Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia and Polynesia; these people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century and into the 21st century the country saw a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia; the Pacific islands consist of three main regions: The islands are scattered across a triangle covering the east-central region of the Pacific Ocean. The triangle is bound by the Hawaiian Islands in the north, New Zealand in the west, Easter Island in the east; the rest of Polynesia includes the Samoan islands, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Niue Island and Tuvalu, Tonga and Futuna, Rotuma Island and Pitcairn Island.
The island of New Guinea, the Bismarck and Louisiade archipelagos, the Admiralty Islands, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, Western New Guinea, Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, Fiji, Norfolk Island and various smaller islands. The islands of Kiribati, the Marianas, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Ethnolinguistically, those Pacific islanders who reside in Oceania are divided into two different ethnic classifications. Austronesian language peoplesAustronesian peoples who speak the Oceanian languages, numbering about 2.3 million, who occupy Polynesia and most of the smaller islands of Melanesia. Papuan language peoplesPapuan peoples, those who speak the Papuan languages, who number about 7 million, reside on the island of New Guinea and a few of the smaller islands of Melanesia located off the northeast coast of New Guinea; the umbrella term Pacific Islands may take on several meanings.
Sometimes it refers to only those islands covered by the continent of Oceania. In some common uses, the term "Pacific Islands" refers to the islands of the Pacific Ocean once colonized by the Portuguese, Dutch, French, United States, Japanese, such as the Pitcairn Islands and Borneo. In other uses it may refer to islands with Austronesian linguistic heritage like Taiwan, Micronesia, Myanmar islands, which found their genesis in the Neolithic cultures of the island of Taiwan. In Australia the term South Sea Islander was used to describe Australian descendants of people from the more than 80 islands in the western Pacific, brought to Australia to work on the sugar fields of Queensland, in the 19th century called Kanakas; the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 was enacted to restrict entry of Pacific Islanders to Australia and to authorise their deportation. In the legislation Pacific Islanders were defined as: "Pacific Island Labourer" includes all natives not of European extraction of any island except the islands of New Zealand situated in the Pacific Ocean beyond the Commonwealth as constituted at the commencement of this Act.
In 2008 a Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme was announced as a three-year pilot scheme. The scheme provides visas for workers from Kiribati, Tonga and Papua New Guinea to work in Australia; the pilot scheme includes one country each from Melanesia and Micronesia, countries which send workers to New Zealand under its seasonal labour scheme. Australia's pilot scheme includes Papua New Guinea. Local usage in New Zealand uses "Pacific islander" to distinguish those who have emigrated from one of these areas in modern times from the indigenous New Zealand Māori, who are Polynesian but arrived in New Zealand centuries earlier. In the 2013 New Zealand census, 7.4 percent of the New Zealand population identified with one or more Pacific ethnic groups, although 62.3 percent of these were born in New Zealand. Those with a Samoan background make up the largest proportion, followed by Cook Islands Maori and Niuean; some smaller island populations such as Niue and Tokelau have the majority of their nationals living in New Zealand.
To celebrate the diverse Pacific island cultures, the Auckland region hosts several Pacific island festivals. Two of the major ones are Polyfest, which showcases performances of the secondary school cultural groups in the Auckland region, Pasifika, a festival that celebrates Pacific island heritage through traditional food, music and entertainment. According to the U. S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, a "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" is "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Samoa, or other Pacific islands, it includes people who indicate their race as'Native Hawaiian','Guamanian or "Chamorro','Samoan', and'Other Pacific Islander' or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses."According to the Office of Management and Budget, "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. The term Pacific Islands American is used for ethnic Pacific islander residents in U.
S. states, in the territories of the United States in the region. Austronesian-speaking peoples Polynesi
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Newton, New Zealand
Newton is a small suburb of Auckland City, New Zealand, under the local governance of the Auckland Council. It had a population of 1,176 in the 2006 census. Since the construction of the Central Motorway Junction in 1965–75, Newton has been divided into two parts, as a result, lost much of its size and coherence; the northern part is centred on Karangahape Road, the southern part on Newton Road and upper Symonds Street. Both Karangahape and Newton Roads intersect with Symonds Street to the east. Newton Road joins the Great Karangahape Road intersection to the west. At the southern end of Symonds Street are the Symonds Street Shops. Here Upper Symonds Street has two major intersections with other arterial roads: Newton Road and Khyber Pass Road, Mt Eden Road and New North Road. Symonds Street is named after Captain William Cornwallis Symonds, an officer of the 96th Regiment of Foot of the British Army, he came to New Zealand in the early 1830s as agent of the Waitemata and Manukau Land Company and was instrumental in the founding of Auckland and the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.
He was one of Governor William Hobson's closest and most effective officials and was one of the first six Police Magistrates in New Zealand as well as Chief Magistrate of Auckland and Deputy Surveyor of New Zealand. During 1841 Symonds accompanied the naturalist Ernst Dieffenbach in his survey of the North Island. Capt Symonds died on 23 November 1841 in a boating accident on the Manukau Harbour. Following his death his brother John Jermyn Symonds continued to live in the colony. Karangahape Road takes its name from the ridge it stands on - known in pre-European times as Te Ara o Karangahape - The Path of Karangahape - the name indicates the route, taken to visit an eminent Chief called Hape who lived on the shores of the Manukau Harbour to the south west. From about 1900 to the early 1960s K' Road was Auckland's busiest shopping street with a large range of clothing and shoe shops along with several department stores. During the middle of the 20th century Karangahape Road was a destination shopping centre busy on late nights due to the presence of cinemas.
In the 19th century Newton was the name given to a different area - stretching from what is now called Surrey Crescent to Eden Terrace. References to Newton can therefore describe different areas at different times in the past; the 1861 Newton Electoral district, represented by one MP, was bounded to the north by the harbour and Auckland East and West Districts, to the east by Parnell District, to the south by Cabbage Tree Rd and Karangahape Rd and to the west by Meols and Scoria Creeks. Following the death of Sir George Grey in 1898 the northwestern portion was renamed Grey Lynn, leaving Newton as the area between Karangahape Road and Eden Terrace - since the creation of the Motorway in the 1960s many people do not think of Karangahape Road as being part of Newton, reserving that name for the area around Upper Symonds Street; the Newton Post Office has always been on Karangahape Road. Its replacement is located on Karangahape Road at the corner of East Street. From the late Victorian period until 2011, there was a separate Post Office serving Newton and Eden Terrace, known as Upper Symonds Street.
The suburb had a dubious reputation. A 1920s newspaper described it as a "haunt of many of Auckland's best-known crooks"; this reputation was one of the reasons the Ponsonby Police Barracks were built on Ponsonby Road near the intersection with Karangahape and Newton Roads. This was the second most important Police facility in Auckland and was positioned there to enable a mass of Police to be on hand to quell anything in Freemans Bay or Newton Gully. Across the road from the Police Barracks was the Star Hotel this was a centre of Union Activity and probable Sedition. Michael Joseph Savage gave some of his early speeches at the Star Hotel; as Newton Gully was viewed as the home of many criminals its combination of substandard housing and Trade Union activity was a contributing factor in its eventual destruction by City Planners who used the Motorway as a convenient tool to rid the city of what they considered a problem area. This was in accord with the example set by Robert Moses in New York City and emulated by similar Town Planners around the world.
Before the 1870s there were several brick works in Newton Gully including some which manufactured tiles and even'Art Pottery'. These companies were progressively relocated to New Lynn. From the 1890s onwards Newton was the location of many small scale industries: shirt and boot factories, rattan furniture & basket manufacturing etc, it was the location of several specialist metal works including brass foundries and bicycle importers & manufacturers. Situated between the busy retail areas of Karangahape Road and Symonds Street, Newton was a densely populated suburb of a working class nature with many boarding houses; until the construction of the motorway system in the 1960s, the gully area was the location of several primary and intermediate level schools and about six churches. In the 1880s there was concern that the domestic water supplies for the area were being contaminated by the adjacent Symonds
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
South Auckland is an imprecisely defined urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, with a young population, a large Polynesian and Māori demographic, lower incomes than other parts of Auckland. The name South Auckland, though not an official place name, has come into common useamong New Zealanders, it appears in the names of some organisations and companies. Since the 1970s the term "South Auckland" has developed negative connotations with outsiders, being associated with deprivation and violence; when street crime occurs in the area, the mass media tend to use the generic "South Auckland" phrase, with its vague and unfortunate stereotypes, rather than a more precise name of a suburb or territorial authority. Barry Curtis, mayor of Manukau City from 1983 to 2007, tried to discourage use of the name "South Auckland" because of its negative connotations; the heart of South Auckland is the low socio-economic suburbs of the former Manukau City, typified by Otara but including Papatoetoe and Manurewa.
Broadly speaking, South Auckland is the urban area stretching from at the least the narrowing of the Auckland isthmus at Otahuhu, southwards through the Manukau City suburbs lying to the west and near east of Auckland's Southern Motorway. The area does not include the more well-to-do, eastern and northern Manukau City suburbs such as Howick, Botany Downs, or Pakuranga, nor the large rural area of Manukau City; the name does not include Franklin District. Prior to the 1970s, South Auckland encompassed the region from Otahuhu south to Mercer, from the west coast to the Firth of Thames, including the southern towns of Pukekohe and Waiuku. Auckland Airport is located in South Auckland, as well as several other places of interest, including the amusement park Rainbow's End, the Auckland Botanic Gardens and one of the oldest shopping malls in the country, now called Westfield Manukau City; some of the suburbs in South Auckland contain predominantly state housing and are the poorest suburbs of Auckland.
The area contains the industrial heartland of Auckland, with workshops and warehouses providing work for many Aucklanders. South Auckland was a part of Manukau City, amalgamated into the new Auckland Council in 2010, being covered by the extreme southernmost portion of the Maungakiekie-Tamaki Local Board, as well as the entirety of the Mangere-Otahuhu, Otara-Papatoetoe and Manurewa Local Boards. On the Auckland Council Governing Body, South Auckland is represented by Arthur Anae and Alf Filipaina; the general electorates of Mangere, Manukau East, Manurewa and the Maori electorate of Tamaki Makaurau cover the area referred to as South Auckland. All are represented by a Labour MP in the New Zealand Parliament, the strong support for this party was underlined by these electorates recording strong party vote majorities for Labour in the 2014 elections, despite Labour's support falling to a record low nationally. Candidates from the National, New Zealand First and a range of minor parties stand in the general electorates of South Auckland, though none has been won by a party other than Labour since 1975.
The Maori electorate of Tamaki Makaurau was held by the Māori Party co-leader Pita Sharples from 2005 until 2014. The area has a multiracial population including Pākehā and Asians as well as a high proportion of Polynesians and Māori; this gives it a cosmopolitan feel and a thriving culture at street level, most seen by visitors at the Saturday markets at Otara and Mangere. Manukau City, before its amalgamation, used the slogan "Face of the Future" to reflect its youthful demographic, having one of the highest proportion of people under 18. South Auckland is a major centre of hip hop culture and music in New Zealand. People who hail from South Auckland include Olympic champion John Walker, mountaineer Edmund Hillary, former Prime Minister David Lange. Many successful sportspeople are South Aucklanders.
North Shore Hospital
North Shore Hospital is a large public hospital in Takapuna, New Zealand, serving the northern part of Auckland. Located on Shakespeare Road near Lake Pupuke, it is administered by the Waitemata District Health Board, which provides health services to 600,000 residents of the North Shore and Rodney districts of Auckland. Emergency Department staff at North Shore see more than 60,000 cases each year; the hospital provides up to 600 general medical treatment beds. It has twelve operating theatres, an emergency department, a 50-bed Assessment and Diagnostic Unit, an intensive care centre, an Elective Surgery Centre and a coronary care, as well as a maternity and special care baby unit; the hospital provides endoscopy, pathology, gynecological, general surgery, a cardiac catheter lab and mental health services through the onsite Marinoto and He Puna Waiora units. Visiting specialists cover a number of further medical sub-disciplines. Two of the wards specialise in assessment and rehabilitation of older patients over 65 years of age.
In 2007, North Shore Hospital reported 100% occupancy rates and difficulties in finding enough staff. This is alleged to be due to North Shore City's affluence, with the catchment area having some of the highest average incomes in New Zealand, as well as scoring high on other social indicators; as the District Health Board funding scheme distributes money based on these indicators, it has been claimed that it receives much less funding per population served than hospitals in other areas of the country. The issues with staff shortages and overcrowding discussed in the press during the middle of 2007, have led two North Shore National MPs to inquire into the issue, noting that a'crisis of confidence' had developed, generating more concern from locals'than anything else in recent times'. In 2011 North Shore Hospital opened an Assessment and Diagnostic Unit designed to improve overcrowding and patient flow through the North Shore Emergency Department, increase inpatient bed capacity. Waitemata DHB has since made improvements against the NZ Ministry of Health's Shorter Stays in ED target.
From July to September 2009 61% of patients were admitted, discharged or transferred from an emergency department within six hours. For the same period in 2013, 95% of patients were admitted, discharged or transferred within six hours. Photographs of North Shore Hospital held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections