click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Paul Rand

Paul Rand was an American art director and graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs, including the logos for IBM, UPS, Morningstar, Inc. Westinghouse, ABC, NeXT, he was one of the first American commercial artists to embrace and practice the Swiss Style of graphic design. Rand was a professor emeritus of graphic design at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut where he taught from 1956 to 1969, from 1974 to 1985, he was inducted into the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972. Paul Rand was born Peretz Rosenbaum on August 15, 1914 in New York, he embraced design at a young age, painting signs for his father's grocery store as well as for school events at P. S. 109. Rand's father did not believe art could provide his son with a sufficient livelihood, so he required Paul to attend Manhattan's Haaren High School while taking night classes at the Pratt Institute. Rand was "self-taught" as a designer, learning about the works of Cassandre and Moholy-Nagy from European magazines such as Gebrauchsgraphik."

Rand attended Parsons The New School for Design and the Art Students League of New York. His career began with humble assignments, starting with a part-time position creating stock images for a syndicate that supplied graphics to various newspapers and magazines. Between his class assignments and his work, Rand was able to amass a large portfolio influenced by the German advertising style Sachplakat as well as the works of Gustav Jensen, it was around this time that he decided to camouflage the overtly Jewish identity conveyed by his name, Peretz Rosenbaum, shortening his forename to'Paul' and taking'Rand' from an uncle to form a Madison Avenue-friendly surname. Morris Wyszogrod, a friend and associate of Rand, noted that "he figured that'Paul Rand,' four letters here, four letters there, would create a nice symbol. So he became Paul Rand." Roy R. Behrens notes the importance of this new title: "Rand's new persona, which served as the brand name for his many accomplishments, was the first corporate identity he created, it may eventually prove to be the most enduring."

Indeed, Rand was moving into the forefront of his profession. In his early twenties, he was producing work that began to garner international acclaim, notably his designs on the covers of Direction magazine, which Rand produced for no fee in exchange for full artistic freedom. Among the accolades Rand received were those of László Moholy-Nagy: Among these young Americans, it seems to be that Paul Rand is one of the best and most capable... He is a painter, industrial designer, advertising artist who draws his knowledge and creativeness from the resources of this country, he is a realist, using the language of the poet and business man. He thinks in terms of function, he is able to analyze his problems but his fantasy is boundless. The reputation Rand so amassed in his prodigious twenties never dissipated. Although Rand was most famous for the corporate logos he created in the 1950s and 1960s, his early work in page design was the initial source of his reputation. In 1936, Rand was given the job of setting the page layout for an Apparel Arts magazine anniversary issue.

"His remarkable talent for transforming mundane photographs into dynamic compositions, which... gave editorial weight to the page" earned Rand a full-time job, as well as an offer to take over as art director for the Esquire-Coronet magazines. Rand refused this offer, claiming that he was not yet at the level the job required, but a year he decided to go ahead with it, taking over responsibility for Esquire's fashion pages at the young age of twenty-three; the cover art for Direction magazine proved to be an important step in the development of the "Paul Rand look", not as yet developed. The December 1940 cover, which uses barbed wire to present the magazine as both a war-torn gift and a crucifix, is indicative of the artistic freedom Rand enjoyed at Direction. Rand's most known contributions to design are his corporate identities, many of which are still in use. IBM, ABC, Cummins Engine, UPS, Enron, among many others, owe Rand their graphical heritage. One of his strengths, as Moholy-Nagy pointed out, was his ability as a salesman to explain the needs his identities would address for the corporation.

According to graphic designer Louis Danziger: He singlehandedly convinced business that design was an effective tool. Anyone designing in the 1950s and 1960s owed much to Rand, who made it possible for us to work, he more than anyone else made the profession reputable. We went from being commercial artists to being graphic designers on his merits. Rand's defining corporate identity was his IBM logo in 1956, which as Mark Favermann notes "was not just an identity but a basic design philosophy which permeated corporate consciousness and public awareness." The logo was modified by Rand in 1960. The striped logo was created in 1972; the stripes were introduced as a half-toning technique to make the IBM mark less heavy and more dynamic. Two variations of the "striped" logo were designed; the bolder mark with eight stripes was intended as the company's default logo, while the

Royal Sicilian Regiment

The Sicilian Regiment was a light infantry regiment recruited from Sicily that served with the British Army during the Napoleonic wars, from 1806 to its disbandment in 1816. At first, the unit was only a detachment of volunteers, raised in Sicily by Major General Sir John Stuart, once he had obtained permission from King Ferdinand I to recruit troops in Messina; this detachment, like several other foreign corps in British pay, was to be recruited from locals for the rank and file, with British officers. The detachment first experienced action within two months of its creation, when a small party at the Battle of Maida on 4 July 4, 1806. With two companies of the Royal Corsican Rangers, they were assigned to the light brigade commanded by Colonel James Kempt. After this victorious first mission the detachment returned to Messina; the following year, in March 1807, the Royal Sicilian Volunteers embarked for Constantinople in the mission led by General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser. This was diverted to the Alexandria expedition of 1807.

During this ill-fated mission the unit, now commanded by Colonel John Coape Sherbrooke, defended the Citadel of Qaitbay. After the end of the expedition, they returned to Messina and were allowed to resume recruiting troops, they were sent to Malta to reinforce the garrison. On 2 January 1809 the detachment of volunteers was raised to a proper regiment. At a ceremony at Floriana Barracks, they were presented with their regimental colours by General Sir Hildebrand Oakes, commander of the British forces in Malta; the Regiment remained in Malta, under Colonel Ronald C. Ferguson, until it was deployed to Spain to take part in Peninsular War in the expedition led by Lieutenant General John Murray. In May 1813 the Sicilian Regiment took part in the Battle of Alicante. During 1814, the Sicilian Regiment took over the island of Ponza and participated in the capture of the island of Kerkyra. During its stay in garrison at Malta, the regiment distinguished itself for the management of the terrible plague of that year, being praised for it by Governor Thomas Maitland.

The following year the Regiment was to be called back in Britain, but Napoleon's escape from Elba prevented it and the Sicilian Regiment was called on to fight Joachim Murat in Italy. The regiment was disbanded on March 24, 1816, as were many other foreign regiments in the British Army, such as the King's German Legion. In 1810 the Sicilian Regiment wore the scarlet British infantry coat with dark green facings and cuffs, white lace, stovepipe shako with bugle badge with a green plume, white breeches and black 3/4 gaiters. Officers' "metal" was gold. John Coape Sherbrooke. Appointed February 5, 1807 Ronald C. Ferguson, appointed January 25, 1809 Army List, foreign corps. B. Burnham - R. McGuigan, The British Army Against Napoleon: Facts and Trivia, 1805-1815, Barnsley 2010. R. Chartrand - P. Courcelle, Emigré and Foreign Troops in British Service, 1803-15, Oxford 2000, p. 45. D. Fosten - B. Marrion, The Sicilian Regiment, Military Modelling, November 1990. A. Pigeard, Le Regiment Sicilien, Tradition Magazine n° 170, September 2001.

Regiments of the Malta Garrison: Sicilian His Britannic Majesty's Sicilian Regiment Original Undress coat of His Majesty's Sicilian Regiment British Army during the Napoleonic Wars The United Kingdom in the Napoleonic Wars Types of military forces in the Napoleonic Wars

Patternmaster

Patternmaster is a science fiction novel by American author Octavia E. Butler. Patternmaster, the first book to be published but the last in the series' internal chronology, depicts a distant future where the human race has been divided into the dominant Patternists, their enemies the "diseased" and animalistic Clayarks, the enslaved human mutes; the Patternists, bred for intelligence and psychic abilities, are networked telepaths. They are ruled by the most powerful telepath, known as the Patternmaster. Patternmaster tells the coming-of-age story of Teray, a young Patternist who learns he is a son of the Patternmaster. Teray fights for position within Patternist society and for the role of Patternmaster; the novel begins with the Patternmaster, Rayal, in bed with his lead wife and sister. For a year, there have been no major attacks from the "Clayarks". Rayal and Jansee have two sons, the youngest, away at Redhill School, Coransee. Patternists can connect with their children telepathically, Jansee is concerned about her sons.

To check on them, she thinks of sending a human without paranormal powers. Rayal disagrees. Aside from Jansee, Rayal killed all of his siblings to become Patternmaster, to lead the telepathic race through the powerful connections between the Patternists, known as the Pattern; the peaceful year ends. They shoot and kill Jansee and injure Rayal, who has to use his powers to save his own life instead of killing the Clayarks. Many years Teray leaves the Redhill School with his wife, Iray; as the couple is leaving, they encounter two Patternists. The two inform Teray of the recent Clayark raid, tell him of their plans to visit Coransee on their way to Joachim's house. Coransee tries to read his thoughts. Although apprentices cannot be traded, Coransee negotiates with Joachim to trade the talented artist Laro, for Teray—who is revealed to be Coransee's brother. At dinner, the couple learns that Teray will be an outsider. Outsiders do not control where they live. Joachim promises to try to fix the situation.

After Joachim leaves, Coransee shows up at Teray and Iray's door, telepathically fights and nearly kills Teray. Coransee informs him that they are full brothers and asks him, he being his only threat as Patternmaster, if he wants to control the Pattern. Teray only wants his freedom and his own House. Teray refuses Coransee's deal, because he wishes to implant controls on him, he's made an outsider in charge of the mutes. Iray helps him by becoming part of Coransee's household. Teray meets a mute woman named Suliana, badly beaten by an outsider named Jason, calls in the resident healer, Amber, to heal her injuries. Teray plans to run away by educating himself about relevant terrains. Teray allows him to live and leave. Joachim brings a journeyman named Michael and others to Coransee's House to investigate two charges against him in an attempt to help Teray escape. Coransee escapes the charges by turning things around on Joachim, who could be charged for illegally trading an apprentice. Teray and Amber make plans to escape to Forsyth.

Teray tells Iray of his plans. Teray and Amber leave, she teaches him a quicker way to kill the Clayarks. Teray asks Amber to be his lead when he has his own House, but she declines, wanting to have her own House. Coransee and a party of ten find the pair. Coransee wants to take Teray to Forsyth to be judged by Rayal. On their travels and Amber discover that she is pregnant with his child, Coransee tries to force them to break their link. Coransee and Teray telepathically fight again, because Coransee lowers his defenses, Teray kills him. Teray links with the other Patternists while preparing to lead them to the Patternmaster's House. After they kill thousands of Clayarks, Teray finds Rayal in the Pattern. Rayal informs Teray that he has been waiting for him for years and has planned for Teray to succeed him, because of his healer skills. Butler creates a society in the Pattern where classes are distinctly defined. In the highest tier of society, are the Patternists headed by the Patternmaster, Rayal.

Below the Patternmaster are small communities. Within the houses, there are apprentices. Apprentices are Housemasters in training and have more freedom and power than lowlier people in the house. Outsiders are not allowed to become Housemasters and are relegated to servants and sometimes slaves; the Patternmaster's House includes journeymen who share equivalence with officials, but have limited power. Independents like the character Amber function outside the House and work in any House they choose. Others like mutes have no status in society, they serve as caregivers to Patternists. However and mutes share a commonality: they fear Clayarks, who are horribly mutated humans who have human heads, but catlike animal bodies. Clayark society sole focus us ensuring that their community has enough food and supporting the increasing numbers in their community; this is the only point of interest that Patternists and mutes share in trying to cripple their enemies. In the Pattern community, Patternists have more power than the mutes.

There is a hierarchy within the Patternist community. The Patternmaster, holds the most power as he controls the Pattern. He

Liberal Democrats (Zimbabwe)

The Liberal Democrats of Zimbabwe was formed in 2015 from South Africa. It is a political party registered in terms of ZEC requirements in Zimbabwe, its ability to contest the next election in Zimbabwe in 2018 is unknown. In 2016 it petitioned the Zimbabwean Embassy in Pretoria over the spending of US$800,000 on Robert Mugabe's birthday when many Zimbabweans were starving; the Liberal Democrats have raised various issues about Zimbabwe including their claim that Mr Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe and the ruling party ZANU PF in Zimbabwe was being abused and his rights as an elderly person being violated by those close to him who were using him for their personal gains. The Liberal Democrats of Zimbabwe appear to be following hard on the issue of individual rights as enshrined or shown in the website and evidenced by this claim on Mr Mugabe, seen by many as the one violating their rights. In 2017 the Liberal Democrats of Zimbabwe raised a number of issues including the political state of affairs in Zimbabwe through its Chairperson.

The open letter appeared to be lamenting the inability to act by the Zimbabwean people and the lack of coherence in political activities. It made mention of the failures of many political parties including the major opposition parties like the MDCT which has always been seen as the contender to political office; the Liberal Democrats weighed in on the Zimbabwean appointment of the Chief Justice again coming in with views about how Mr Mugabe had been forced to appoint the Chief Justice, not to have been his first choice due to the ZANU PF factional wars. Mr Mugabe at the end of March 2017 appointed Justice Luke Malaba as the Chief Justice replacing Justice Godfrey Chidyausiku, at the helm of the country of Zimbabwe's legal system for 17 years and was retiring as he had reached his retirement age, the age of 70 as per the Constitution of Zimbabwe. Justice Luke Malaba, who at his appointment was 66, would only serve for 4 years and yet many Zimbabweans had pinned their hopes on the man to change the judiciary having managed some award-winning judgments such as on child marriages.

He had outdone two other favoured contenders for ZANU PF in the form of Justice Rita Makarau, the country's ZEC Chairperson and Judge Paddington Garwe. The Liberal Democrats partnered with other political parties in South Africa in April 2016 while the country was due to commemorate its 36th independence demanding the diaspora vote; the Liberal Democrats is part of a network of political parties and Civic Society Organisations in South Africa that formed the Zimbabwe Diaspora Vote Coalition to lobby for the Zimbabweans in the diaspora to be allowed to vote in Zimbabwe a country that only allows only government employees to vote from outside Zimbabwe. In 2017 during Zimbabwe's independence day celebration the Liberal Democrats wrote an article in which it spoke about what they think independence means in light of the political situation in Zimbabwe. In this document they sought to explain the difference between freedom. Prior to this document the Liberal Democrats published another opinion piece on which it called on ZImbabweans to wake up to their civic duties and responsibilities.

In that document it spoke about the fallen heroes of Zimbabwean politics from pre-independence to current individuals that are fighting the government of Mr Mugabe. The article highlighted what it viewed as failures by political parties such as MDC-T, tipped to win Zimbabwean elections after it won the elections in 2008 but was cheated out of government by ZANU-PF. In March 2018 the Liberal Democrats approached the Zimbabwean Constitutional Court claiming that the actions on the army in November 2017 were unconstitutional, they further claimed in their court papers that the change in power or government was as a result of that coup and therefore prayed the Zimbabwean Apex Court to declare such actions unconstitutional, the resultant government unconstitutional and therefore not worthy to oversee the forthcoming elections in 2018 because it was tainted with illegality and unconstitutionalism. History of Zimbabwe Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai

Stripping (linguistics)

Stripping or bare argument ellipsis is an ellipsis mechanism that elides everything from a clause except one constituent. It occurs in the non-initial conjuncts of coordinate structures. One prominent analysis of stripping sees it as a particular manifestation of the gapping mechanism, the difference between stripping and gapping lies with the number of remnants left behind by ellipsis: gapping leaves two constituents behind, whereas stripping leaves just one. Stripping is a frequent occurrence in colloquial conversation; as with many other ellipsis mechanisms, stripping challenges theories of syntax in part because the elided material fails to qualify as a constituent in a straightforward manner. The following examples illustrate standard cases of stripping; the elided material is indicated using smaller font size and subscripts. Susan works at night, Bill works at night too. Why did Sam call, why did Bill call too? Should I do it, or should you do it? Chris said yesterday that he knew it, he said today that he knew it too.

She asked the kids to stay, she asked the adults to stay too. Note the appearance of the additive particle too in these examples. Stripping is marked by as well, or too. Notice the appearance of the coordinator and or or; the coordinator's appearance marks coordination. Each time, the elided material appears in the non-initial conjunct of the coordinate structure. A trait that stripping shares with gapping is illustrated with the following examples: Should you call me, or should me call you. - Object pronoun of gapping functioning as subject You are hungry, me am hungry too. - Object pronoun of stripping functioning as subjectShe did it first, him did it second. - Object pronoun of gapping functioning as subject She did it, him did it too. - Object pronoun of stripping functioning as subjectLike gapping, stripping allows the object form of the pronoun to function as the subject in the stripped clause. A second trait that stripping shares with gapping is shown with the following examples: I was helpful this time, you were helpful last time.

- Elided finite verb of gapping does not match antecedent verb. I was helpful this time, you were helpful this time too. - Elided finite verb of stripping does not match antecedent verb. He laughs too much, you laugh too little. - Elided finite verb of gapping does not match antecedent verb. He laughs too much, you laugh too much too. - Elided finite verb of stripping does not match antecedent verb. Like the gapped verbs, the stripped verbs in these examples do not match their antecedents in the area of verbal inflection; the fact that gapping and stripping are alike in these respects does indeed suggest that they are one and the same ellipsis mechanism. A frequent type of stripping is not-stripping; the remnant in the stripped clause is introduced by not and the entire sentence functions to correct a mistaken assumption in the preceding context. More than not, the coordinator is omitted: Sam solved the problem, not Bill solved the problem. - not-stripping She smiled at me first, she smiled not at you first.

- not-stripping Susan gave me some advice, Susan gave not you some advice. - not-stripping with ambiguity Susan gave me some advice, not you gave me some advice. - not-stripping with ambiguity He gave it to Smeagol for his birthday, he gave it not to Deagol for his birthday. - not-strippingA noteworthy aspect of not-stripping is the position of not. In the full versions of these sentences, not cannot appear in the positions shown; when stripping occurs, the not must precede the one remnant. Given this observation, one might conclude that stripping does not involve ellipsis at all, but rather something else is going on; this conclusion is undermined by further facts. One of these facts is that the behavior of not is the same in cases of not-gapping: She asked him out, not him asked her out. - not-gapping Sam should read Susan's paper, not Susan should read Sam's. -not-gappingThese examples of not-gapping suggest two things: that not-stripping, thus stripping in general, is indeed a particular manifestation of the gapping mechanism and that not-stripping is indeed ellipsis, since the ellipsis analysis of not-gapping is the only plausible analysis.

The aspect of not-stripping that remains mysterious concerns the obligatory position of not before the remnant. One can note in this area that the gapping/stripping mechanism treats the negation in a special way in general. A negation cannot be included in the gapped/stripped material: *Fred did not ask Susan out, Susan did not ask Fred out. - Failed attempt to include the negation not in the gapped material *Fred did not ask Susan out, Bill did not ask Susan out too. - Failed attempt to include the negation not in the stripped material Like with gapping, delimiting instances of stripping from "normal" instances of coordination, i.e. from instances of coordination that do not involve ellipsis, can be difficult, as the following competing analyses illustrate: a. Susan watches and. - Non-stripping analysis b. and. - Stripping analysisa. I like to read and. - Non-stripping analysis b. and. - Stripping analysisa. Fred has stopped and. - Non-stripping analysis b. and. - Stripping analysisThe brackets mark the extent of the coordinate structures.

The distinction between the stripping and non-stripping analyses can be slight. Given a single intonation curve, the non

Andalucia Building

The Andalucia Building was built in 1911. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999; the building is located on State Street, in the southeastern part of the historical center of Santa Barbara, California next to the Highway 101. The building is one of the few examples of Moorish architecture in Santa Barbara. What is now the rear part of the building was constructed in 1911, 1913, 1917 as four brick garages, they were connected by a two-storey front-wall construction made of concrete. The first floor contained auto-sales shops; the building was owned by Henry Ernest Bothin a San Francisco wealthy merchant, who moved to Santa Barbara in 1911. Since the highway 101 was completed about the same time, the area, adjacent to the highway, contained multiple garages and hotels; the front portion was damaged by the 1925 earthquake. It was subsequently demolished and replaced by the front section in Moorish style, still standing today, it was designed by a San Franciscan architect Lionel Pries.

The downtown of Santa Barbara was rebuilt in the Colonial Revival style, the Andalucia building, which preserved the Moorish appearance, became one of the few exceptions, which earned it a listing in the National Register of Historic Places. In 1937, the building was converted into offices for Seaside Oil Company; the remodeling was performed by local architects Carleton R. H. Pitman. In the same year, the rear was remodeled so that a part of the brickstone wall was replaced by an opening; the project was designed by Chester Carjola a local architect. The building subsequently changed owners several times, which led to less extensive remodeling works; the building is a block which consists of four one-floor brick rectangular buildings with gable roofs. They all have a common flat-roof facade built in the Spanish Colonial Revival style; the front portion is an arcade with fifteen arches. The rear part of the building, which are the former garage buildings, is divided into multiple spaces for shops.

The frames inside are made of steel