Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in 1990 in Seattle, Washington. As of 2020, the band's lineup consists of founding members Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament as well as drummer Matt Cameron, who joined in 1998. Keyboardist Boom Gaspar has been a session/touring member with the band since 2002. Drummers Jack Irons, Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain and Dave Abbruzzese are former members of the band. Formed after the demise of Gossard and Ament's previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. One of the key bands in the grunge movement of the early 1990s, its members shunned popular music industry practices such as making music videos or giving interviews; the band sued Ticketmaster, claiming it had monopolized the concert-ticket market. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame."The band had sold nearly 32 million albums in the United States by 2012, by 2018, they had sold more than 85 million albums worldwide.
Pearl Jam outsold many of its contemporary alternative rock bands from the early 1990s, is considered one of the most influential bands of the decade. AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine referred to Pearl Jam as "the most popular American rock & roll band of the'90s". Pearl Jam was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017, in its first year of eligibility, they were ranked at no. 8 in a reader poll by Rolling Stone magazine in its "Top Ten Live Acts of All Time" issue. Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of pioneering grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. Green River toured and recorded to moderate success but disbanded in 1987 due to a stylistic division between the pair and bandmates Mark Arm and Steve Turner. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began playing with Malfunkshun vocalist Andrew Wood organizing the band Mother Love Bone. In 1988 and 1989, the band recorded and toured to increasing interest and found the support of the PolyGram record label, which signed the band in early 1989.
Mother Love Bone's debut album, was released in July 1990, four months after Wood died of a heroin overdose. Ament and Gossard were devastated by the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time afterwards writing material, harder-edged than what he had been doing previously. After a few months, Gossard started practicing with fellow Seattle guitarist Mike McCready, whose band, had broken up. After practicing for a while, the trio sent out a five-song demo tape in order to find a singer and a drummer, they gave former Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Jack Irons the demo to see if he would be interested in joining the band and to distribute the demo to anyone he felt might fit the lead vocal position. Irons passed on the invitation but gave the demo to his basketball friend, San Diego, California singer Eddie Vedder. Vedder was the lead vocalist for a San Diego band, Bad Radio, worked part-time at a gas station, he listened to the tape shortly before going surfing. He recorded the vocals to three of the songs in what he described as a "mini-opera" entitled Momma-Son.
Vedder sent the tape with his vocals back to the three Seattle musicians, who were impressed enough to fly Vedder up to Seattle for an audition. Within a week, Vedder had joined the band. With the addition of Dave Krusen on drums, the band took the name Mookie Blaylock, in reference to the then-active basketball player; the band played its first official show at the Off Ramp Café in Seattle on October 22, 1990. They opened for Alice in Chains at the Moore Theatre in Seattle on December 22, 1990, served as the opening act for the band's Facelift tour in 1991. Mookie Blaylock soon renamed themselves Pearl Jam. In an early promotional interview, Vedder said that the name "Pearl Jam" was a reference to his great-grandmother Pearl, married to a Native American and had a special recipe for peyote-laced jam. In a 2006 Rolling Stone cover story however, Vedder admitted that this story was "total bullshit" though he indeed had a great-grandma named Pearl. Ament and McCready explained that Ament came up with "pearl", that the band settled on "Pearl Jam" after attending a concert by Neil Young, in which he extended his songs as improvisations of 15–20 minutes in length.
Pearl Jam entered Seattle's London Bridge Studios in March 1991 to record Ten. McCready said that "Ten was Stone and Jeff. Krusen left the band in May 1991 after checking himself into rehabilitation. After playing only a handful of shows, one of, filmed for the "Alive" video, Chamberlain left to join the Saturday Night Live band. Chamberlain suggested Dave Abbruzzese as his replacement. Abbruzzese played the rest of Pearl Jam's live shows supporting Ten. Released on August 27, 1991, Ten contained eleven tracks dealing with dark subjects like depression, suicide and murder. Ten's musical style, influenced by classic rock, combined an "expansive harmonic vocabulary" with an anthemic sound; the album was slow to sell, but by the second half of 1992 it became a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard charts. Ten produced the hit singles "Alive", "Even Flow", "Jeremy". Interpreted as an anthem by many, Vedder revealed tha
Isogrid is a type of hollowed-out structure formed from a single metal plate with triangular integral stiffening ribs. It was patented by McDonnell Douglas, it is light and stiff. Compared to other materials, it is expensive to manufacture, so it is restricted to spaceflight applications and some critical parts of more general aerospace use. Isogrid structures are related to sandwich-structured composite panels. Isogrids are manufactured from single sheets of material and with large-scale triangular openings, an open pattern to the flanges, compared to closed sheets and foam or honeycomb structures for the sandwich-composite structures. Isogrid structures are constituted by a thin skin reinforced with a lattice structure; such structures are adopted in the aeronautical industry since they present both structural resistance and lightness. The triangular pattern is efficient because it retains rigidity while saving material and therefore weight; the term isogrid is used because the structure acts like an isotropic material, with equal properties measured in any direction, grid, referring to the sheet and stiffeners structure.
A similar variant is the Orthogrid. This is not isotropic, but is easier to manufacture. Traditionally, the equilateral triangle pattern was used because it was amenable to simplified analysis. Since the equilateral triangle pattern has isotropic strength characteristics, it was named isogrid; the stiffeners of an isogrid are machined from one face of a single sheet of material such as aluminum with a CNC milling machine. A thickness less than 0.040 in. might require chemical milling processes. Composite isogrids are rib-skin configurations, where at least a part of the rib is a different material from the skin, the composite assembled by various manual or automated processes; this can give high strength-weight ratios. Isogrid panels form self-stiffened structures where low weight, stiffness and damage tolerance are important, such as in aircraft or space vehicles. Aerospace isogrid structures include payload shrouds and boosters, which must support the full weight of upper stages and payloads under high G loads.
Their open configuration with a single, sealed sheet facing the outside makes them useful for propellant tanks for rockets, where sealing the propellant in, but allowing it to drain in use or maintenance are necessary features. Some spacecraft and launch vehicles which use isogrid structures include: Delta families Atlas families Skylab spacestation Orbital Workshop module SLS Core Stage CST-100 Starliner Orthogrids were used in the Saturn rocket tanks, due to the lower cost and ease of manufacture Orthogrids are planned for the Vulcan rocket Isogrid Plate Modeling, Dr Wiliam Case, 1997 Isogrid Design Handbook, NASA CR-124075, McDonnell Douglas, 1973 Advanced Grid Stiffened Composite Structures Isogrid - Shell Structures Tools, 1990 Quarter Isogrid used in Surfboard Construction
In 2008 and 2010, Hunan Satellite Television produced the Chinese version of 1 vs. 100, which has the same name as the Hong Kong version, called 以一敌百. The first season was aired between March 5 and July 31, 2008 and the second season was premiered on April 15, 2010 and ended on December 23, 2010; the host was Wang Han in season 1 and Goo RaeShin in season 2.母其弥雅 扎西顿珠 This show uses the new rules of the American version. The mobs of this version are called "happy answerers" in season 1 and "pass keepers" in season 2; every 10 answerers eliminated increases the prize for the solo player. In season 1, the prizes are in "happy golden balls"; the top prize is 100,000 balls. In season 2, the prizes are in "gold coins" and the top prize is 50,000 coins; each ball or coin equal to one Renminbi. If the solo player answers four questions the contestant decides on whether to leave and take the prize or continue playing. If they continue, they can use any of these three helps: Season 1: Ask the answerers: One answerer who answered and one who answered incorrectly are chosen at random.
Each explains their decision to the contestant. This automatically eliminates one wrong answer. Poll the answerers: The solo player pick one of the three answers the number of answerers who chose that answer is revealed. Trust the answerers: The solo player commit to choosing the answer chosen by the largest number of answerers. Season 2: Trust the majority: The same as "Trust the answerers". Choose one from two: One wrong answer is eliminated. Call for help: The solo player can get help by phoning a friend. If the solo player answers incorrectly, the contestant leaves with nothing, with the remaining answerers answering sharing the prize amongst themselves. If only one answerer answered that person will win the top prize. Episode 9, 10, 13 and 14 were similar to the "Battle of the Sexes" of the American version. All the answerers were men in episode 9 and 10, women in episode 13 and 14. In episode 11, the prizes were in cash and the top prize was 200,000 Renminbi; the total of 300,000 Renminbi given out in this episode were donated for rebuilding the site of 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
All the answerers in episode 12 were kids. In episode 16, the last episode, the top prize was 100,000 "happy golden balls" plus a car. Official website Season 1 Season 2 Watch all the episodes of season 1 of the show