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Paul Reuter

Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter was a German-born, British entrepreneur, a pioneer of telegraphy and news reporting. He was a reporter and media owner, the founder of Reuters News Agency, which became part of the Thomson Reuters conglomerate in 2008. Reuter was born as Israel Beer Josaphat in Kassel, Germany.. His father, Samuel Levi Josaphat, was a rabbi, his mother was Betty Sanders. In Göttingen, Reuter met Carl Friedrich Gauss, experimenting with the transmission of electrical signals via wire. On 29 October 1845, he moved to London. On 16 November 1845, he converted to Christianity in a ceremony at St. George's German Lutheran Chapel in London, changed his name to Paul Julius Reuter. One week in the same chapel, he married Ida Maria Elizabeth Clementine Magnus of Berlin, daughter of a German banker. A former bank clerk, in 1847 he became a partner in Reuter and Stargardt, a Berlin book-publishing firm; the distribution of radical pamphlets by the firm at the beginning of the 1848 Revolution may have focused official scrutiny on Reuter.

That year, he left for Paris and worked in Charles-Louis Havas' news agency, Agence Havas, the future Agence France Presse. As telegraphy evolved, Reuter founded his own news agency in Aachen, transferring messages between Brussels and Aachen using carrier pigeons and thus linking Berlin and Paris. Speedier than the post train, pigeons gave Reuter faster access to financial news from the Paris stock exchange. Pigeons were replaced by a direct telegraph link. A telegraph line was under construction between Britain and Europe, so Reuter moved to London, renting an office near the Stock Exchange. In 1863, he erected a telegraph link to Crookhaven, the farthest south-west point of Ireland. On nearing Crookhaven, ships from America threw canisters containing news into the sea; these were retrieved by Reuters and telegraphed directly to London, arriving long before the ships reached Cork. In 1872, Nasir al-Din Shah, the Shah of Iran, signed an agreement with Reuter, a concession selling him all railroads, most of the mines, all the government's forests, all future industries of Iran.

George Curzon called it "The most complete and extraordinary surrender of the entire industrial resources of a kingdom into foreign hands, dreamed of". The Reuter concession was denounced by all ranks of businessmen and nationalists of Persia, it was forced into cancellation. On 17 March 1857, Reuter was naturalised as a British subject. On 7 September 1871, the Duke of Gotha granted him the noble title of Freiherr. In November 1891, Queen Victoria granted him the right to use that German title in Britain. In 1845, Reuter married Ida Maria Magnus, daughter of Friedrich Martin Magnus, a German banker in Berlin, they had three sons: Herbert, who became the 2nd Baron and Alfred. Clementine Maria, one of his daughters, married Count Otto Stenbock, after Stenbock's death, Sir Herbert Chermside, a governor of Queensland; the 2nd Baron's brother George had two sons and Ronald. The last member of the family, Baroness de Reuter, widow of the 4th Baron and Paul Julius Reuter's granddaughter-in-law, died on 25 January 2009, at the age of 96.

Reuter died in 1899 at Villa Reuter in France. He was buried in West Norwood Cemetery in south London. Reuter was portrayed by Edward G. Robinson in the Warner Bros. biographical film A Dispatch from Reuter's. The Reuters News Agency commemorated the 100th anniversary of the death of its founder by launching a university award in Germany. German inventors and discoverers Reuters "Reuter, Paul Julius, Baron de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Reuter, Paul Julius, Baron". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Reuter, Paul Julius, Baron". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 3D photo scan of the Paul Reuters statue in London on


Discount-Licensing is a Burton-upon-Trent, UK-based vendor or broker of secondhand Microsoft software licences. It is notable for being the first company to establish a secondary market in such licences, accepted by Microsoft as being valid. Discount-Licensing was founded as Disclic Ltd in July 2004 by Jonathan Horley. In 2006 Disclic Ltd changed its name to Ltd. When Discount-Licensing launched, it was predicted that it, other companies like it, would have a significant disruptive effect on Microsoft's pricing and its resellers and some resellers reacted with shock and anger however this disruption has not materialised and the secondhand licence market remains small compared to the primary market. Only a few other companies, such as German firms UsedSoft, preo Software and Susensoftware and British firm Value Licensing have sought to enter the market for secondhand Microsoft software. Instead, the secondhand licence market exists as a smaller "parallel market" selling to companies who require licences for specific previous versions of Microsoft products, or who might not otherwise have purchased licences due to the cost.

Discount-Licensing trades in Microsoft Open, Enterprise volume as well as SAP licences. It obtains these from the liquidators of companies which have ceased trading or which are downsizing their IT requirements; these are sold on to customers at a discount to the cost of new licences. This allows customers to purchase licences for non-current as well as current Microsoft versions, which they may have standardised on. Only Microsoft products with licences that permit transfer are offered; these include Microsoft Office, Windows Server licences and Client Access Licenses, Microsoft Exchange and Microsoft SQL Server but exclude any desktop versions of Windows or any rights under Software Assurance. The actual licence transfer can sometimes be facilitated directly between the original owner and the new owner, without Discount-Licensing taking ownership of the licences. Licences are supplied in the form of licence agreement numbers which the recipient can register in Microsoft Volume Licensing Service Center in order to obtain the volume license keys.

Following the completion of all paperwork, Microsoft updates it records to reflect the new user, but note that the VLSC does not show the legal owner. In the case of licences created after October 2007, the sale may sometimes require the creation and transfer of a "shelf company" which owns the licences. Only whole licences may be transferred so the customer has to choose from the agreements available and may not be able to obtain the combination of licences desired; the company operates internationally and, following advice from Microsoft that it was permissible, has transferred licences between countries. The legalities of the secondary-volume and digital-software markets were reaffirmed in a 3 July 2012 European Court of Justice ruling which involved the Exhaustion Principle and the Software Directive 2009. Microsoft has made it clear that it regards the resale of licences as exploiting an unintended loophole in the provisions for divestiture in its pre-2007 licence agreements. In October 2007 Microsoft introduced a clause prohibiting resale of all types of licences into its EULAs.

This was intended to prevent licences issued after this date from being resold, however a further loophole was found to enable licences to continue to be sold, albeit in a more complicated way. Despite this game of cat and mouse, Microsoft accepts the legality of Discount-Licensing's business model and Discount-Licensing remains a Registered Microsoft Partner and authorised Microsoft Reseller. Discount-Licensing describes its relationship with Microsoft as "fairly good". Software license agreement Official website Microsoft Volume Licensing Microsoft Volume Licensing Service Center

HMS Shalimar

HMS Shalimar was a S-class submarine of the third batch built for the Royal Navy during World War II. She survived the war and was scrapped in 1950; the third batch was enlarged and improved over the preceding second batch of the S-class. The submarines had a length of 217 feet overall, a beam of 23 feet 9 inches and a draft of 14 feet 8 inches, they displaced 842 long tons on 990 long tons submerged. The S-class submarines had a crew of ratings, they had a diving depth of 300 feet. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 950-brake-horsepower diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 650-horsepower electric motor. They could reach 15 knots on 10 knots underwater. On the surface, the third batch boats had a range of 6,000 nautical miles at 10 knots and 120 nmi at 3 knots submerged; the boats were armed with seven 21 inch torpedo tubes. A half-dozen of these were in the bow and there was one external tube in the stern, they carried six reload torpedoes for the bow tubes for a grand total of thirteen torpedoes.

Twelve mines could be carried in lieu of the internally stowed torpedoes. They were armed with a 3-inch deck gun. HMS Shalimar was built at Chatham Dockyard and launched on 22 April 1943, thus far she has been the only ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name Shalimar. She spent most of her wartime career in the Far East, where she caused significant losses amongst enemy shipping, she sank fourteen Japanese sailing vessels, the auxiliary minesweeper Choun Maru No.7, two Japanese tugs and three barges, a coaster and an identified Japanese vessel. She damaged five Japanese landing craft, in conjunction with her sister HMS Seadog, she sank a Japanese coaster. Shalimar survived the Second World War, was sold in July 1950 to be broken up at Troon. Akermann, Paul. Encyclopaedia of British Submarines 1901–1955. Penzance, Cornwall: Periscope Publishing. ISBN 1-904381-05-7. Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-962-6. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946.

Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. McCartney, Innes. British Submarines 1939–1945. New Vanguard. 129. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 1-84603-007-2

Kenney Glacier

Kenney Glacier is a glacier 1 nmi long flowing northwest from The Pyramid and The Saddlestone into Depot Glacier, near the head of Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctica. It was mapped in 1945 and 1948 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, was resurveyed by the FIDS in 1955, was named for Richard Kenney, assistant surveyor at Hope Bay in 1954 and 1955, who made a detailed local survey of the area between Hope Bay and Duse Bay. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Kenney Glacier"

Bisector (music)

In diatonic set theory, a bisector divides the octave in half and may be used in place of a generator to derive collections for which structure implies multiplicity is not true such as the ascending melodic minor, harmonic minor, octatonic scales. Well formed generated collections generators and bisectors coincide, such as the perfect fifth in the diatonic collection; the term was introduced by Jay Rahn, who considers any division between one and two thirds as half and who applied the term only the spaced collections. Clough and Johnson both adapt the term to apply to generic scale steps. Rahn uses aliquant bisector for bisectors which may be used to generate every note in a collection, in which case the bisector and the number of notes must be coprime. Bisectors may be used to produce the diatonic, harmonic minor, ascending melodic minor collections; the diatonic scale may be derived from a chain of perfect fifths: P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 F C G D A B = C D E F G A B C. 5, 0, 7, 2, 9, e = 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, e, 0.

+7 +7 +7 +7 +7 For example, the octatonic scale may be derived to derivations of the diatonic scale by a chain of perfect fifths, by using a bisector of 5 scale steps. However, five steps in the octatonic scale alternates between 7 and 8 semitones, so it is a bisector and not a generator: A5 P5 A5 P5 A5 P5 A5 P5 C A♭ E♭ B G♭ D A F C = C D E♭ F G♭ A♭ A B C. 0, 8, 3, e, 6, 2, 9, 5, 0 = 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, e, 0. +8 +7 +8 +7 +8 +7 +8 +7 Johnson, Timothy. Foundations of Diatonic Theory: A Mathematically Based Approach to Music Fundamentals. Key College Publishing. ISBN 1-930190-80-8. Rahn, Jay. "Some Recurrent Features of Scales", In Theory Only 2, no. 11-12: 43-52

2007 Pacific typhoon season

The 2007 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season which featured 24 named storms, fourteen typhoons, five super typhoons. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean; the season ran throughout 2007, though most tropical cyclones develop between May and November. The season's first named storm, Kong-rey, developed on March 30, while the season's last named storm, dissipated on November 27; the season's first typhoon, reached typhoon status on May 18, became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which can result in a cyclone having two names; the Japan Meteorological Agency will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h anywhere in the basin.

PAGASA assigns unofficial names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility, located between 115°E–135°E and between 5°N–25°N, regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center are given a numerical designation with a "W" suffix. Since the 2000 typhoon season, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, of the City University of Hong Kong have issued forecasts of activity for each upcoming typhoon season. Forecasts were released in April and June predicting how many tropical cyclones, tropical storms, typhoons there will be during the season. During the season, the LAR is predicting a below average season with fewer than usual tropical cyclones. In its April forecast, the LAR predicted that 28 tropical cyclones, 25 tropical storms, 14 typhoons before in its June forecast predicting 27 tropical cyclones, 24 tropical storms and 14 typhoons.

Since the 2000 typhoon season, the Tropical Storm Risk Consortium of the University College of London have issued forecasts of activity for each upcoming typhoon season. During 2007, forecasts were released in March, June and August predicting how many tropical cyclones, tropical storms and intense typhoons there will be during a season. In its March forecast, TSR predicted that the season would be about 15% below average with 24 tropical storms, 15 typhoons and 7 intense typhoons. In its May forecast, TSR predicted that the season would now be near normal with 27 tropical storms, 17 typhoons and 8 intense typhoons forming during the season. Within their June July and August forecasts, TSR forecasted the season would be near normal with 27 tropical storms and 17 typhoons forming; the Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration, reported on January 27, 2007, that they were expecting 15–19 tropical cyclones to move through their area of responsibility, during the upcoming typhoon season.

They predicted that due to the weak El Niño event, occurring the first tropical cyclone wouldn't move through their area of responsibility until May. According to PAGASA, the Philippines had its second quietest season with 14 named storms since the 1998 season, with the 2010 being the most quiet season. On March 26, the JTWC identified a broad area of low pressure in the Western North Pacific, it moved west-northwestward over the next few days gaining organization. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, it became a tropical depression on March 30; the next day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert due to an increased consolidation of the low-level circulation of the system. The JTWC issued its first warning on Tropical Depression 01W late that evening local time; as it continued to strengthen, the JTWC upgraded it to the first of the season. The JMA followed suit, named the system Kong-rey; the name was submitted by Cambodia, refers to a character in a Khmer legend, the name of a mountain.

Kong-rey continued to organize and intensified into a severe tropical storm early the next morning local time. The JTWC upgraded it to a typhoon on April 2; as the system took a more poleward track towards the Northern Mariana Islands, the National Weather Service office in Guam noted that damaging winds were now not expected on the island. Elsewhere in the Marianas, preparations were made and flights were cancelled in anticipation of the typhoon. Kong-rey passed through the islands in the early hours of the morning on April 3 local time; the JMA upgraded Kong-rey to a typhoon that afternoon, as it developed an eye. It strengthened further before encountering wind shear and colder sea surface temperatures and was downgraded back to a severe tropical storm on April 4; as Kong-rey accelerated towards the northeast, it began undergoing extratropical transition early on April 5 and the JTWC issued its final warning. The JMA issued its final warning on the morning of April 6 after it had completed extratropical transition.

No casualties or major damage was reported. On May 15, a significant consolidation of organisation in a tropical disturbance located south-southeast of Guam led to Dvorak technique numbers equating to a windspeed of 45 knots from the Air Force Weather Agency; that day, the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system a tropical depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. The next day, the JMA began issuing full advisories on the tropical depression, it developed resulting in a reissuance of the TCFA that day. I