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Pauline Hanson's One Nation

Pauline Hanson's One Nation known as One Nation or One Nation Party, is a political party in Australia. One Nation was founded in 1997, by member of parliament Pauline Hanson and her advisors David Ettridge and David Oldfield after Hanson was disendorsed as a federal candidate for the Liberal Party of Australia; the disendorsement came before the 1996 federal election because of comments she made about Indigenous Australians. Hanson sat as an independent for one year before forming Pauline Hanson's One Nation. Federally, no One Nation candidate has been elected to the House of Representatives. However, one candidate from the party was elected to the Senate in the 1998 federal election, four One Nation senators were elected in the 2016 federal election. In state politics, One Nation has performed better. At the 1998 Queensland state election the party gained more than 22% of the vote in Queensland's unicameral legislative assembly, winning 11 of the 89 seats. David Oldfield was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council as a One Nation candidate, but he was expelled from the party and formed the unsuccessful splinter group, One Nation NSW.

Three members were elected to the Western Australian Legislative Council. One Nation changed its name back to "Pauline Hanson's One Nation" in June 2015. At the 2016 federal election the party polled 4.3% of the nationwide primary vote in the Senate. Only Queensland polled higher for the party than their nationwide percentage − the party polled 9.2% of the primary vote in that state. Pauline Hanson and three other One Nation candidates − Malcolm Roberts, Brian Burston and Rod Culleton were elected to the Senate. Elected to the 3rd Queensland Senate spot, as per convention Hanson is serving a six-year term while the three other One Nation Senators who were elected in the last half of spots were appointed to three-year terms. Culleton was stripped of his seat in January 2017. In March 2017, the High Court ruled that Culleton's election to the Senate was invalid in any event because of a criminal conviction in New South Wales. After a court-ordered recount, Culleton was replaced by the second candidate on the WA list, Peter Georgiou.

Former Labor Party leader Mark Latham joined the party in November 2018 as leader for New South Wales. He contested a seat in the Legislative Council, winning it in March 2019; the party has a nationalist platform. Hanson and other party members have denied claims. Hanson says. There is real racism in this country: black racism, where you will get assistance because of the colour of your skin." A 2001 study showed that One Nation has no formal ties with racist groups, but holds extensive informal ties due to the party requiring "the support of those groups in establishing the party and because of a convergence of interests". These organisations include the League of Rights, Australians Against Further Immigration, the Confederate Action Party, National Action, several militia groups. In 2019, members of the militant white supremacist group, True Blue Crew were linked to One Nation candidate Nikhil Reddy, with members of both groups volunteering for one another. One Nation was formed in 1997 by David Oldfield and David Ettridge.

Hanson was an endorsed Liberal Party candidate for the seat of Oxley, Queensland at the 1996 federal election, but was disendorsed by the party shortly before the elections due to comments she made to a local newspaper in Ipswich, Queensland opposing "race-based welfare". Oldfield, a councillor on Manly Council in suburban Sydney and at one time an employee of Liberal minister Tony Abbott, was the organisational architect of the party; the name "One Nation" was chosen to signify belief in national unity, in contrast to a perceived increasing division in Australian society caused by government policies claimed to favour immigrants and indigenous Australians at the expense of the white Australian majority. The term "One Nation" was last used in Australian political life to describe a tax reform package in the early 1990s by the Labor government of Prime Minister Paul Keating, whose culturally-cosmopolitan, Asia-centric, free-trade, pro-affirmative action policies were antithetical to what supporters of the One Nation party formed in the late 1990s stood for.

Arguing that other political parties were out of touch with mainstream Australia, One Nation ran on a broadly populist and protectionist platform. It promised to drastically reduce immigration and to abolish "divisive and discriminatory policies... attached to Aboriginal and multicultural affairs." Condemning multiculturalism as a "threat to the basis of the Australian culture and shared values", One Nation rallied against liberal government immigration and multicultural policies which, it argued, were leading to "the Asianisation of Australia." The party denounced economic rationalism and globalisation, reflecting working-class dissatisfaction with the neo-liberal economic policies embraced by the major parties. Adopting strong protectionist policies, One Nation advocated the restoration of import tariffs, a revival of Australia's manufacturing industry, an increase in support for small business and the rural sector. One Nation became subject to a political campaign by Tony Abbott, who established a trust fund called "Australians for Honest Politics Trust" to help bankroll civil court cases against the Party.

He was accused of offering funds to One Nation dissident Terry Sharples to support his court battle against the party. Abbott conceded that the political threat One Natio

8th Lancashire Artillery Volunteers

The 8th Lancashire Artillery Volunteers was a unit of the British Volunteer Force raised in Liverpool, Lancashire, in 1860. It transferred to the Territorial Force as a brigade of heavy artillery, its batteries fought in many of the great battles on the Western Front in World War I; the enthusiasm for the Volunteer movement following an invasion scare in 1859 saw the creation of many Rifle and Artillery Volunteer Corps composed of part-time soldiers eager to supplement the Regular British Army in time of need. One such unit was the 8th Lancashire Artillery Volunteer Corps formed in Liverpool on 9 January 1860. In March the Army List showed it as having been absorbed by the 1st Lancashire AVC but it retained its independence and by June had become part of the 1st Administrative Brigade of Lancashire Artillery Volunteers. By the end of 1860 it was a independent unit. In April 1864 it absorbed the 25th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps formed on 9 January 1860 and recruited from the Mersey Steel & Iron Company.

The 8th Lancashire AVC's headquarters was at the Mersey Steel & Iron Co in 1869, but from 1870 it was in Toxteth Park, Liverpool. By the 1880s it was at Upper Warwick Street, Toxteth; when the Volunteers were consolidated into larger units in 1880 the 8th Lancashire AVC was large enough to retain its identity. In 1882 all the AVCs were affiliated to one of the territorial garrison artillery divisions of the Royal Artillery and the 8th Lancashires became part of the Lancashire Division. In 1889 the structure was altered, the corps joined the Southern Division. In 1899 the RA was divided into separate field and garrison branches, the artillery volunteers were all assigned to the Royal Garrison Artillery. In 1902 their titles were changed, the Liverpool unit becoming the 8th Lancashire Royal Garrison Artillery, designated as heavy artillery; when the Volunteers were subsumed into the new Territorial Force under the Haldane Reforms of 1908, the 8th Lancashire RGA formed the Lancashire Heavy Brigade, RGA of two batteries and ammunition columns, all at Sefton Barracks.

The Lancashire Brigade was not intended to be a tactical unit: the 1st Lancashire Heavy Bty was attached to the TF's West Lancashire Division, while the 2nd was attached to the East Lancashire Division. Each had its own dedicated ammunition column; the West Lancashire Division had just begun its annual training when war broke out on 4 August 1914 and the units returned to their peacetime HQs to mobilise. The men of the East Lancashire Division gathered, were billeted close to their HQs; the TF was intended for home service, but on 10 August its units were invited to volunteer for overseas service. The East Lancashire Division, having volunteered en masse, moved into camps for battle training on 20 August. On 15 August 1914, the War Office issued instructions to separate those men who had signed up for Home Service only, form these into reserve units. On 31 August, the formation of a reserve or 2nd Line unit was authorised for each 1st Line unit where 60 per cent or more of the men had volunteered for Overseas Service.

The titles of these 2nd Line units would be the same as the original, but distinguished by a'2/' prefix. In this way duplicate batteries and divisions were created, mirroring those TF formations being sent overseas. On 5 September the East Lancashire Division was ordered to Egypt to relieve the Regular Army garrison there for service on the Western Front, it was the first TF division to go overseas, embarked on 10 September, leaving behind the 1/2nd Lancashire Heavy Bty, which joined the 2nd East Lancashire Division, being assembled. The West Lancashire Division sent most of its infantry units to the Western Front between November 1914 and April 1915, when the 1/1st Lancashire Hvy Bty joined the 2nd West Lancashire Division; the 1/1st Bty joined the 2nd West Lancashire Division after the last of the 1st Line division was broken up in April 1915. The new division was being assembled and trained round Canterbury, the battery remained with it until the end of the year. On 28 December the battery moved to Woolwich to prepare for overseas service.

It disembarked at Le Havre on 26 January 1916, joined 29th Heavy Artillery Group on 1 February. 29th HAG was part of Fourth Army, being assembled for the forthcoming'Big Push'. The group's role was to support XIII Corps in its assault on the German lines from Maricourt to beyond Carnoy; the guns were assembled on the reverse slopes of Maricourt Ridge, from which the observation posts had excellent views over the long gentle slope to Montauban Ridge, up which the British infantry had to attack. In this sector the British had a four-to-one advantage in heavy artillery and by'Z Day' had achieved complete mastery with its counter-battery fire, which had begun six days earlier and continued during the attack; when the infantry launched their assault on 1 July, XIII Corps had considerable success and most of its casualties were caused by machine gun and rifle fire from strongpoints, instead of by artillery, as was the case. 30th Division on the right reached both its first and second objectives, but could not go further, because the neighbouring 18th Division was held up.

18th Division, however did achieve all its objectives by 16.00. The se


Lachendorf is a municipality in the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated 10 km east of Celle. Lachendorf is the seat of the Samtgemeinde Lachendorf. In older records Lachendorf is mentioned under the name of Lachtendorp, meaning village at the river Lachte. In 1538 Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg chose it as a proper place for a paper mill, which marks the beginning of settlement and commercial development. In 1845 the paper mill was extended to a factory, creating a remarkable amount of workspace in this agricultural region. Wilhelm Trumann, great-great grandfather of the 33rd president of the USA Harry S. Truman Heinrich Severloh, platoon of the Wehrmacht and rifleman on Omaha Beach Konstantin Rausch, football/soccer player for Hannover 96 Lachendorf is twinned with: Bricquebec, Normandy, France Martin Wittmann, Kurt W. Seebo: Lachendorf. Ed. I, Lachendorf 1988 Official website

Christopher Phelps

Christopher Phelps is an American political and intellectual historian of the twentieth century. The subjects of his research and writing include philosophical pragmatism, concepts of class and labor in social thought, the fate of the American Left and the socialist ideal, ideas of race in American and African American history. Phelps teaches in the School of American and Canadian Studies at the University of Nottingham in England, having taught history at the Ohio State University, the University of Oregon, Simon Fraser University in Canada, he has received the Fulbright Award twice, to teach philosophy at the University of Pécs in Hungary in 2000 and American Studies at the University of Łódź in Poland in 2004-2005. Young Sidney Hook: Marxist and Pragmatist, Cornell University Press, 1997. University of Michigan Press, 2005. Radicals in America: The US Left Since the Second World War, Cambridge University Press, 2015; the Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005. Race and Revolution, by Max Shachtman, Verso, 2003.

Towards the Understanding of Karl Marx, by Sidney Hook, Prometheus, 2002. From Hegel to Marx, by Sidney Hook, Columbia University Press, 1994. "The Sexuality of Malcolm X," Journal of American Studies, 2017 "Dream Sequences: Marching on Washington Fifty Years On," Dissent Online, 2013 "Howard Zinn, Philosopher," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2010 "American Idle," The Nation, 2010 "Chicago factory sit-in fits national mood,", with Nelson Lichtenstein, 2008 "The Prophet Reconsidered," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2008 "Diamonds in the Rough,", 2007 "The New SDS," The Nation, 2007 "A Neglected Document on Socialism and Sex," Journal of the History of Sexuality, 2007 "The Fictitious Suppression of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle," History News Network, 2006 "The Lowering of Higher Education,", 2005 "Fulbright of the Mind," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2005 "The Rediscovered Brilliance of Hubert Harrison," Science & Society, 2004 "A Socialist Magazine in the American Century," Monthly Review, 1999 "Bourne Yet Again," on the legacy of Randolph Bourne, New Politics, 1998 "Phelps, Christopher", in Contemporary Authors Online, Thomson Gale, 2006 Christopher Phelps data at School of American and Canadian Studies, University of Nottingham Interview by Tim Barker in Dissent, 2016 Interview by Scott McLemee of, 2005

Kanmani (director)

Kanmani is an Indian film director who has worked on Tamil and Telugu and language films. After beginning his career in Tamil films, Kanmani has experienced more success in Telugu films. Kanmani completed a degree at Presidency College, Chennai before joining as a chorus singer to composer Ilaiyaraaja, worked with him for twelve years, he apprenticed under director Saran during the making of Gemini, before making his debut with the low-budget romantic comedy Aahaa Ethanai Azhagu featuring Mithun Tejaswi and Charmy Kaur. He gained success with his next two ventures in Telugu, Naa Oopiri and Chinnodu, before going on to make the social drama Call Center and the romantic comedy Odipolama. In 2015, he made the Telugu film Beeruva before beginning work on the horror comedy Peigal Jaakirathai


In mathematics, codimension is a basic geometric idea that applies to subspaces in vector spaces, to submanifolds in manifolds, suitable subsets of algebraic varieties. For affine and projective algebraic varieties, the codimension equals the height of the defining ideal. For this reason, the height of an ideal is called its codimension; the dual concept is relative dimension. Codimension is a relative concept: it is only defined for one object inside another. There is no “codimension of a vector space ”, only the codimension of a vector subspace. If W is a linear subspace of a finite-dimensional vector space V the codimension of W in V is the difference between the dimensions: codim ⁡ = dim ⁡ − dim ⁡, it is the complement of the dimension of W, in that, with the dimension of W, it adds up to the dimension of the ambient space V: dim ⁡ + codim ⁡ = dim ⁡. If N is a submanifold or subvariety in M the codimension of N in M is codim ⁡ = dim ⁡ − dim ⁡. Just as the dimension of a submanifold is the dimension of the tangent bundle, the codimension is the dimension of the normal bundle.

More if W is a linear subspace of a vector space V the codimension of W in V is the dimension of the quotient space V/W, more abstractly known as the cokernel of the inclusion. For finite-dimensional vector spaces, this agrees with the previous definition codim ⁡ = dim ⁡ = dim ⁡ coker ⁡ = dim ⁡ − dim ⁡, is dual to the relative dimension as the dimension of the kernel. Finite-codimensional subspaces of infinite-dimensional spaces are useful in the study of topological vector spaces; the fundamental property of codimension lies in its relation to intersection: if W1 has codimension k1, W2 has codimension k2 if U is their intersection with codimension j we have max ≤ j ≤ k1 + k2. In fact j may take any integer value in this range; this statement is more perspicuous than the translation in terms of dimensions, because the RHS is just the sum of the codimensions. In words codimensions add. If the subspaces or submanifolds intersect transversally, codimensions add exactly; this statement is called dimension counting in intersection theory.

In terms of the dual space, it is quite evident. The subspaces can be defined by the vanishing of a certain number of linear functionals, which if we take to be linearly independent, their number is the codimension. Therefore, we see that U is defined by taking the union of the sets of linear functionals defining the Wi; that union may introduce some degree of linear dependence: the possible values of j express that dependence, with the RHS sum being the case where there is no dependence. This definition of codimension in terms of the number of functions needed to cut out a subspace extends to situations in which both the ambient space and subspace are infinite dimensional. In other language, basic for any kind of intersection theory, we are taking the union of a certain number of constraints. We have two phenomena to look out for: the two sets of constraints may not be independent; the first of these is expressed as the principle of counting constraints: if we have a number N of parameters to adjust, a constraint means we have to'consume' a parameter to satisfy it the codimension of the solution set is at most the number of constraints.

We do not expect to be able to find a solution if the predicted codimension, i.e. the number of independent constraints, exceeds N. The second is a matter of geometry, on the model of parallel lines. Codimension has some clear meaning in geometric topology: on a manifold, codimension 1 is the dimension of topological disconnection by a submanifold, while codimension 2 is the dimension of ramification and knot theory. In fact, the theory of high-dimensional manifolds, which starts in dimension 5 and above, can alternatively be said to start in codimension 3, because higher codimensions avoid the phenomenon of knots. Since surgery theory requires working up to the middle dimension, once one is in dimension 5, the middle dimension has codimension greater than 2, hence one avoids knots; this quip is not vacuous: the study