Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems improve missile accuracy by improving its "Single Shot Kill Probability", part of combat survivability calculations associated with the salvo combat model; these guidance technologies can be divided up into a number of categories, with the broadest categories being "active," "passive" and "preset" guidance. Missiles and guided bombs use similar types of guidance system, the difference between the two being that missiles are powered by an onboard engine, whereas guided bombs rely on the speed and height of the launch aircraft for propulsion; the concept of missile guidance originated at least as early as World War I, with the idea of remotely guiding an airplane bomb onto a target. In World War II, guided missiles were first developed, as part of the German V-weapons program. Project Pigeon was American behaviorist B.
F. Skinner's attempt to develop a pigeon-guided missile; the first U. S. ballistic missile with a accurate inertial guidance system was the short-range Redstone. Guidance systems are divided into different categories according to whether they are designed to attack fixed or moving targets; the weapons can be divided into two broad categories: Go-Onto-Target and Go-Onto-Location-in-Space guidance systems. A GOT missile can target either a moving or fixed target, whereas a GOLIS weapon is limited to a stationary or near-stationary target; the trajectory that a missile takes while attacking a moving target is dependent upon the movement of the target. A moving target can be an immediate threat to the sender of the missile; the target needs to be eliminated in a timely fashion in order to preserve the integrity of the sender. In GOLIS systems, the problem is simpler because the target is not moving. In every Go-Onto-Target system there are three subsystems: Target tracker Missile tracker Guidance computerThe way these three subsystems are distributed between the missile and the launcher result in two different categories: Remote Control Guidance: The guidance computer is on the launcher.
The target tracker is placed on the launching platform. Homing Guidance: The guidance computers are in the missile and in the target tracker; these guidance systems need the use of radars and a radio or wired link between the control point and the missile. These systems include: Command guidance - The missile tracker is on the launching platform; these missiles are controlled by the launching platform that sends all control orders to the missile. The 2 variants areCommand to Line-Of-Sight Command Off Line-Of-Sight Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding Guidance - The target tracker is on board the missile; the missile has some orientation capability meant for flying inside the beam that the launching platform is using to illuminate the target. It can be manual or automatic; the CLOS system uses only the angular coordinates between the missile and the target to ensure the collision. The missile is made to be in the line of sight between the launcher and the target, any deviation of the missile from this line is corrected.
Since so many types of missile use this guidance system, they are subdivided into four groups: A particular type of command guidance and navigation where the missile is always commanded to lie on the line of sight between the tracking unit and the aircraft is known as command to line of sight or three-point guidance. That is, the missile is controlled to stay as close as possible on the LOS to the target after missile capture is used to transmit guidance signals from a ground controller to the missile. More if the beam acceleration is taken into account and added to the nominal acceleration generated by the beam-rider equations CLOS guidance results. Thus, the beam rider acceleration command is modified to include an extra term; the beam-riding performance described above can thus be improved by taking the beam motion into account. CLOS guidance is used in shortrange air defense and antitank systems. Both target tracking and missile tracking and control are performed manually; the operator watches the missile flight, uses a signaling system to command the missile back into the straight line between operator and target.
This is useful only for slower targets, where significant "lead" is not required. MCLOS is a subtype of command guided systems. In the case of glide bombs or missiles against ships or the supersonic Wasserfall against slow-moving B-17 Flying Fortress bombers this system worked, but as speeds increased MCLOS was rendered useless for most roles. Target tracking is automatic, while missile tracking and control is manual. Target tracking is manual, but missile tracking and control is automatic. Is similar to MCLOS but some automatic system positions the missile in the line of sight while the operator tracks the target. SACLOS has the advantage of allowing the missile to start in a position invisible to the user, as well as being easier to operate, it is the most common form of guidance against ground targets such as tanks and bunkers. Target tracking, missile tracking and control are automatic; this guidance system was one of the first to be used and still is in service in anti-aircraft missiles. In this system, the target tracker and the missile tracker can be oriented in different directions.
The guidance system ensures the interception of the target by the missile by locating both in space. This m
Paris Air Show
The Paris Air Show is the largest aerospace-industry exhibition type Air Show in the world, measured by number of exhibitors and size of exhibit space. In second place is UK's Farnborough, followed by Dubai Air Show or Singapore Airshow; the latest was the 52nd Air Show, held from 19 to 25 June 2017, attended by 3,450 journalists, 142,000 professionals and 180,000 general public visitors. It claims to be the world's calendar-oldest air show. Established in 1909, it has been held every odd year since 1949 at Paris–Le Bourget Airport in north Paris, France, it is a large trade fair, demonstrating military and civilian aircraft, is attended by many military forces and the major aircraft manufacturers announcing major aircraft sales. It starts with four professional days and is opened to the general public followed from Friday to Sunday; the format is similar to Farnborough and the ILA, both staged in years. It is organised by the French aerospace industry's primary representative body, the Groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales.
The Paris Air Show traces its history back to the first decade of the 20th century. In 1908 a section of the Paris Motor Show was dedicated to aircraft; the following year, a dedicated air show was held at the Grand Palais from 25 September to 17 October, during which 100,000 visitors turned out to see products and innovations from 380 exhibitors. There were four further shows before the First World War; the show restarted in 1919, from 1924 it was held every two years before being interrupted again by the Second World War. It restarted in 1946 and since 1949, has been held in every odd year; the air show continued to be held at the Grand Palais, from 1949 flying demonstrations were staged at Paris Orly Airport. In 1953, the show was relocated from the Grand Palais to Le Bourget; the show was drawing international notice in the 1960s. Since the 1970s, the show has emerged as the main international reference of the aeronautical sector; the 1967 air show was opened by French President Charles de Gaulle, who toured the exhibits and shook hands with two Soviet cosmonauts and two American astronauts.
Prominently displayed by the Soviet Union was a three-stage Vostok rocket, such as the one that had carried Yuri Gagarin into space on April 12, 1961. The "extraordinarily powerful" Vostok was downplayed by American missile experts as "rather old and unsophisticated.". The American exhibit, the largest at the fair, featured the F-111 swing-wing fighter bomber, a replica of Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, and the Ling-Temco-Vought XC-142A, a cargo plane capable of a vertical takeoff and landing. A full-size model of the supersonic Concorde was displayed by the French and British, auguring its successful first flight on March 2, 1969. "The largest plane in the world," the Boeing 747 jet airliner, arrived on June 3, after flying non-stop from Seattle and the Apollo 8 command module, charred by its re-entry, was there flanked by the Apollo 9 astronauts, but the most-viewed exhibit was the supersonic Concorde, which made its first flight over Paris as the show opened. The Soviet TU-144 supersonic airliner was flown to Le Bourget for the 1971 show, drawing comparisons with the French Concorde.
Landing with the Concorde was the American Lockheed C-5A Galaxy. The crash of the Soviet Tu-144, see below, overshadowed the 1973 show, otherwise characterized by "There was nothing new", although the flying was memorable, there were a great many exhibits. One hundred and eighty-two aircraft were scheduled for appearance. Despite restrictions that followed the TU-144 crash in 1973, a day of flying pleased viewers. In particular, the American YF-16 and the French Mirage F-1E competed in turn before a critical audience. Days Belgium became the fourth European nation to choose the YF-16 over the F-1E. Celebration of Charles Lindbergh's trans-Atlantic flight to Le Bourget fifty years ago recalled that historic event. Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Lindbergh's widow, attended the ceremony along with early trans-Atlantic pilots, Maurice Bellonte and Armand Lotti. Recent extension of coastal limits to 200 nautical miles has produced new maritime-reconnaissance aircraft; the crash of a Fairchild A-10 tank-destroyer led to tightened rules on air show demonstrations.
Two airliners, the Airbus A310 and the Boeing 767, are competing for the international market, but neither will carry passengers before 1982. The Westland WG30 transport helicopter shows promise. "The Mirage 4000 remains a question mark" despite being "surely the main highlight this year at Le Bourget." Exhibiting at the show, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas/Fokker vie for the 150-seat airline market, while Rolls Royce/Japan, General Electric/Snecma, Pratt & Whitney contest for their engines. The Northrop F-5G Tigershark mockup was on display and expected to fly in 1982 with delivery the following year. A novelty was Air Transat, a light aircraft trans-Atlantic race from Le Bourget to Sikorsky Memorial Airport, Bridgeport and back, won by a twin engine Piper Navaho and a Beechcraft Bonanza; the American Space Shuttle Enterprise was flown around Paris and towered over other exhibits, but "much more intriguing" were replicas of two twin-engined fighters, the British Aerospace ACA and French Dassault Breguet ACX.
Sales of Boeing 757 and Airbus A310 airliners to Singapore Airlines were welcome news during an ongoing recession. The Soviet Antonov An-124 Ruslan military heavy lifter was the largest exhibit in 1985. Propfan engines stirred interest. Reflecting the upturn in the economy and Airbus announced new contracts totaling as much as $1,700 million; the Hubble space telescope should be deplo
Eglin Air Force Base
Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in western Florida, located about three miles southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County. The host unit at Eglin is the 96th Test Wing; the 96 TW is the test and evaluation center for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems. Eglin AFB was established 84 years ago in 1935 as the Valparaiso Gunnery Base, it is named in honor of Lt. Col. Frederick I. Eglin, killed in a crash of his Northrop A-17 attack aircraft on a flight from Langley to Maxwell Field, Alabama. Eglin is an Air Force Materiel Command base serving as the focal point for all Air Force armaments. Eglin is responsible for the development, testing and sustainment of all air-delivered non-nuclear weapons; the base plans and conducts test and evaluation of U. S. and allied air armament and guidance systems, command and control systems. Severe-weather testing of aircraft and other equipment is carried out here at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory.
The residential portion of the base is a census-designated place. Eglin Air Force Base has 2,359 military family housing units. Unmarried junior enlisted members live in one of Eglin’s seven dormitories located near the dining hall, base gym, enlisted club, bus lines on base; each individual unit handles dormitory assignments. Bachelor officer quarters are not available. Several units and one dormitory were being renovated in 2011; the base covers 463,128 acres. Eglin is one of the few military air bases in the U. S. to have scheduled passenger airline service as the Destin–Fort Walton Beach Airport is co-located on the base property. The 96 TW is the test and evaluation wing for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems; the Eglin Gulf Test Range provides 130,000 square miles of over water airspace. The 96 TW supports other tenant units on the installation with traditional military services as well as all the services of a small city, to include civil engineering, logistics, computer, security.
The 96 TW reports to the Air Force Test Center at Edwards AFB. The 33d FW "Nomads" is the largest tenant unit at Eglin; the 33 FW is a joint graduate flying and maintenance training wing for the F-35 Lightning II, organized under Air Education and Training Command's 19th Air Force. First established as the 33d Pursuit Group, the wing’s contribution to tactical airpower during its 50-year history has been significant with participation in campaigns around the world, while flying various fighter aircraft. Reactivated at Eglin on 1 April 1965 with F-4C Phantom IIs, the wing operated, successively, F-4D and E models into the 1970s before transitioning to the F-15 Eagle; as of 1 October 2009, the 33d FW transitioned to a training wing for the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The final F-15s assigned to the 33d departed the base in September 2009; as the first of its kind in the Department of Defense, the joint wing is responsible for F-35 JSF pilot and maintainer training for the Air Force, Marine Corps and the Navy.
The first of 59 F-35s arrived from Fort Worth, Texas on 14 July 2011. The 58th FS "Mighty Gorillas" are authorized to operate 24 assigned F-35A aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Air Force and international partner pilot training requirements; the F-35A is a conventional-takeoff-and-landing low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft, designed with 5th-generation sensors and weapons, is able to perform air superiority, air interdiction and close air support missions. The F-35A made its first flight on 15 December 2006; the VFA-101 "Grim Reapers" are authorized to operate 15 assigned F-35C aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Navy aviator training requirements. The F-35C is a carrier-capable low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft; the F-35C bears structural modifications from the other variants, necessitated by the increased resiliency required for carrier operations. The 53 WG is headquartered at Eglin and serves as the Air Force’s focal point for operational test and evaluation of armament and avionics, aircrew training devices, chemical defense, aerial reconnaissance improvements, electronic warfare systems, is responsible for the QF-4 Phantom II Full Scale Aerial Target program and subscale drone programs.
The wing tests every fighter, unmanned aerial vehicle, associated weapon system in the Air Force inventory. The wing reports to the USAF Air Warfare Center at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, a Direct Reporting Unit to Headquarters, Air Combat Command. Squadron attached to the 53d Wing but located at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana)The squadron plans and reports ACC's weapon system evaluation programs for bombers and nuclear-capable fighters; these evaluations include operational effectiveness and suitability and control, performance of aircraft hardware and software systems, employment tactics, accuracy and reliability of associated precision weapons. These weapons include air-launched cruise missiles, standoff missiles, gravity bombs. Results and conclusions support acquisition decisions and development of war plans; the unit performs operational testing on new systems and tactics development for the B-52. The Armament Directorate, located
The Raytheon Company is a major U. S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles. Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959; as of 2017 the company had around 64,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of US$25.35 billion. More than 90% of Raytheon's revenues were obtained from military contracts and, as of 2012, it was the fifth-largest military contractor in the world; as of 2015, it is the third largest defense contractor in the United States by defense revenue. In 2003, Raytheon's headquarters moved from Massachusetts, to Waltham, Massachusetts; the company had been headquartered in Cambridge, from 1922 to 1928, Massachusetts, from 1928 to 1941, Waltham from 1941 to 1961 and Lexington from 1961 to 2003. In 1922, two former Tufts University School of Engineering roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Its focus, on new refrigeration technology, soon shifted to electronics. The company's first product was a gaseous rectifier, based on Charles Smith's earlier astronomical research of the star Zeta Puppis; the electron tube was christened with the name Raytheon and was used in a battery eliminator, a type of radio-receiver power supply that plugged into the power grid in place of large batteries. This made it possible to convert household alternating current to direct current for radios and thus eliminate the need for expensive, short-lived batteries. In 1925, the company changed its name to Raytheon Manufacturing Company and began marketing its rectifier, under the Raytheon brand name, with commercial success. In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q. R. S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor of the same name, Raytheon Manufacturing Company. By the 1930s, it had grown to become one of the world's largest vacuum tube manufacturing companies. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, electronic auto parts.
Early in World War II, physicists in the United Kingdom invented the magnetron, a specialized microwave-generating electron tube that markedly improved the capability of radar to detect enemy aircraft. American companies were sought by the US government to perfect and mass-produce the magnetron for ground-based and shipborne radar systems, with support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory, Raytheon received a contract to build the devices. Within a few months of being awarded the contract, Raytheon had begun to mass manufacture magnetron tubes for use in radar sets and complete radar systems. At war's end in 1945 the company was responsible for about 80 percent of all magnetrons manufactured. During the war Raytheon pioneered the production of shipboard radar systems for submarine detection. Raytheon ranked 71st among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Raytheon's research on the magnetron tube revealed the potential of microwaves to cook food.
In 1945, Raytheon's Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven by discovering that the magnetron could heat food. In 1947, the company demonstrated the Radarange microwave oven for commercial use. In 1945, the company expanded its electronics capability through acquisitions that included the Submarine Signal Company, a leading manufacturer of maritime safety equipment. With its broadened capabilities, Raytheon developed the first guidance system for a missile that could intercept a flying target. In 1948, Raytheon began to manufacture guided missiles. In 1950, its Lark missile became the first such weapon to destroy a target aircraft in flight. Raytheon received military contracts to develop the air-to-air Sparrow and ground-to-air Hawk missiles—projects that received impetus from the Korean War. In decades, it remained a major producer of missiles, among them the Patriot antimissile missile and the air-to-air Phoenix missile. In 1959, Raytheon acquired the marine electronics company Apelco Applied Electronics, which increased its strength in commercial marine navigation and radio gear, as well as less-expensive Japanese suppliers of products such as marine/weather band radios and direction-finding gear.
In the same year, it changed its name to Raytheon Company. During the post-war years, Raytheon made low- to medium-powered radio and television transmitters and related equipment for the commercial market, but the high-powered market was solidly in the hands of larger, better financed competitors such as Continental Electronics, General Electric and Radio Corporation of America. In the 1950s, Raytheon began manufacturing transistors, including the CK722, priced and marketed to hobbyists. In 1961, the British electronics company A. C. Cossor merged with Raytheon; the new Company's name was Raytheon Cossor. The Cossor side of the organisation is still current in the Raytheon group As of 2010. In 1965, it acquired Amana Inc. a manufacturer of refrigerators and air conditioners. Using the Amana brand name and its distribution channels, Raytheon began selling the first countertop household microwave oven in 1967 and became a dominant manufacturer in the microwave oven business. In 1966, the company entered the educational publ
ILA Berlin Air Show
The ILA Berlin Air Show combines a major trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries with a public airshow. It is held every year at the new Berlin ExpoCenter Airport near Schönefeld, Brandenburg 18 km southeast of Berlin, Germany; the most recent ILA Berlin Air Show was held in April 2018. Established in 1909, it claims to be world's oldest air show, it is among the largest and most important aerospace trade fairs today. According to the organisers Messe Berlin GmbH, in 2012 the Berlin Air Show attracted 125,000 professional visitors and 105,000 members of the general public, with 3,600 journalists from 65 countries attending; the format is similar to the Paris Air Show in France and the Farnborough International Airshow in Britain, the other major events in the European air show calendar. The Berlin event starts with three professional days closed to the general public, on Friday and Sunday the public are allowed in; the main display sections planned for 2014 include commercial air transport, military aviation and both civil and military unmanned aircraft systems known as UAVs.
It was first held in Frankfurt am Main in 1909, as such can lay claim to being the oldest aviation show in the world. After the first ILA, following the idea of the aircraft constructor August Euler, numerous flying clubs combined to form the German Pilots' Association in April 1910. Shortly after, the Association of German Aircraft Makers was founded in Frankfurt/Main, establishing close ties between the ILA and the future Federal Association of the Aerospace Industry, an organisation that exists today. Before the First World War, the ILA was held in Berlin; when Germany regained air sovereignty after the Second World War, the foundations were laid in 1955 for an "International Show for Travel by Air", which in 1957 took place at Langenhagen Airport as part of the Hanover Trade Fair, the first in a run of ILA shows in Hanover, to last over 30 years. Known as the German Aviation Show, the fair was attracting participants from abroad, in 1978 the symbolic three letters ILA from 1909 were revived.
In 1992, the far-reaching political and economic changes which had taken place in Europe since the fall of the Berlin Wall opened the way for the ILA to return to its birthplace in Berlin. The ILA’s main display sections include commercial aviation, military aviation and military technology and engines, general aviation and helicopters; the new multi-purpose exhibition area, called Berlin ExpoCenter Airport adjacent to the BER was finished in time for ILA 2012. The main section of the grounds cover 250,000 square metres; the site is situated 18 km southeast of Germany's capital city Berlin. All previous attendance records had been broken at ILA2006. More than 250,000 visitors were recorded at the ILA2006 between 16 and 21 May, including 115,000 trade visitors. Events on the southern section of Berlin-Schönefeld airport were dominated by the signing of sales contracts and joint venture agreements worth billions, a display featuring some 340 aircraft, many of them making their first public appearance, the largest number of delegations and conferences ever.
1,014 exhibitors from 42 countries presented products and processes from every area of the aerospace industry. Several thousand experts from all over Europe and from overseas attended the more than 90 accompanying conferences in search of information; some 4,100 media representatives from 70 countries provided comprehensive coverage of the main technical themes and the attractions for the public at the ILA2006. ILA 2006 emphasised the importance of this sector for Germany in its role as a centre for the aerospace industry. Hans-Joachim Gante, Chief Executive of the BDLI, stated: "We have become one of the few sectors with sustainable growth in Germany, due above all to our innovative strengths." This was demonstrated at the ILA2006, acquiring an international dimension, thereby strengthening its role as one of the world’s major meeting places for the industry. This was an ideal opportunity for the German aerospace industry to demonstrate that it is among the world leaders." Exhibitors expressed their satisfaction with the discussions and contacts and with the business deals that were finalised at this event.
"In particular the decision to make Russia the partner country proved effective. Russia was strongly represented and was able to establish numerous contacts and business links." At the close of the event Stefan Grave, Project Director for Messe Berlin GmbH, summed up: "The ILA2006 underlined its major importance as a European marketing platform for this sector as well as again demonstrating its many attractions for the public. Trade visitors and the general public alike were fascinated by the high-tech products on display. Unprecedented numbers of people attended to see the Airbus A380, an outstanding international flying display and the Space Hall. Many high-ranking delegations attended during the three Trade Visitors’ Days. In addition to the Federal Minister of Economics Michael Glos, the ILA 2006 received visits from the Defence Minister Franz-Josef Jung, Minister of the Interior Wolfgang Schäuble, Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee, the Minister at the Chancellor’s Office Dr. Thomas de Maizière and the heads of the regional governments in Brandenburg and Berlin, Matthias Platzeck and Klaus Wowereit.
Germany’s armed forces, the Bundeswehr, were strongly represented: the Chief of the Armed Forces Wolfgang Schneiderhan attended the ILA 2006, as did the Chiefs of Staff
Paveway IV is a dual mode GPS/INS and laser-guided bomb manufactured by Raytheon UK. It is the latest iteration of the Paveway series; the weapon is a guidance kit based on the existing Enhanced Paveway II Enhanced Computer Control Group added to a modified Mk 82 general-purpose bomb with increased penetration performance. The new ECCG contains a Height of Burst sensor enabling air burst fusing options, a SAASM compliant GPS receiver, it can be launched either IMU only, given sufficiently good Transfer Alignment, or using GPS guidance. Terminal laser guidance is available in either navigation mode; the Paveway IV entered service with the Royal Air Force in 2008. It has yet to be accepted into service with the United States, which has pursued the development of the Laser-JDAM and dual mode Small-Diameter Bomb; the Paveway IV's first export sale was to the Royal Saudi Air Force in a deal worth £150 million. The deal had been delayed for several years by the U. S. State Department which had to authorise the bomb's sale due to its use of American components.
A contract was signed in December 2013 with Congressional approval given two months with deliveries to begin within 18 months. The Paveway IV was first used operationally by the Royal Air Force during Operation Herrick in Afghanistan, it was used operationally during Operation Ellamy in Libya, Operation Shader in Iraq and Syria. In December 2015, the Royal Air Force began strike operations in Syria as part of Operation Shader, deployed Paveway IV operationally from its Eurofighter Typhoons for the first time. In January 2015, Eurofighter Typhoons of the Royal Saudi Air Force dropped Paveway IVs on ISIL targets in Syria; this was the first operational deployment of Paveway IV from Typhoon. Paveway IVs were used in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. In 2015 for a period export licences were withheld over concern about how they might be used in Yemen, but after some assurances were made exports were resumed; the sales are being investigated by the Committees on Arms Export Controls. Raytheon UK is conducting preparatory work to equip the Paveway IV with a bunker-busting warhead as part of the Selective Precision Effects At Range Capability 1 program.
The compact penetrator has the same outer mold line and mass of the regular Paveway IV and uses a discarding shroud design. A penetrating 500 lb Paveway IV would replace the RAF's previous 2,000 lb Paveway III bunker buster; the penetrating version of the Paveway IV will enter service on the Typhoon in early 2019. Raytheon claims the new warhead has the performance of the BLU-109 penetrating bomb, despite being one-quarter of its weight. In December 2016, the Obama administration blocked a transfer of Paveway IV bombs to Saudi Arabia because of concerns about civilian casualties which officials put down to poor targeting. On 19 June 2015, a Royal Air Force test pilot released two inert Paveway IV laser-guided bombs from a Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II during trials in the United States; this marked the first successful firing of a non-US munition during the F-35's development programme. Paveway IV is a future candidate for integration on the aircraft, will be used operationally by both the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy when the F-35 enters service with both arms.
Saudi Arabia Royal Saudi Air Force United Kingdom Royal Air Force United Kingdom Naval Strike Wing United Kingdom Fleet Air ArmQatar Qatar Air Force RAF Tornados lock on latest guided munition