The Shailendra dynasty was the name of a notable Indianised dynasty that emerged in 8th-century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region. The Shailendras were active promoters of Mahayana Buddhism, covered the Kedu Plain of Central Java with Buddhist monuments, one of, the colossal stupa of Borobudur, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Shailendras are considered to have been a thalassocracy and ruled vast swathes of maritime Southeast Asia, however they relied on agricultural pursuits, by way of intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java, for some period, the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra; the inscriptions created by Shailendras use three languages. The use of Old Malay has sparked speculation of a Sumatran origin, or Srivijayan connection of this family. On the other hand, the use of Old Javanese suggests their firm political establishment on Java; the use of Sanskrit indicates the official nature, and/or religious significance, of the event described in any given inscription.
The Sojomerto inscription discovered in Batang Regency, Central Java, mentioned the name Dapunta Selendra and Selendranamah. The name'Selendra' was another spelling of Shailendra, suggested that Dapunta Selendra was the progenitor of Shailendra family in Central Java; the inscription is Shaivist in nature, which suggests that the family was initially Hindu Shaivist before converting to Mahayana Buddhism. The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which mentioned the dynastic name of Śailēndra as Śailēndravamśatilaka appears is the Kalasan inscription of central Java, which mention its ruler Mahārāja dyāḥ Pañcapaṇa kariyāna Paṇaṃkaraṇa and commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine, Candi Kalasan, dedicated for the goddess Tara; the name appears in several other inscriptions like the Kelurak inscription and the Karangtengah inscription. Outside Indonesia, the name Shailendra is to be found in the Ligor inscription on the Malay peninsula and Nalanda inscription in India, it is possible that it was Paṇaṃkaraṇa that create the Chaiya, or Ligor inscription, took control over Srivijayan realm in the Southern Thailand Malay Peninsula.
Although the rise of the Shailendras occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion. Apart from Java itself; the latest studies favour a native origin of the dynasty. Despite their connections with Srivijaya in Sumatra and Thai-Malay Peninsula, the Shailendras were more of Javanese origin. According to Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, an Indian scholar, the Shailendra dynasty that established itself in the Indonesian archipelago originated from Kalinga in Eastern India; this opinion is shared by Nilakanta Sastri and J. L. Moens. Moens further describes that the Shailendras originated in India and established themselves in Palembang before the arrival of Srivijaya's Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. In 683, the Shailendras moved to Java because of the pressure exerted by Dapunta Hyang and his troops. Other scholars hold that the expansion of Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java. Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage.
The fact that some of Shailendra's inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections. The name'Selendra' was first mentioned in Sojomerto inscription as "Dapunta Selendra". Dapunta Selendra is suggested as the ancestor of Shailendras; the title Dapunta is similar to those of Srivijayan King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, the inscription — although discovered in Central Java north coast — was written in old Malay, which suggested the Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection to this family. Another theory suggests that Shailendra was a native Javanese dynasty and the Sanjaya dynasty was a branch of the Shailendras since Sri Sanjaya and his offspring belong to the Shailendra family that were the Shaivist rulers of the Medang Kingdom; the association of Shailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion of Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory is based on the Carita Parahyangan, which tells of the ailing King Sanjaya ordering his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to Buddhism because their faith in Shiva was feared by the people in favor of the pacifist Buddhist faith.
The conversion of Panangkaran to Buddhism corresponds to the Raja Sankhara inscription, which tells of a king named Sankhara converting to Buddhism because his Shaiva faith was feared by the people. The Raja Sankhara inscription is now missing. In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar-sounding'mountainlord' titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this, they hold. The Shailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya in Sumatra. For instance, Samaragrawira married a daughter of Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu; the mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Shailendra had access to the international market. Karan
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
For the social group or caste amongst the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka, see KinnarayaIn Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse. In South-east Asia, two of the most beloved mythological characters are the benevolent half-human, half-bird creatures known as the Kinnara and Kinnari, which are believed to come from the Himalayas and watch over the well-being of humans in times of trouble or danger, their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say: We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally wife. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure, they are featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra. An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena. In Southeast Asian mythology, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures.
One of the many creatures that inhabit the mythical Himavanta, Kinnaris have the head and arms of a woman and the wings and feet of a swan. They are renowned for their dance and poetry, are a traditional symbol of feminine beauty and accomplishment. Edward H. Schafer notes that in East Asian religious art the Kinnara is confused with the Kalaviṅka, a half-human half-bird hybrid mythical creature, but that the two are distinct and unrelated. In Burma, kinnara are called kinnaya. Female kinnara are called kinnayi. In Shan, they are ၵိင ၼရီ respectively. Burmese Buddhists believe; the kinnari is one of the 108 symbols on the footprint of Buddha. In Burmese art, kinnari are depicted with covered breasts; the Myanmar Academy Awards statue for Academy Award winners is of a kinnari. The kinnara and kinnari couple is considered the symbol of the Karenni people. In Cambodia, the kinnaras are known in the Khmer language as kenar; the female counterpart, the kinnari, are depicted in Cambodian art and literature more than the male counterparts.
They are seen carved into support figurines for the columns of post-Angkorian architecture. Kinnari are skilled dancers; the kinnari is a character archetype in the repertoire of the Royal Ballet of Cambodia, appearing as mischievous groups that have a strong allurement. A classical dance titled. In the Sanskrit language, the name Kinnara contains a question mark i.e. is this man?. In Hindu mythology, Kinnara is described as half man, half-horse, half-bird; the Vishnudharmottara describes Kinnara as half-man and half-horse, but the correct nature of Kinnara as Buddhists understood is half-man and half-bird. The figure of Yaksha with a horse head illustrated in Bodh Gaya sculptures in however a Kinnari as the Jataka illustrating it treats her as a demi-god. According to the Jatakas, Kinnaras are fairies and are shown as going in pairs noted for mutual love and devotion. In the Chanda Kinnara Jataka the devotion of the Kinnarai to her wounded Kinnara husband brings Indra on the scene to cure him from the wound.
The Kinnaras are noted for their long life. The Jatakas describe the Kinnaras as innocent and harmless, hop like birds, are fond of music and song, with the female beating a drum and male playing on lute; such harmless creatures are described in Jataka No.481 as being caught, put into cages, thus presented to kings for their delight. In Jataka No.504, we have the autobiography of a Kinnara who describes the Kinnara class as human-like the wild things deem us. The Kinnaras can play the flute and dance with soft movements of the body. Kalidasa in his Kumara Sambhava describes them as dwelling in the Himalayas. Kinnaras lived over the hills of Pandaraka, Mallangiri and Gandhamandana, they were tender-hearted and Jataka No. 540 refers to the story of the Kinnaras nursing a human baby whose parents have gone away to the woods. Yet, we find that they were looked upon as queer animals and were hunted and presented to the kings as entertainment. Flowers formed their dress, their food was flower pollen and their cosmetics were made of flower perfumes.
The depiction of Kinnara in early Indian art is an oft-repeated theme. The ancient sculptures of Sanchi, Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and the paintings of Ajanta depict Kinnaras invariably, they are seen in the sculptures flanking the stupas. In this case, they hold garlands or trays containing flowers in their hands for the worship of the Stupas. Sometimes, the Kinnaras appear in the sculptures holding garland in right hand and tray in the left hand, they appear before Bodhi-Drumas, Dharmacakras, or playing a musical instrument. As such, the portrayal of Kinnaras in early Indian sculpture art is common; the images of coupled Kinnara and Kinnari can be found in Borobudur, Pawon, Sewu and Prambanan temples. They are depicted as birds with human heads, or humans with lower limbs of birds; the pair of Kinnara and Kinnari is depicted guarding Kalpataru, the tree of life, sometimes guarding a jar of treasure. A pair of Kinnara-Kinnari bas-reliefs of Sari temple is unique, depicting Kinnara as celestial humans with birds' wi
Buddhism in Indonesia
Buddhism has a long history in Indonesia, is recognized as one of six official religions in Indonesia, along with Islam, Christianity and Confucianism. According to the 2000 national census 0.8% of the total citizens of Indonesia were Buddhists, numbered around 1.7 million. Most Buddhists are concentrated in Jakarta, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, North Sumatra, West Kalimantan; these totals, are inflated, as practitioners of Taoism and Chinese folk religion, which are not considered official religions of Indonesia declared themselves as Buddhists on the most recent census. Today, the majority of Buddhists in Indonesia are Chinese, however small numbers of native Buddhists are present. Buddhism is the second oldest religion in Indonesia after Hinduism, which arrived from India around the second century; the history of Buddhism in Indonesia is related to the history of Hinduism, as a number of empires influenced by Indian culture were established around the same period. The arrival of Buddhism in the Indonesian archipelago began with trading activity, from the early 1st century, by way of the maritime Silk Road between Indonesia and India.
The oldest Buddhist archaeological site in Indonesia is arguably the Batujaya stupas complex in Karawang, West Java. The oldest relic in Batujaya was estimated to originate from the 2nd century, while the latest dated from the 12th century. Subsequently, significant numbers of Buddhist sites were found in Jambi and Riau provinces in Sumatra, as well as in Central and East Java; the Indonesian archipelago has, over the centuries, witnessed the rise and fall of powerful Buddhist empires, such as the Sailendra dynasty, the Mataram, Srivijaya empires. According to some Chinese source, a Chinese Buddhist monk I-tsing on his pilgrim journey to India, witnessed the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya based on Sumatra in the 7th century; the empire served as a Buddhist learning center in the region. A notable Srivijayan revered Buddhist scholar is Dharmakirti, a Srivijayan prince of the Sailendra dynasty, born around the turn of the 7th century in Sumatra, he became a revered scholar-monk in Srivijaya and moved to India to become a teacher at the famed Nalanda University, as well as a poet.
He built on and reinterpreted the work of Dignaga, the pioneer of Buddhist Logic, was influential among Brahman logicians as well as Buddhists. His theories became normative in Tibet and are studied to this day as a part of the basic monastic curriculum. Other Buddhist monks that visited Indonesia were Atisha, Dharmapala, a professor of Nalanda, the South Indian Buddhist Vajrabodhi. Srivijaya was the largest Buddhist empire formed in Indonesian history. A number of Buddhist historical heritages can be found in Indonesia, including the 8th century Borobudur mandala monument and Sewu temple in Central Java, Batujaya in West Java, Muaro Jambi, Muara Takus and Bahal temple in Sumatra, numerous of statues or inscriptions from the earlier history of Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms. During the era of Kediri and Majapahit empire, buddhism — identified as Dharma ri Kasogatan — was acknowledged as one of kingdom's official religions along with Hinduism. Although some of kings might favour Hinduism over another the harmony and syncretism were promoted as manifested in Bhinneka Tunggal Ika national motto, coined from Kakawin Sutasoma, written by Mpu Tantular to promotes tolerance between Hindus and Buddhists.
The classical era of ancient Java had produces some of the exquisite examples of Buddhist arts, such as the statue of Prajnaparamita and the statue of Buddha Vairochana and Boddhisttva Padmapani and Vajrapani in Mendut temple. In the 13th century Islam entered the archipelago, began gaining foothold in coastal port towns; the fall of Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit empire in late 15th century marked the end of dharmic civilization dominance in Indonesia. By the end of the 16th century, Islam had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java and Sumatra. After that for 450 years, there is no significant Buddhist practice in Indonesia. Many of Buddhist sites, stupas and manuscripts are lost or forgotten, as the region has become more predominantly Muslim. During this era of decline, there was only small numbers of people practicing Buddhism, most of them are Chinese immigrants that settled in Indonesia with migration wave accelerated in the 17th century. Many of klenteng in Indonesia are in fact a tridharma temple that houses three faiths, namely Buddhism and Taoism.
In 1934, Narada Thera, a missionary monk from Sri Lanka, visited Dutch East Indies for the first time as part of his journey to spread the Dharma in Southeast Asia. This opportunity was used by a few local Buddhists to revive Buddhism in Indonesia. A Bodhi tree planting ceremony was held in Southeastern side of Borobudur on 10 March 1934 under the blessing of Narada Thera, some Upasakas were ordained as monks. Following the downfall of President Sukarno in the mid-1960s, Pancasila was reasserted as the official Indonesian policy on religion to only recognise monotheism; as a result, founder of Perbuddhi, Bhikku Ashin Jinarakkhita, proposed that there was a single supreme deity, Sanghyang Adi Buddha. He was backed up with the history behind the Indonesian version of Buddhism in ancient Javanese texts, the shape of the Borobudur Temple. During the New Order era, the state ideology of Pancasila listed Buddhism among the five official religions of Indonesia; the national leader of the time, had considered Buddhism and Hinduism as Indonesi
Kalasan known as Candi Kalibening, is an 8th-century Buddhist temple in Java, Indonesia. It is located 13 km east of Yogyakarta on the way to Prambanan temple, on the south side of the main road Jalan Solo between Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Administratively, it is located in the Kalasan District of Sleman Regency. According to the Kalasan inscription dated 778 AD, written in Sanskrit using Pranagari script, the temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka who succeeded in persuading Maharaja Tejapurnapana Panangkaran to construct Tarabhavanam, a holy building for the goddess Tara. In addition, a vihara was built for buddhist monks from the Sailendra family's realm. Panangkaran awarded the Kalaça village to sangha. According to the date of this inscription, Kalasan temple is the oldest of the temples built in the Prambanan Plain. Despite being renovated and rebuilt during the Dutch colonial era, the temple is in poor condition. Compared to other temples nearby such as Prambanan and Sambisari the temple is not well maintained.
The temple stands on square 14.20 meters sub-basement. The temple plan is cross-shaped, designed as a twelve-cornered polygon; each of four cardinal points has stairs and gates adorned with Kala-Makara and rooms measuring 3,5 square meters. No statue is to be found in the smaller rooms facing north and south; the temple is richly decorated with buddhist figures such as the gana. The Kala Face above the southern door has been photographed and used by a number of foreign academics in their books to give an idea of the artistry in stone by Central Javanese artists of a millennia ago. Niches where the statues would have been placed are found outside the temple; the niches adorned an outer wall intricately carved with Kala and divinities in scenes depicting the svargaloka, celestial palace of the gods and gandharvas. The roof of the temple is designed in three sections; the lower one are still according to the polygonal shape of the body and contains small niches with statues of boddhisatvas seated on lotus.
Each of this niches is crowned with stupas. The middle part of the roof is in octagonal shape; each of this eight sides adorned with niches contains statue of a Dhyani Buddha flanked by two standing boddhisatvas. The top part of the roof is circular and have 8 niches crowned with single large dagoba; the octagonal aspect of the structure has led to speculation of non-buddhist elements in the temple, similar to some interpretations of the early Borobudur structure. The temple is facing east, with eastern room served as access to main central room. In the larger main room there is lotus pedestal and throne carved with makara and elephant figure, similar to the Buddha Vairocana throne founds in Mendut temple. According to the Kalasan inscription, the temple once houses the large statue of the Boddhisattvadevi Tara. By the design of the throne, most the statue of the goddess was in seated position and made from bronze. Now the statue is missing the same fate as bronze Buddha statue in Sewu temple, being looted for scrap metal over centuries.
On the outer wall of the temple found the traces of plaster called vajralepa. The same substance founds in nearby Sari temple; the white-yellowish plaster was applied to protect the temple wall, but now the plaster has worn off. The temple is located on archaeologically rich Prambanan plain. Just a few hundred meters north east from Kalasan temple is located Sari temple. Candi Sari most was the monastery mentioned in Kalasan inscription. Further east lies the Prambanan complex, Sewu temple, Plaosan temple. In December 2016, the fourth expansion of the popular real-time strategy PC game from Microsoft, Age of Empires II titled Rise of the Rajas featured Candi Kalasan as the Wonder of the Malay civilization featured in-game. Candi of Indonesia Holt, Claire. Art in Indonesia: continuities and change. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0188-7 Roy E. Jordaan, The Tārā temple of Kalasan in Central Java, PERSEE, retrieved 15 January 2014 Kalasan Temple Official site
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics, used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them. Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya; some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterranean to the Indus valley, can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia, Lydia, or in Phoenicia. Religious buildings in the form of the Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, started to be used in India as commemorative monuments associated with storing sacred relics of the Buddha. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers.
The relics of the Buddha were spread between eight stupas, in Rajagriha, Kapilavastu, Ramagrama, Pava and Vethapida. The Piprahwa stupa seems to have been one of the first to be built. Guard rails —consisting of posts, a coping— became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa; the Buddha had left instructions about how to pay homage to the stupas: "And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colours there with a devout heart, will reap benefits for a long time". This practice would lead to the decoration of the stupas with stone sculptures of flower garlands in the Classical period. According to Buddhist tradition, Emperor Ashoka recovered the relics of the Buddha from the earlier stupas, erected 84.000 stupas to distribute the relics across India. In effect, many stupas are thought to date from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he erected pillars with his inscriptions, Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara. Ashoka established the Pillars of Ashoka throughout his realm next to Buddhist stupas.
The first known appearance of the word "Stupa" is from an inscribed dedication by Ashoka on the Nigali Sagar pillar. Stupas were soon to be richly decorated with sculptural reliefs, following the first attempts at Sanchi Stupa No.2. Full-fledged sculptural decorations and scenes of the life of the Buddha would soon follow at Bharhut, Bodh Gaya, again at Sanchi for the elevation of the toranas and Amaravati; the decorative embellishment of stupas had a considerable development in the northwest in the area of Gandhara, with decorated stupas such as the Butkara Stupa or the Loriyan Tangai stupas. The stupa underwent major evolutions in the area of Gandhara. Since Buddhism spread to Central Asia and Korea and Japan through Gandhara, the stylistic evolution of the Gandharan stupa was influential in the development of the stupa in these areas; the Gandhara stupa followed several steps moving towards more and more elevation and addition of decorative element, leading to the development of the pagoda tower.
The main stupa type are, in choronological order: 1) The Dharmarajika Stupa with a near-Indian design of a semi-hemispheric stupa directly on the ground surface dated to the 3rd century BCE. Similar stupas are the Manikyala stupa or the Chakpat stupa. 2) The Saidu Sharif Stupa and quincunxial, with a flight of stairs to a dome elevated on a square platform. Many Gandhara minutiures represent this spectacular type. 3) The Loriyan Tangai Stupa, with a elongated shape and many narrative reliefs, in many way the Classical Gandharan stupa. 4) The near-pyramidal Jaulian stupa. 5) The cruciform type, as in the Bhamala Stupa, with flights of stairs in the four cardinal directions. 6) The towering design of the second Kanishka stupa. It is thought that the temple in the shape of a truncated pyramid may have derived from the design of the stepped stupas which developed in Gandhara; the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya is one such example, formed of a succession of steps with niches containing Buddha images, alternating with Greco-Roman pillars.
The structure is crowned by the shape of an hemispherical stupa topped by finials, forming a logical elongation of the stepped Gandharan stupas such as those seen in Jaulian. Although the current structure of the Mahabdhodi Temple dates to the Gupta period, the "Plaque of Mahabhodi Temple", discovered in Kumrahar and dated to 150-200 CE based on its dated Kharoshthi inscriptions and combined finds of Huvishka coins, suggests that the pyramidal structure existed in the 2nd century CE; this is confirmed by archaeological excavations in Bodh Gaya. This truncated pyramid design marked the evolution from the aniconic stupa dedicated to the cult of relics, to the iconic temple with multiple images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas; this design was influential in the development of Hindu temples. Stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddh
Candi Sari is an 8th-century Buddhist temple located at Dusun Bendan, Tirtomartani village, Sleman regency, Indonesia. It is located about 130 metres north east from Kalasan temple; the temple was a two-story building with wooden beams, stairs completed with windows and doors. It is suggested that the original function of this building was a vihara, a dwelling place for monks; the temple's name Sari or Saré translates as "to sleep" in Javanese, which confirms the habitation nature of the building. Historians suggested; the Kalasan inscription dated 778 AD, in Pranagari script written in Sanskrit, mentions that the temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka who succeeded in persuading Maharaja Tejapurnapana Panangkaran to construct a holy building for the boddhisattva Tara and build a vihara for Buddhist monks from Sailendra family's realm. Panangkaran awarded the Kalara village to the Sangha. Based on this inscription, Candi Sari was the monastery for monks who served the nearby Kalasan temple.
The ruins were discovered in early 1920s, in 1929, an effort to reconstruct the temple began and was finished in 1930. However it was incomplete because many parts are missing including the outer base that surrounds the temple, the extended front room and front stairs that once projected from the east wall of the temple; the temple consists of three parts. The temple has a rectangular plan, measuring 17.3 m north-south, 10 m west-east, soaring 17 m in height. Only some parts of the base remain, the outer base stoneblocks are missing; the entrance door is located at the eastern side with a gate adorned with a Kala and elephant carving. Windows consist of lower and upper rows. There is a horizontal middle "belt" line around the wall, suggesting that it was a two-storey building; the interior consists of three rooms. These three rooms are connected with doorways on the eastern side of the room along the north-south axis. On the wall of each room are found rows of extruding stone blocks which used to support wooden beams and a wooden ceiling separating the upper and lower floors.
In some places there are diagonal stones, the place where there used to be a wooden stairway. The upper level was used by monks for meditation or worship; some suggest the upper rooms were used as the place for monks to stay, rest, or sleep, while the lower rooms was the place for worship. In the lower rooms there are some elevated parts where statues were once placed, but now the statues are gone. On the side walls are found niches to place oil lamps. In the inner part of each window there are holes to install wooden window bars; these rooms were topped with three horse-shoe arched niches adorned with Kala-makaras and crowned with three rows of stupas. Between these arched niches are found rain-water drainage and "jaladwara" water spouts taking the form of a giant sitting on a snake; the outer wall is richly decorated with Buddhist deities. External decoration include Tara with Bodhisattvas with musical instruments; these figures are placed on each side of the windows. They form a total of 36 statues: 8 on the east and south sides and 12 on the west side.
These Buddhist figures are found in the graceful position of Tribhanga, holding red or blue lotuses and displaying peaceful and serene facial expressions. Images of Kinnara-Kinnari adorn the walls. However, unlike the common depiction of Kinnara as heavenly creature with an upper human-shaped part and a lower bird-shaped part, the unusual image of Kinnara found on the northern wall shows a winged deity. On the outer wall of the temple are found the traces of plaster called vajralepa; the same substance is found in the nearby Kalasan temple. The white-yellowish plaster was applied to protect the temple wall, but now the plaster has worn off. Candi of Indonesia Sari Temple location on wikimapia. Official site Article with photos from borobudur.tv