersley to draw within one game of Boston.
Zimmer passed over veterans Bill "Spaceman" Lee and Luis Tiant, who had dominated the Yankees during their careers. Sprowl walked the first two batters, got Thurman Munson to hit into a double play, but was unable to retire Reggie Jackson and escape the inning, surrendering an RBI single, he walked Lou Piniella and Chris Chambliss and was pulled. The Yankees won the game, 7-4, tying Boston for the division lead, subjecting Zimmer to much second-guessing, due to Sprowl's perceived "nerves". Tiant started the next night against Baltimore and took a 4-1 lead into the 8th before tiring and surrendering three straight hits to open the frame. However, the Red Sox lost their next three games and were 1.5 games behind the Yankees when they arrived in New York on September 15, which would have been Sprowl's next start. Due to previous criticism, Zimmer this time opted to bypass Sprowl and start Tiant on short rest. Sprowl started the Monday game in Detroit, he allowed three runs in 5 innings. This would be Sprowl's last start of the season, as Zimmer went with a four-man rotation of Tiant, Torrez and Stanley for the final two weeks.
Overall, Sprowl went. The
The Haavara Agreement was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933. The agreement was finalized after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany, the Anglo-Palestine Bank and the economic authorities of Nazi Germany, it was a major factor in making possible the migration of 60,000 German Jews to Palestine in 1933–1939. The agreement enabled Jews fleeing persecution under the new Nazi regime to transfer some portion of their assets to British Mandatory Palestine. Emigrants sold their assets in Germany to pay for essential goods to be shipped to Mandatory Palestine; the agreement was controversial at the time, was criticised by many Jewish leaders both within the Zionist movement and outside it, as well as by members of the NSDAP and members of the German public. For German Jews, the agreement offered a way to leave an hostile environment in Germany. Although the NSDAP won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, they did not have a majority, so Hitler led a short-lived coalition government formed by the NSDAP and the German National People's Party.
Under pressure from politicians and others, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. This event is known as the Machtergreifung. In the following months, the NSDAP used. By June 1933 the only organisations not under the control of the NSDAP were the army and the churches. Within the Nazi movement, a variety of "solutions" to the "Jewish Question" were proposed both before and after the NSDAP was in government, including expulsion and the encouragement of voluntary emigration. Widespread civil persecution of German Jews began as soon. For example, on 1 April, the NSDAP organized a nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany. Jews outside Germany responded to these persecutions with a boycott of German goods. Meanwhile, in Mandatory Palestine, a growing Jewish population was acquiring land and developing the structures of a future Jewish state despite opposition from the Arab population. Hanotea was a citrus planting company based in Netanya and established in 1929 by long-established Jewish settlers in Palestine involved in the Benei Binyamin movement.
In a deal worked out with the Reich Economics Ministry, the blocked German bank accounts of prospective immigrants would be unblocked and funds from them used by Hanotea to buy agricultural German goods. Hanotea's director, Sam Cohen, represented the company in direct negotiation with the Reich Economics Ministry beginning in March 1933. In May 1933 Hanotea applied for permission to transfer capital from Germany to Palestine; this pilot arrangement appeared to be operating and so paved the way for the Haavara Agreement. The Haavara Agreement, negotiated by Eliezer Hoofein, director of the Anglo-Palestine Bank, was agreed to by the Reich Economics Ministry in 1933, continued, with declining German government support, until it was wound up in 1939. Under the agreement, Jews emigrating from Germany could use their assets to purchase German-manufactured goods for export, thus salvaging their personal assets during emigration; the agreement provided a substantial export market for German factories to British-ruled Palestine.
Between November, 1933, 31 December 1937, 77,800,000 Reichmarks, or $22,500,000, worth of goods were exported to Jewish businesses in Palestine under the program. By the time the program ended with the start of World War II, the total had risen to 105,000,000 marks. Emigrants with capital of £1,000, could move to Palestine in spite of severe British restrictions on Jewish immigration under an immigrant investor program similar to the modern EB-5 visa. Under the Transfer Agreement, about 39% of an emigrant's funds were given to Jewish communal economic development projects, leaving individuals with about 43% of the funds; the Haavara Agreement was thought among some German circles to be a possible way to solve the "Jewish problem." The head of the Middle Eastern division of the foreign ministry, the anti-NSDAP politician Werner Otto von Hentig, supported the policy of settling Jews in Palestine. Hentig believed that if the Jewish population was concentrated in a single foreign entity foreign diplomatic policy and containment of the Jews would become easier.
Hitler's own support of the Haavara Agreement was unclear and varied throughout the 1930s. Hitler seemed indifferent to the economic details of the plan, but he supported it in the period from
Shu Qingchun, courtesy name Sheyu, best known by his pen name Lao She, was a Chinese novelist and dramatist. He was one of the most significant figures of 20th-century Chinese literature, best known for his novel Rickshaw Boy and the play Teahouse, he was of Manchu ethnicity, his works are known for their vivid use of the Beijing dialect. Lao She was born Shu Qingchun on 3 February 1899 in Beijing, to a poor Manchu family of the Sumuru clan belonging to the Plain Red Banner, his father, a guard soldier, died in a street battle with the Eight-Nation Alliance Forces in the course of the Boxer Rebellion events in 1901. "During my childhood," Lao She recalled, "I didn't need to hear stories about evil ogres eating children and so forth. And fairy tales are only fairy tales, whereas my mother's stories were 100 percent factual, they directly affected our whole family.". In 1913, he was admitted to the Beijing Normal Third High School, but had to leave after several months because of financial difficulties.
In the same year, he was accepted to Beijing Normal University and graduated in 1918. Between 1918 and 1924, Lao She was involved as administrator and faculty member at a number of primary and secondary schools in Beijing and Tianjin, he was influenced by the May Fourth Movement. He stated," May Fourth gave me a new literary language. I am grateful to May Fourth, as it allowed me to become a writer." He went on to serve as lecturer in the Chinese section of the School of Oriental Studies at the University of London from 1924 to 1929. During his time in London, he began his own writing, his novel 二马 drew on these experiences. In the summer of 1929, he left Britain for Singapore. Between his return to China in the spring of 1930 until 1937, he taught at several universities, including Cheeloo University and Shandong University. Lao She was a major popularizer of humor writing in China through his novels, his short stories and essays for journals like Lin Yutang's The Analects Fortnightly, his stage plays and other performing arts, notably xiangsheng.
On 27 March 1938, The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists was established with Lao She as its leader. The purpose of this organization was to unite cultural workers against the Japanese, Lao She was a respected novelist who had remained neutral during the ideological discussions between various literary groups in the preceding years. In March 1946, Lao She travelled to the United States on a two-year cultural grant sponsored by the State Department and overseeing the translation of several of his novels, including The Yellow Storm and his last novel, The Drum Singers, he stayed in the US from 1946 until December 1949. Like numerous other intellectuals in China, he experienced mistreatment when the Cultural Revolution began in 1966. Condemned as a counterrevolutionary, he was paraded by the Red Guards through the streets and beaten in public, at the door steps of the Temple of Confucius in Beijing. According to the official record, this abuse left Lao She humiliated both mentally and physically, he committed suicide by drowning himself in Beijing's Taiping Lake on 24 August 1966.
Leo Ou-fan Lee mentioned the possibility. However, no reliable information has emerged to verify definitively the actual circumstances of Lao She's death, his relatives were accused of implication in his "crimes" but continued to rescue his manuscripts after his death, hiding them in coal piles and a chimney and moving them from house to house. He was married to painter Hu Jieqing and they had a son and three daughters. Lao She's first novel, The Philosophy of Lao Zhang was written in London and modeled on Dickens' Nicholas Nickleby, but is set among students in Beijing, his second novel, Zhao Ziyue is set in the same Beijing milieu, but tells the story of a 26-year-old college student's quest for the trappings of fame in a corrupt bureaucracy. Among Lao She's most famous stories is Crescent Moon, written in the early stage of his creative life, it depicts the miserable life of their deterioration into prostitution. Cat Country is a satirical fable, sometimes seen as the first important Chinese science fiction novel, published in 1932 as a thinly veiled observation on China.
Lao She wrote it from the perspective of a visitor to the planet Mars. The visitor encountered an ancient civilisation populated by cat-people; the civilisation had undergone prolonged stagnation. The visitor observed the various responses of its citizens to the innovations by other cultures. Lao She wrote Cat Country in direct response to Japan's invasion of China, his novel Rickshaw Boy was published in 1936. It describes the tragic life of a rickshaw puller in Beijing of the 1920s and is considered to be a classic of modern Chinese literature; the English version Rickshaw Boy became a US bestseller in 1945. In 1982, the original version was made into a film of the same t
Võ Bình Định is a regional form of martial arts in Vietnam. Any martial art developed in Tỉnh Binh Dinh is called Võ Bình Định. There are 11 huyện in the Binh Dinh Region that practices martial arts with villages and cities within each counties that contain style ranging anywhere from 100 to 600 years old. Counties in the Bình Định Province include Phù Mỹ, Huyện Phù Cát, huyện Tây Sơn, huyện An Lão,huyện Hoài Nhơn, Hoài Ân, Huyện Vĩnh Thạnh, huyện Vân Canh, Quy Nhơn, Tuy Phước, An Nhơn. Three famous villages include Thuận Truyền, An Vinh both which are located in the Tây Sơn district along with An Thái, in the An Nhơn district. Thuận Truyền Village and An Vinh Village style of Võ Bình Định is considered as Võ Tây Sơn or called Võ cổ truyền meaning Traditional Vietnamese Martial Arts and in the eastern district An Nhơn is An Thái style, considered Võ Tàu or Chinese Martial Arts. There is an old saying in the Binh Dinh Region which goes "Roi Thuận Truyền, Quyền An Vinh" which means the Thuận Truyền Quyền village is famous for Staff Techniques and An Vinh Village is famous for empty hand forms.
An Thái village is famous empty hand forms along with its various Chinese Martial Arts, influenced into Vietnamese martial arts. Another saying in the Binh Dinh Province is "Trai An Thái, gái An Vinh" meaning that males practice An Thái style and females practice An Vinh style; the reason for this saying is because the An Thái style utilizes more power in the empty hand forms making it more suitable when performed by a male. Vietnamese people are smaller in stature and the An Vinh style assumes that the opponent is not Vietnamese making them taller and stronger. With a height and strength advantage An Vinh Style utilizes speed to overwhelm their opponents which can be seen in their empty hand forms and is more suited towards female fighters. There are systems that are not located in the Tây Sơn district however they are consider Võ Tây Sơn as it contains components of the Tây Sơn style for example Võ Đường Chùa Long Phước in the Tuy Phước district teaches many forms that are seen in the Tây Sơn district such as Ngọc trản quyền, Song Phượng kiếm, Lão Hổ Thượng Sơn and Hùng kê quyền for example.
An Vinh Village The founder of the An Vinh Village Style of võ Bình Định is Nguyễn Ngạc. According to the villagers of An Vinh, Nguyễn Ngạc is a descendant of Bùi Thị Xuân a talented martial artist and famous general during the Tây Sơn rebellion. An Thai Village The founder of the An Thai Village Style of võ Bình Định is Diệp Trường Phát. Born in 1896 in An Thai village Binh Dinh province with his ethnic origins being Chinese as his parents are from Ming Xiang, China. At the age of thirteen Diệp Trường Phát was sent to China to study martial arts which he brought back to the An Thai Village after many years of intensive training. Weapons In the Bình Định Style of Martial Arts there are 18 weapons, referred to as "Thập bát ban binh khí" these weapons include the following: Côn or long staff Kiếm or straight sword Dao which can be broken up to three different types which are the đơn đao or broad sword, song đao or dual miniature broad sword, đại đao or miniature broad sword on a staff, not to be confused with a Chinese Kwan Dao.
Thương or Pointed Spear Giáo or Wide Tip Spear Kích or Crescent blade staff Giản or Scepter Phủ, Song phủ & Búa or Single Axe, Dual Axes & Hammer which are considered one category Song chùy or Dual Melon Hammer Bừa cào or rake Lăng khiên or Shield with Broad Sword Cung tên or Bow and Arrow Xích or Chain Whip Xà mâu or Serpant Cane Đinh ba or Pitch Fork/ Tiger Fork Mỏ Gảy or fishermans Spear/ two point spear Song xỉ, Song tô,and Song Dao known as Dual Blades classification Song câu or Dual hook swordUniforms Uniforms for Võ Bình Định varies from each school with most schools practicing in an all black garment. Students of the Tây Sơn Style wear garments made of silk that are in red and yellow to reflect the Vietnamese flag. Belt systems vary between all schools. Schools Famous schools in the Bình Định region include the following: Võ đường Phan Thọ, Võ đường Phi Long Vịnh, Võ Đường Chùa Long Phước, Bình Thái Đạo Võ đường Lý Xuân Hỷ Võ đường Lê Xuân Cảnh and Võ đường Hồ Gia. http://baobinhdinh.com.vn/642/2005/1/18278/ http://vtc.vn/2-343034/xa-hoi/anh-muc-so-thi-18-loai-binh-khi-vo-co-truyen-viet-nam.htm http://www.vo-thuat.net/article.php?sid=6205 http://dulich.binhdinh.gov.vn/Pages/detail.aspx?lang=vi&id=160