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Reuters

Reuters is an international news organization owned by Thomson Reuters. Until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division, it was established in 1851. Paul Julius Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House. Reuter established a news wire agency at the London Royal Exchange. Headquartered in London, Reuter's company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858, more began to subscribe soon after.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. It was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1865, Reuter incorporated his private business, under the name Reuter's Telegram Company Limited. In 1872, Reuter's expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1878, Reuter retired as managing director. In 1883, Reuter's began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers; the company returned to private ownership in 1916, with all shares purchased by Roderick Jones and Mark Napier. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act. In 1925, the Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later.

During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters: "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica. In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s.

In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began supporting electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989. Reuters' share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Britannica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange; the last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009.

The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.

In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and M

Karl Willius

Karl "Charly" Willius was a Luftwaffe ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Willius was born on 5 November 1919 in Mainz-Kostheim. Following pilot training, Obergefreiter Willius was posted to 8./Jagdgeschwader 51 in May 1940. He claimed his first air victory on a Spitfire over Ramsgate. Unteroffizier Willius participated in the invasion of Russia in June 1941, claimed his second victory on the opening day of Operation Barbarossa, when he downed a SB-2 bomber. On 13 July Willius claimed two DB-3 bombers shot down for 11th victories. On 14 July 1941, Willius was transferred back to Western Europe, serving with 3./Jagdgeschwader 26. He claimed his first victory over the Channel on 8 December, a Spitfire near Boulogne as his 13th claim. On 17 May 1942, he downed the Spitfire Vb of No. 91 Squadron RAF flown by F/L PPC "Paddy" Barthropp who bailed out and was taken prisoner.

He was awarded the German Cross in Gold in October 1942 for 22 victories. Feldwebel Willius was posted as an instructor in January 1943 before returning to 3./JG 26, now based in Russia, in March 1943. He claimed nine victories over the Soviet Air Force, including three Pe-2 bombers and a MiG-3 fighter on 13 May. Willius had 33 victories to his credit. In August 1943 Willius transferred to 2./JG 26, became Staffelkapitän in November. Leutnant Willius claimed his 40th victory, a B-17 shot down near Cousolre on 4 February 1944. On 8 April 1944 Willius made a head-on attack against a formation of B-24 bombers of the 44th Bombardment Group, downing one in flames for his 50th, last, victory; the Fw 190s reformed as P-47 fighters of the 361st Fighter Group bounced them over Zuiderzee, the Netherlands. Willius' Fw 190 A-8 "Black 5" was seen to explode. Willius was awarded a posthumous Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 9 June and promotion to the rank of Oberleutnant, his body was not recovered until 1967, found in his aircraft excavated from a Dutch polder.

He was interred in the War Cemetery at Ysselstein, Netherlands. During his career he was credited with 50 aerial victories in 371 missions. 17 victories over the Eastern Front, of his 34 victories over the Western Front, 11 were four-engine bombers and 16 were Spitfires. Flugzeugführerabzeichen Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class German Cross in Gold on 15 October 1942 as Feldwebel in the 3./Jagdgeschwader 26 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 9 June 1944 as Oberfeldwebel and Staffelkapitän in the 2./Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter"

First Battle of Newtonia

The First Battle of Newtonia was fought as part of the American Civil War, on September 30, 1862 in Newton County, Missouri. Following the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, most Confederate and Union troops had left northwestern Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. By late summer, the Confederates had returned to the area, which caused much apprehension in nearby Federally occupied Springfield and Fort Scott, Kansas. Confederate Colonel Douglas H. Cooper reached the area on September 27 and assigned two of his units to Newtonia, where there was a mill for making breadstuffs. In mid-September, two brigades totalling 1,500 men of Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt's division of the Union Army of Kansas left Fort Scott for southwestern Missouri. On September 29, Union scouts were chased away. Other Federal troops appeared in nearby Granby where there were lead mines, Cooper sent some reinforcements there. On September 30, Union columns appeared before fighting ensued by 7:00 a.m.. The Federals began driving the enemy.

The Northerners retreated in haste. As they did so, additional Union reinforcements helped to stem their retreat, they soon renewed the attack. But newly arrived Confederates stopped the assault and forced the Federals to retire. Pursuit of the Federals continued after dark. Union gunners posted artillery in the roadway to halt the pursuit; as Confederate gunners observed the enemy artillery fire for its location, they fired back, creating panic. The Union retreat turned into a rout. Although the Confederates won the battle, they were unable to maintain themselves in the area given the great number of Union troops. Most Confederates retreated into northwest Arkansas; the 1862 Confederate victories in southwestern Missouri at Newtonia and Clark's Mill were the South's apogee in the area. Newtonia was one of the few battles during the Civil War in which Native Americans played a significant role on both sides; the Second Battle of Newtonia was fought near the same location on October 28, 1864. The First Battle of Newtonia Historic District is a national historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.

Located in the district is the separately listed Mathew H. Ritchey House; the district includes the Ritchey barn and barnyard site, a Civil War-era cemetery, the Newtonia Branch stream, the historic Neosho Road and the overall battlefield site. The Civil War Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 8 acres of the Newtonia battlefield. U. S. National Park Service battle summary Civil War Site Advisory Committee Update and Resurvey Wood, Larry; the Two Civil War Battles of Newtonia. Civil War Sesquicentennial Series. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2010. ISBN 1-59629-857-X