A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than 150 m. The term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s; the definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host both. For buildings above a height of 300 m, the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework; these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers have a tubular structure, are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind and other lateral loads. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, which are sometimes structurally required; the term "skyscraper" was first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 stories in the late 19th century, a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in major American cities like Chicago, New York City, Detroit, St. Louis; the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Some point to Philadelphia's 10-story Jayne Building as a proto-skyscraper, or to New York's seven-floor Equitable Life Building, built in 1870, for its innovative use of a kind of skeletal frame, but such designation depends on what factors are chosen; the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic. The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-story buildings.
This definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. What is the chief characteristic of the tall office building? It is lofty, it must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it, it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. — Louis Sullivan's The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat defines skyscrapers as those buildings which reach or exceed 150 m in height. Others in the United States and Europe draw the lower limit of a skyscraper at 150 m; the Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise building as "a multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors" and a skyscraper as "a multi-story building whose architectural height is at least 100 m or 330 ft."
Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, such as towers; the word skyscraper carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another; the tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BC. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 160 m Lincoln Cathedral having exceeded it in 1311–1549, before its central spire collapsed; the latter in turn was not surpassed until the 555-foot Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper. High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity.
Ancient Roman insulae in imperial cities reached 10 and more stories. Beginning with Augustus, several emperors attempted to establish limits of 20–25 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success. Lower floors were occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes. Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century AD Hermopolis in Roman Egypt; the skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 and 100 at a time, the tallest of, the 97.2 m high Asinelli Tower. A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be reduced to less than 26 m. Medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano; the medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets.
Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on t
Peachtree Corners, Georgia
Peachtree Corners is a city in western Gwinnett County, United States. It is a northern suburb of Atlanta, is the largest city in Gwinnett County, with an estimated population of 42,773 in 2016; the city, bordered to the north and west by the Chattahoochee River, is located east of Dunwoody and south of Johns Creek. Peachtree Corners is the only one of Atlanta's northern suburbs, developed as a planned community. Prior to 1818, the western corner of what became Gwinnett County was Creek and Cherokee Indian Territory, it was illegal for white families to settle there. There were several families of white squatters in the area before settlement was legalized, including Isham Medlock, whose name is lent to Medlock Bridge Road. In the early 1800s a road was built along a Native American trail from what is now Buford to what is now Atlanta. A small farming community known as "Pinckneyville" grew up along that road. By 1827, the community was home to the second school in Gwinnett County, the Washington Academy, founded on what is now Spalding Drive.
The area was home to a post office, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop and inn. However, the prosperity of Pinckneyville was to be short-lived. In 1870 a railroad was built through Norcross, due to the heavy trading that could be done via the railroad, all of the area's businesses and many residents moved from Pinckneyville to Norcross. For the next century, the area remained a rural farming community. In the late 1960s, Paul Duke developed the idea of creating Peachtree Corners, a planned community to be constructed in the area, once known as Pinckneyville. In 1967, Duke initiated the planning of the office component of Peachtree Corners, Technology Park Atlanta, a campus for high technology industries to employ engineers graduating from the Georgia Institute of Technology; as a member of the Georgia Tech National Advisory Board, he raised $1.7 million to develop the business center. Initial residents of the tech park included GE, Scientific Atlanta, Hayes Microcomputer Products. In 1968, Duke established Peachtree Corners, Inc. a development corporation for the residential parts of the community.
During the 1970s, Jim Cowart began to develop the neighborhoods. Initial neighborhoods developed by Cowart included Peachtree Station, Chattahoochee Station, Spalding Corners, Revington and Amberfield. During this period, Cowart laid more sewer pipes than Gwinnett County. Neely Farm was one of the last neighborhoods to be built in Peachtree Corners, it is located on the former farm of Frank Neely that abuts the Chattahoochee River; the United Peachtree Corners Civic Association, an umbrella group of neighborhood homeowners' associations, was formed in 1993 in response to land use and overdevelopment concerns in the area. Despite the efforts of the UPCCA development continued in Peachtree Corners throughout the 1990s. However, due to the complexity of existing law, an incorporation movement did not materialize. A city of Peachtree Corners was again proposed by the UPCCA in 2005, but efforts were abandoned after a resident survey revealed the majority of citizens did not support incorporation. In 2010 the UPCCA again pursued the incorporation of Peachtree Corners after a failed attempt by the city of Norcross to annex a portion of Technology Park.
In a referendum held on November 8, 2011, residents of Peachtree Corners voted to incorporate as Gwinnett County's 16th city, with a population of 40,059, it became the county's largest. Municipal operations began on July 1, 2012. Peachtree Corners is located in the western corner of Gwinnett County at 33°58′32.1″N 84°13′4″W. Seven miles of the Chattahoochee River define the northern and western border of Peachtree Corners, it is bordered by the cities of Dunwoody and Sandy Springs on the west, Buford Highway and Norcross city limits on the south and Johns Creek across the Chattahoochee River on the north, the city limits of Berkeley Lake and Duluth on the east. Since Peachtree Corners was not a city or a census-designated place at the time, no demographic data is available for the city from the 2010 U. S. Census. However, the city contains 95% of ZIP code 30092, which in 2004 had an average adjusted gross income of $70,724 per person; the median home price in 2016 for Peachtree Corners was $291,900.
As of 2016, Peachtree Corners was 60.2% white, 23.3% black, 9% Asian, 2.5% two or more races. Hispanics of any race made up 14% of the population. ZIP Code 30092 had a population of 31,704 at the 2010 census. With parts of ZIP Codes 30071, 30096, 30097, 30360 being within the city limits of Peachtree Corners, the estimated population of the city is 42,773 in 2016. Peachtree Corners has been ranked in the 10 best Atlanta suburbs for millennials; the economy of Peachtree Corners is driven by the concentration of businesses in planned office parks engineering firms, logistics organizations and information technology companies. In October 2014, United Arab Shipping Company relocated its North American Headquarters to Peachtree Corners; the company purchased a 50,000 square foot office building on Spalding Drive for logistics and customer service operations. In 2017 it merged with Hapag-Lloyd; the office campus includes a 9 1/2 ton ship anchor, weighing 8775 kilograms and measuring 16 feet long by 10 feet wide.
In May 2016, Comcast Corporation, the American global telecommunications conglomerate, relocated its Southeast Headquarters to the Wells Building, a 10-story office building in
West End, Atlanta
The West End neighborhood of Atlanta is on the National Register of Historic Places and can be found southwest of Castleberry Hill, east of Westview, west of Adair Park Historic District, just north of Oakland City. It would be difficult to find a neighborhood more linked to the city's, state's, region's, nation's historical development than the West End district of Atlanta. Architectural styles within the district include Craftsman Bungalow, Queen Anne, Stick style, Folk Victorian, Colonial Revival, American Foursquare and Neoclassical Revival. In this century, West End has endured many changes in its metamorphosis to an intown neighborhood while retaining its own distinctive character and vitality; this has been accomplished both by adaptation and participation in change and by its citizens' recognition of the district's special history. Before there was a West End or an Atlanta, the area was a crossroads. Newnan Road connected the town of that name to Lawrenceville. Crossing this road was the Sandtown Road going west to an Indian town of that name.
Near this junction around 1830, Charner Humphries established an inn/tavern which came to be known as Whitehall due to the unusual fact that it had a coat of white paint when most other buildings were of washed or natural wood. From a frontier outpost in the 1830s, the district evolved into an independent political entity linked by rail and roads to its neighbor Atlanta. In April 1871, Richard Peters and George Adair bought out the charter of the Atlanta Street Railway Company and on September 1 of that year opened the first section connecting Five Points to the West End – a route that passed by both of their homes; the following year the West End & Atlanta Street Railroad started service to West End and Westview Cemetery. By the 1880s many wealthy Atlantans built large estates here and when they came, the main street of Gordon Street became a bustling commercial district. In 1894, it was annexed by Atlanta as a distinct ward following two decades of planned suburbanization. From 1894 to 1930, West End grew in population and prosperity.
An examination of building permits for Peeples, Gordon and Lawton Streets shows a large number of single family residences being built and increasing commercial buildings and churches going up along Gordon and at the long established business district at Gordon and Lee. National and local prosperity and the mobility created by the automobile in the 1920s helped West End to grow. Fifty businesses were now clustered at Gordon and Lee with branches of Sears, Piggly-Wiggly, Goodyear. Churches and schools increased to serve the growing population. Schools began to dot West End, the largest being the 1923 Joseph E. Brown High School at Peeples and Beecher. West End became a desirable suburban community in the 1880s, grew in population and prosperity, so that by 1930 there were more than 22,000 residents. Notable residents in this early period included Atlanta mayor Dennis Hammond, Evan Howell, governor James Smith, John Conley, Thomas Stokes, L. Z. Rosser, J. P. Allen, T. D. Longino, J. N. McEachern, as well as several authors such as Frank L. Stanton, Madge Bigham and Joel Chandler Harris, known for his Uncle Remus Tales.
Both during his life and up to the present, Harris has been West End's most famous resident. He attracted such figures as President Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Carnegie to Atlanta, the former returning after Harris' death to lecture for the Uncle Remus Memorial Association. After 1930, West End was an still vital Atlanta community; this vitality is most evident in the West End Businessmen's Association. In 1937, the Association pushed for extension of the National Housing Act title providing for home modernization loans, in subsequent decades for economic accessibility and population stabilization, including segregation. With the group's support, Gordon Street was widened, Interstate 20 was built across West End's northern fringe, the old business district was demolished in favor of a mall development. Completed in 1973, the mall's accessibility was augmented by part of the city's latest transportation system, a MARTA station, across the street; the West End Businessmen's Association was successful in many areas, but it failed in stopping "white flight".
By 1976, West End was eighty-six percent Afro-American. The West End is home to the West Hunter Street Baptist Church was moved to Gordon Street; this church has been one of Atlanta's leading black churches for decades and since 1961 was led, until his death, by the Reverend Ralph David Abernathy. Jesse Jackson came to West End to speak at the opening of the new church. A close friend and confidante of Martin Luther King, Jr. Abernathy participated in most of the civil rights campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s and succeeded King as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In honor of his nationally recognized contributions to the civil rights movement, Gordon Street was renamed Ralph David Abernathy Boulevard, in 1991. In addition, neighborhood residents formed the West End Neighborhood Development, Inc. in 1974, with the goal of improving the socioeconomic position of their community and its residents. In order to increase awareness of the West End neighborhood, WEND has sponsored a tour of homes, a yearly festival in Howell Park, a driving tour booklet highlighting neighborhood homes and cultural and religious centers.
Former SNCC chairman and
Five Points, Atlanta
Five Points is a district of Atlanta, United States, the primary reference for the downtown area. The name refers to the convergence of Marietta Street, Edgewood Avenue, Decatur Street, two legs of Peachtree Street. Five Points is considered by Atlantans to be the center of town, it is the origin of the street addressing system for the city and county, although four of the streets are rotated at least 30° clockwise from their nominal directions, along with the rest of the downtown street grid. Woodruff Park is on the northeast corner of the intersection, between Peachtree Street and Edgewood Avenue; the Five Points MARTA station is one block south of the intersection on Peachtree Street. A large round Coca-Cola sign overlooks Five Points, atop the Olympia Building on the east side of the intersection between Edgewood Avenue and Decatur Avenue; the nearly 50-foot tall sign faces up and down Peachtree Street. A lighted portion at the bottom of the sign gives temperature. At the other corners of Five Points are located: Woodruff Park.
On a triangular island in the intersection stands the George Beasley sculpture Five Points Monument, alluding to the water tower standing on the spot as well as the streetcar tracks that once existed in the intersection. Prior to the arrival of white settlers, Five Points was the intersection of two Creek Indian trails, the Pitch Tree Trail and the Sandtown Trail. In 1845, George Washington Collier opened a grocery store at what is now Five Points, the store served as Atlanta's first post office in 1846. In 1848, Five Points served as the location of Atlanta's first mayoral election. Moses Formwalt became Atlanta's first mayor. In 1875, Atlanta's drinking water system began with the construction of three artesian wells at Five Points; the system delivered water to Atlanta's residents via wooden pipes. Until the 1960s, Five Points represented the central hub of Atlanta. With the advent of urban sprawl, white flight, the development of shopping malls, the economic and demographic center of Atlanta shifted northward, Five Points went into decay.
By the 21st century, the area was revitalizing due to the expansion of Georgia State University, which maintains a large footprint in Five Points
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
Interstate 85 in Georgia
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway that travels northeast-to-southwest in the U. S. state of Georgia. It enters the state at the Alabama state line near West Point, Lanett, traveling through the Atlanta metropolitan area and to the South Carolina state line, where it crosses the Savannah River near Lake Hartwell. I-85 connects northern Georgia with Montgomery, Alabama, to the southwest, with South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia to the northeast. Within Georgia, I-85 is designated as the unsigned State Route 403. I-85 in Georgia travels parallel with the route of U. S. Route 29. However, from Atlanta northeast to South Carolina, I-85 ventures away from that route, traveling about halfway between US 29 and the combination of US 23 and US 123. Within the City of Atlanta, I-85 has a concurrency with I-75 known as the "Downtown Connector". After splitting from Downtown Connector, it is known as Northeast Expressway until its junction with I-285. I-85 enters the state of Georgia from Alabama via twin bridges over the Chattahoochee River, it skirts the town of West Point, with Kia's multibillion-dollar plant located adjacent to the freeway just east of West Point.
After leaving West Point, I-85 enters the LaGrange area, the first large town in Georgia on its route to the northeast. Northeast of LaGrange, I-85 has an interchange with the long spur freeway, I-185, to the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Area; this is the only connection between the Interstate Highway System. From LaGrange, I-85 heads northeastward towards Atlanta. Before reaching Atlanta, the highway runs through a widened stretch that includes six to eight lanes between exits 35 and 77, passing near the suburbs of Moreland, Fairburn, Union City, College Park and East Point as well as intersecting I-285 at its southwest end in of the most complex interchanges in the country, meanwhile providing access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. I-85 runs along the northwestern boundary of the airport, providing access to the domestic terminal. I-75 services the International Terminals of the airport, which are located on the east side of the airport. At the southwestern edge of Atlanta's city limits, I-85 merges with I-75 to form the Downtown Connector, 12 to 14 lanes wide.
At the southern edge of downtown Atlanta, this freeway has an interchange with the major east-west Interstate Highway, I-20. The two freeways skirt the eastern edge of downtown, running due north, passing through the Georgia Tech campus and the Atlantic Station section of Atlanta before the two highways split, with I-75 exits via the right three lanes and heads northwest while I-85 uses the left three lanes and heads northeast. Heading northbound after the Brookwood Interchange with I-75, I-85 is routed along a ten lane wide viaduct from the Buford Highway Connector to State Route 400. Continuing northeast of Atlanta, I-85 continues through the northeastern suburbs, bypassing Chamblee and Doraville, where there is another intersection with I-285; the Interstate travels through the northeastern suburbs of Atlanta, including Lilburn, Lawrenceville. The Interstate has freeway interchanges with SR 316 in Duluth and I-985 in Suwanee, which provides a link to Gainesville. I-85 leaves the Atlanta area, continuing to travel through rural northeast Georgia.
At Lake Hartwell—which was formed by the damming of the Savannah River—I-85 crosses into South Carolina. I-85 has the first express lanes in Georgia, located in DeKalb counties. From Chamblee–Tucker Road to Old Peachtree Road, travelers that utilize the converted 15.5-mile lanes will be charged a toll varying from 10 to 90 cents per mile, depending on traffic conditions and usage. Though not signed on the freeway, they are HOT lanes, which means registered transport vehicles, carpools with three or more occupants and buses are exempt from toll charges as long as they are registered as such. Tolls are collected using an electronic toll collection system. All travelers that use the lane must have a Peach Pass sticker to avoid fines. Starting in November 2014, SunPass and NC Quick Pass are interoperable with Peach Pass, allowing motorists with those transponders to use the express lanes. Funds generated from the express lanes will be used to defray the costs of construction and maintenance of the lanes.
Long term revenue allocation is being studied and a decision about future excess revenues will be made in the project process. Proponents for the express lanes say it is to provide commuters with a more reliable, free-flow commute option. Detractors point out that existing infrastructure was reused for the express lanes and that commute times on the non-paying travel lanes have doubled since implementation. Constructed as a four- to six-lane expressway in the 1950s, the stretch of I-85 between the southern merge with I-75 and North Druid Hills Road was reconstructed as part of the Georgia Department of Transportation's Freeing the Freeways program; this project included rebuilding all overpasses, new HOV-ready ramps, a widen
Dunwoody is a city located in DeKalb County, United States. It is a northern suburb of Atlanta. Dunwoody was incorporated as a city on December 1, 2008; as of 2015, the city has a population of 48,733, up from 46,267 in the 2010 Census. The Dunwoody area was established in the early 1830s and is named for Major Charles Dunwody, an extra "o" added with the incorrect spelling of the name on a banking note. Charles Dunwody returned to Roswell after fighting in the Civil War, in which he fought for the Confederates. One of Dunwoody's most historic buildings dates from 1829; the Ebenezer Primitive Baptist Church, at the corner of Roberts Drive and Spalding Drive, is still active to this date and is the home to one of the city's oldest cemeteries, where many of the founding fathers of Dunwoody are buried. The first public school, Dunwoody Elementary, first stood near the city center at the intersection of Chamblee-Dunwoody Road and Mount Vernon Road, it was in continuous operation from 1911 to 1986. A fire destroyed the school's cafeteria in 1966, on the corner of Womack Road and Chamblee-Dunwoody Road.
On that site today, the Dunwoody branch of the Dekalb County Public Library now operates along with the North Dekalb Cultural Arts Center. In 1881, the Roswell Railroad opened and ran along what is now Chamblee-Dunwoody Road north to the Chatahoochee River, it operated for 40 years, in 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt made a campaign whistle stop in Dunwoody along the way to Roswell, Georgia. On account of the railroad, Dunwoody developed into a small crossroads community; the community continued to grow and prosper after the railroad shut down in 1921. Dunwoody remained rural. In 1971, the Spruill family sold a large portion of their property for the construction of Perimeter Mall, with the completion of Dunwoody Village occurring the same year. In early 2006, a study was conducted by the Carl Vinson Institute of Government of the University of Georgia, to determine how feasible it would be to incorporate Dunwoody as a city. Critics claimed that incorporation of Dunwoody, as in the incorporation of Sandy Springs in 2005, would take away a great deal of tax revenue from the rest of the county, leading to shortages of services, tax increases, or both for everyone else in the county, as has happened in Fulton.
Citizens for Dunwoody, Inc. was the non-profit advocacy group begun by Senator Dan Weber to promote the effort. The bill for incorporation was withdrawn from the Georgia General Assembly for further study in 2006 and passed only the lower house in 2007. In 2008, the bill of incorporation was re-introduced by Senator Weber, due to increased pressure, it passed in the senate as well as the house. Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue signed the bill allowing the residents to vote for a city of Dunwoody on March 25; the referendum for cityhood, which took place on July 15, was approved by an overwhelming majority of voters. The Dunwoody City Charter was ratified by the Georgia General Assembly, on December 1, 2008, after a three-year movement, Dunwoody became a city. Dunwoody's geographic center is at 33°56′34″N 84°19′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, Dunwoody has a total area of 13.2 square miles, of which 12.9 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 1.72%, is water. Dunwoody lies at the northern tip of DeKalb County, bounded by the Fulton County line on the north and west, Interstate 285 on the south, Peachtree Industrial Boulevard on the southeast, the Gwinnett County line on the northeast.
A small portion of Dunwoody is included in Gwinnett County. Late on April 8, 1998, a major tornado tore through parts of Dunwoody, running east-northeast from Perimeter Center and into Gwinnett County. Thousands of homes were damaged and several dozen were condemned. In addition, tens of thousands of native forest trees were downed; the vast majority of the tornado's damage occurred here, leading it to be called the "Dunwoody tornado", the most vivid in local memory until the 2008 Atlanta tornado. Dunwoody Village is the historic heart of the community, the location of the iconic Dunwoody Farmhouse; the distinctive Colonial Williamsburg architectural style of the district originated with the construction of Dunwoody Village Shopping Center in the 1970s, for which the district gets its name. Since all other construction in the area followed suit, giving Dunwoody a unique architectural identity and sense of place. Perimeter Center is the major edge neighborhood that has formed around Perimeter Mall.
The mall was developed in 1971, spurring major office and commercial developments in the decades since. It is one of Metro Atlanta's largest job centers, employing hundreds of thousands of people each day. Perimeter Mall and 40 percent of the Perimeter Community Improvement District, is a self-taxing district of shopping and office buildings, are both located in Dunwoody; the western part of Perimeter Center edge city spans the Fulton county line into Sandy Springs. The tallest building in Dunwoody is the 34-story Ravinia 3, at 444 feet. Perimeter Center is located at the intersection of two major highways, GA 400 and I-285; the Dunwoody Transit Station provides public transit to the district. Georgetown was developed in the early 1960s, it is located near I-285 and borders with the city limits of Chamblee. Overdevelopment in Georgetown was one of the main reasons for the initiation of Dunwoody's incorporation movement, with many new apartments being approved for the area in some single-family residential areas.
Georgetown, one of the most walkable areas of the city, contains both si