The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas. In the Pawnee language, the Pawnee people refer to themselves as Chatiks si chatiks or "Men of Men"; the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup and South Platte rivers. The Pawnee tribal economic activities throughout the year alternated between farming crops and hunting buffalo. In the early 18th century, the Pawnee numbered more than 60,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. Although dominating the Loup and Platte river areas for centuries, they suffered from increasing encroachment and attrition by their numerically superior, nomadic enemies: the Sioux (or Lakota and Arapaho; the Pawnee were at war with the Comanche and Kiowa farther south. They had suffered many losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases brought by the expanding Europeans, by 1860, the Pawnee population was reduced to 4,000.
It further decreased, because of disease, crop failure, warfare, to 2,400 by 1873, after which time the Pawnee were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track and fight their tribal enemies resisting European-American expansion on the Great Plains. There are 3,200 enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma, their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble and Pawnee counties. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma; this government consists of the Resaru Council, the Pawnee Business Council, the Supreme Court. Enrollment into the tribe requires a minimum 1⁄8th blood quantum; the Resaru Council known as the "Chiefs Council" consists of eight members, each serving four-year terms. Each band has two representatives on the Resaru Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Kitkahaki and Ckiri; the Resaru Council has the right to review all acts of the Pawnee Business Council regarding the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma membership and Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma claims or rights growing out of treaties between the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and the United States according to provision listed in the Pawnee Nation Constitution.
2013–2017Morgan Littlesun, 1st Chief Kitkehahki Band Ralph Haymond, 2nd Chief Kitkehahki Band, 2nd Nasharo Council Chief Matt Reed, 2nd Chief Chaui Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 1st Chief Skidi Band Jimmy Horn, 1st Chief Chaui Band, Nasharo Council Treasurer Warren Pratt, Jr. 2nd Chief Skidi Band, Nasharo Council 1st Chief Francis Morris, 1st Chief Pitahauirata Band Lester Moon Eagle, 2nd Chief Pitahauirata Band, Nasharo Council SecretaryCurrentMorgan Littlesun, 2nd Chief Kitkahaki Band Ralph Haymond, Jr. 1st Chief Kitkahaki Band Matt Reed, 1st Chief Cawi Band Jimmy Horn, 2nd Chief Cawi Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 2nd Chief, Ckiri Band Warren Pratt, Jr. 1st Chief, Ckiri Band Ron Rice, Sr. 1st Chief, Pitahawirata Band Tim Jim, 2nd Chief, Pitahawirata BandThe Pawnee Business Council is the supreme governing body of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. Subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution and applicable Federal law, the Pawnee Business Council shall exercise all the inherent and treaty powers of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma by the enactment of legislation, the transaction of business, by otherwise speaking or acting on behalf of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma on all matters which the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is empowered to act, including the authority to hire legal counsel to represent the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
Current Pawnee Business Council Bruce Pratt, President Darrell Wildcat, Vice President Phammie N. Littlesun, Treasurer Angela Thompson, Secretary Council Seat #1 Council Seat #2 Council Seat #3 Council Seat #4The new Council members were voted in by the people; the Pawnee operate two gaming casinos, three smoke shops, two fuel stations, one truck stop. Their estimated economic impact for 2010 was $10.5 million. Increased revenues from the casinos have helped them provide for education and welfare of their citizens, they operate their housing authority. The Pawnee were divided into two large groupings: the Skidi / Skiri-Federation living in the north and the South Bands. While the Skidi / Skiri-Federation were the most populous group of Pawnee, the Cawi / Chaui Band of the South Bands were the politically leading group, although each band was autonomous; as was typical of many Native American tribes, each band saw to its own. In response to pressures from the Spanish and Americans, as well as neighboring tribes, the Pawnee began to draw closer together.
South Bands called Tuhaáwit by the Skidi-FederationCáwiiʾi, Cawií, variants: Cawi, Chawi, or Tsawi Kítkehahki, Kítkahaahki, variants: Kitkahaki,Kitkehahki, or Kitkehaxki Kitkehahkisúraariksisuʾ or Kítkahaahkisuraariksisuʾ (Kitkahahki band proper ‘real Kitkahahki’ – the larger of two late 19th century divisions
De Kalb is a city in Buchanan County, United States. The population was 220 at the 2010 census, it is part of the St. MO -- KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. De Kalb was known as Bloomington, under the latter name was laid out in 1839, it was renamed in 1851 for Johann von Robais, Baron de Kalb, a major general in the American Revolutionary War. A post office called De Kalb has been in operation since 1840. De Kalb is located at 39°35′17″N 94°55′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.25 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 220 people, 87 households, 65 families residing in the city; the population density was 880.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 97 housing units at an average density of 388.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.1% White, 0.5% African American, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 87 households of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.3% were non-families.
18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 257 people, 101 households, 73 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,017.0 people per square mile. There were 105 housing units at an average density of 415.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.28% White, 0.78% Native American, 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population. There were 101 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,750, the median income for a family was $49,688. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $19,205 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,880. About 3.2% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen and 2.6% of those sixty five or over
Inflationism is a heterodox economic, fiscal, or monetary policy, that predicts that a substantial level of inflation is harmless, desirable or advantageous. Inflationist economists advocate for an inflationist policy. Mainstream economics holds that inflation is a necessary evil, advocates a low, stable level of inflation, thus is opposed to inflationist policies – some inflation is necessary, but inflation beyond a low level is not desirable. However, deflation is seen as a worse danger within Keynesian economics and in the theory of debt deflation, thus the policies advocated by Keynesian economists such as Paul Krugman to prevent deflation in cases of economic crisis are labeled as inflationist policies by others. In political debate, inflationism is opposed to hard currency, which believes that the real value of currency should be maintained. In late 19th century United States, the Free Silver movement advocated the inflationary policy of free coinage of silver; this was a contentious political issue in the 40-year period 1873–1913 defeated.
Economist John Maynard Keynes described the effects of inflationism: Lenin is said to have declared that the best way to destroy the capitalist system was to debauch the currency. By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizens. By this method they not only confiscate; the sight of this arbitrary rearrangement of riches strikes not only at security but at confidence in the equity of the existing distribution of wealth. Those to whom the system brings windfalls, beyond their deserts and beyond their expectations or desires, become "profiteers," who are the object of the hatred of the bourgeoisie, whom the inflationism has impoverished, not less than of the proletariat; as the inflation proceeds and the real value of the currency fluctuates wildly from month to month, all permanent relations between debtors and creditors, which form the ultimate foundation of capitalism, become so utterly disordered as to be meaningless.
Lenin was right. There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency; the process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, does it in a manner which not one man in a million is able to diagnose. Inflationism is most associated with, a charge most leveled against, schools of economic thought which advocate government action, either fiscal policy or monetary policy, to achieve full employment; such schools have heterodox views on monetary economics The early 19th century Birmingham School of economics, which advocated expansionary monetary policy to achieve full employment, was attacked as "crude inflationists". The contemporary Post-Keynesian monetary economic school of Neo-Chartalism, which advocates government deficit spending to yield full employment, is attacked as inflationist, with critics arguing that such deficit spending leads to hyperinflation. Neo-Chartalists reject this charge, such as in the title of the Neo-Chartalist organization the Center for Full Employment and Price Stability.
Neoclassical economics has argued a deflationist policy. This was opposed by Keynesian economics, which argued that a general cut in wages reduced demand, worsening the crisis, without improving employment. While few, if any, economists argue that inflation is a good thing in itself, some argue for a higher level of inflation, either in general or in the context of economic crises, deflation is agreed to be harmful. Three contemporary arguments for higher inflation, the first two from the mainstream school of Keynesian economics and advocated by prominent economists, the latter from the heterodox school of Post-Keynesian economics, are: added flexibility in monetary policy. Added flexibility in monetary policy A high inflation rate with a low nominal interest rate result in a negative real interest rate; as lower interest rates are associated with stimulating the economy under monetary policy, the higher inflation is, the more flexibility a central bank has in setting interest rates while still keeping them nonnegative.
Olivier Blanchard, chief economist of the International Monetary Fund, argues that the inflation rates during The Great Moderation were too low, causing constraints in the late-2000s recession, that central banks should consider a target inflation rate of 4% instead of 2%. Wage stickiness Inflation decreases the real value of wages, in the absence of corresponding wage rises. In the theory of wage stickiness, a cause of unemployment in recessions and depressions is the failure of workers to take pay cuts, to decrease real labor costs, it is observed that wages are nominally sticky downwards in the long term, thus that inflation provides useful erosion of real costs wages without requiring nominal wage cuts. Collective bargaining in the Netherlands and Japan has at times yielded nominal wage cuts, in the belief that high real labor costs were causing unemploymen
Great Kei Local Municipality is an administrative area in the Amathole District of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. The name "Kei" is of Khoi origin, meaning "sand"; the municipality is named after the Great Kei River. The 2001 census divided the municipality into the following main places: The municipal council consists of thirteen members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. Seven councillors are elected by first-past-the-post voting in seven wards, while the remaining six are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 August 2016 the African National Congress won a majority of nine seats on the council; the following table shows the results of the election. Http://www.greatkeilm.gov.za/
"Down" is a song by British singer Jay Sean. The song was released in North America as his debut single from his first album there, All or Nothing. In other markets, including the United Kingdom, the song serves as Jay Sean's lead single from his third studio album; the single features American rapper and label mate Lil Wayne and is produced by J-Remy and Bobby Bass. "Down" is the seventh-best selling single of 2009 and has been certified Platinum in several countries. The song went on to sell six million copies in the United States and received a large airplay on radio worldwide; the track was released to US radio on 31 May 2009 and digital retailers on 30 June 2009. "Down" hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the issue dated 17 October 2009, unseating I Gotta Feeling by The Black Eyed Peas after their 14-week reign at number one. This made Jay Sean the first British act to score a Billboard Hot 100 number-one single since Coldplay's "Viva la Vida" in 2008, the fourth British act overall in the 2000s decade.
The song made him "the first UK urban act to top Billboard's Hot 100", the first British act to have reached number one in the United States and not in the United Kingdom with a song since Seal's "Kiss from a Rose" in 1995. It was the best-selling single by a British and European male artist in North America since Elton John's "Candle in the Wind" in 1997, the first by a British Asian artist since Freddie Mercury in 1980. On 15 October 2008, at the MOBO Awards, Jay Sean announced that he had signed with the American hip hop record label Cash Money Records, he explained, "It's always been a dream for me to sign to an American label. And it's great to be accepted by the best in the game."It was rumoured that his first single in the US would be a remix of the single, "Tonight" featuring Lil Wayne. In fact, a remix had not been produced, but the song "Down" which began recording in December 2008. Jay Sean and Lil Wayne co-wrote the song with Jared Cotter, Jonathan Perkins, J-Remy, Bobby Bass, it was produced by J-Remy and Bobby Bass.
The track was for My Own Way: Deluxe Edition without Lil Wayne, alongside "War". The CEO of Cash Money Ronald "Slim" Williams liked the track, played it to Wayne and wanted Wayne to be on the track. Sean told MTV News that he recorded this song in 90 minutes, after which he received a call from Ronald "Slim" Williams, he recalled: "Slim called me up and was like,'Yo, there's something wrong on the second verse that just doesn't sound right.' I was like,'Really? What?' He played the song. All of a sudden I heard Wayne's Auto-Tune stuff, I'm like,'OK. What's going on? Right! That's Lil Wayne on my song right now!' That day was brilliant." "The news was on, everything was depressing and we were like'look at this man – everything's so down in the dumps. Why don't we write a song to take everyone's mind away from being down?'" Explains Sean about how the track came about during a late night recording session in Miami's Hit Factory studio. According to Sean, "Wayne heard it, fell in love and dropped a verse on it," which resulted in the up-tempo summer record peppered with Wayne's gritty pipes.
The BBC reported in 2009 that Jay Sean became "The Most Successful Male U. K. Urban artist in U. S chart history". "I want to do my best to represent the UK in America and let people understand that it doesn't matter if we're from a little place called Hounslow. As long as you work hard and strive to do you best and make good music, of course with a bit of luck, it is possible," Jay told the BBC; the success of "Down" has led to Sean being considered the most successful European urban artist in North America. When the track topped the Billboard Hot 100, Jay Sean was on stage with labelmate Lil Wayne, on the first night of the US rapper's London concert tour. Before he returned to the US, Jay Sean was asked, "How does it feel to have the top song of the week?", replied, "This is insane. It's just incredible to have reached number one with my first release in America. It's difficult for me to put into words. My head is spinning. I've been grinding hard for the last seven years releasing records independently and now to have the biggest record in the USA this week.
It's just a dream come true." The second time the song hit number one, he was performing at "The Justin Timberlake and Friends Concert Benefiting Shriners Hospitals For Children" on 17 October 2009 with Justin Timberlake. The music video for "Down" was produced alongside the video for "Written On Her"; the "Down" video was first shot in London on 24 April 2009, with Cash Money crew without Lil Wayne. The video was shot over two days; the Buckinghamshire mansion featured is Hedsor House, an enormous private mansion and park where Mark Ronson hosted his 33rd birthday and where scenes for the feature film The Golden Compass were filmed. The video was completed in Miami, with Jay Sean heading to the US to finish the video with Lil Wayne on 20 May 2009; the video features Hispanic American model Korrina Rico as the lead lady, bright blue lights and bottles. The video was produced by Shurwin Beckford and directed by Richard Pengelley for Jayded Entertainment/Guerilla Hype/Hey Buddy and edited by Jamie Mac and Adam Wood.
During the rap break, Lil Wayne is seen wearing a red T-shirt with the word'COMMUNIST' in white capitalized letters. The prelude of his previous single "Ride It" can be heard in the music video as the introduction to this song. On 23 July 2009, the video premiered on Jay Sean's YouTube page. During the week of 10 August 2009, the music video was featured as iTunes' Free Music Video of the Week; the video was added to
Hyro the Hero known as Hyro Da Hero, is an American rapper from Houston, TX residing in Los Angeles, CA. Hyro moved to Los Angeles in November 2007, shortly afterward released his first mixtape, Gangsta Rock, on Christmas Eve 2007 via iLike, his second mix tape, Rock & Roll Gangsta, released August 8, 2008, was dedicated to the memory of Ryan Halligan, who committed suicide after enduring years of bullying. His third mix tape, Belo Horizonte, named for a city in Brazil and released on Christmas Eve 2009, contained his first track with no samples, "Dirty South Rock". Hyro recorded his debut album Birth, Work, Death which includes tracks produced by Ross Robinson featuring Paul Hinojos on bass, Daniel Anderson on guitar, the Blood Brothers alumni Cody Votolato on guitar, Mark Gajadhar on drums. Birth, Work, Death was released in the UK and Ireland on April 4, 2011, with worldwide release following in the year. Hyro embarked on his first tour with a full band in the UK and Ireland in April 2012, with Welsh post-hardcore band the Blackout.
Hyro appeared on their single "Higher & Higher" from their album Hope. In June, Hyro performed at Download Festival at Donington Park in England. After watching his Friday performance, the festival's promoter, Andy Copping, added Hyro to the 2nd stage on Sunday the 12th. Hyro played on the Jägermeister Acoustic stage with his DJ and drummer, making him the first and only artist in the history of Download Festival to perform on 3 separate stages in the same year. On the Saturday in between his Friday and Sunday performances, Hyro performed with Wu-Tang Clan in London and again Edinburgh, Scotland the following Monday; that same month, Hyro was nominated by Kerrang! as Best International Newcomer at the 2011 Kerrang! Awards. Hyro Da Hero embarked on his first US tour with his current band that summer, performing with Hollywood Undead and All That Remains on their 2011 summer tour, he was forced to cancel a UK tour in October/November. In February 2012 Hyro returned to the UK for his first headline club tour.
He took part in Australia’s Soundwave Festival in early March, appearing on the main stage in 4 cities: Brisbane, Sydney and Perth. Following the Soundwave Festival performances, Hyro went on tour with Mindless Self Indulgence on their US comeback tour in March and April 2012, he appeared on the Vans Warped Tour 2012 and at the Summer Sonic Festival in Tokyo, August 18, 2012. During an Australian tour supporting the Deftones, Fenton presented new material, more hip hop based, which he is developing further. In the winter of 2016 Fenton entered the recording studio with producer Mitchell Marlow to work new material, resulting in 2018's Flagged Channel, its lead single was "Bullet". Birth, Work, Death Flagged Channel "Bullet" #30 Mainstream Rock Songs Official website Hyro The Hero on Artistdirect Hyro The Hero on Revolver.com HyroGang - Official Facebook Fan Group on Facebook