SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Peasants' Revolt

The Peasants' Revolt named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years' War, instability within the local leadership of London; the final trigger for the revolt was the intervention of a royal official, John Bampton, in Essex on 30 May 1381. His attempts to collect unpaid poll taxes in Brentwood ended in a violent confrontation, which spread across the south-east of the country. A wide spectrum of rural society, including many local artisans and village officials, rose up in protest, burning court records and opening the local gaols; the rebels sought a reduction in taxation, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdom, the removal of the King's senior officials and law courts. Inspired by the sermons of the radical cleric John Ball and led by Wat Tyler, a contingent of Kentish rebels advanced on London.

They were met at Blackheath by representatives of the royal government, who unsuccessfully attempted to persuade them to return home. King Richard II aged 14, retreated to the safety of the Tower of London, but most of the royal forces were abroad or in northern England. On 13 June, the rebels entered London and, joined by many local townsfolk, attacked the gaols, destroyed the Savoy Palace, set fire to law books and buildings in the Temple, killed anyone associated with the royal government; the following day, Richard met the rebels at Mile End and acceded to most of their demands, including the abolition of serfdom. Meanwhile, rebels entered the Tower of London, killing the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer, whom they found inside. On 15 June, Richard left the city to meet the rebels at Smithfield. Violence broke out, Richard's party killed Tyler. Richard defused the tense situation long enough for London's mayor, William Walworth, to gather a militia from the city and disperse the rebel forces.

Richard began to re-establish order in London and rescinded his previous grants to the rebels. The revolt had spread into East Anglia, where the University of Cambridge was attacked and many royal officials were killed. Unrest continued until the intervention of Henry Despenser, who defeated a rebel army at the Battle of North Walsham on 25 or 26 June. Troubles extended north to York and Scarborough, as far west as Bridgwater in Somerset. Richard mobilised 4,000 soldiers to restore order. Most of the rebel leaders were executed; the Peasants' Revolt has been studied by academics. Late 19th-century historians used a range of sources from contemporary chroniclers to assemble an account of the uprising, these were supplemented in the 20th century by research using court records and local archives. Interpretations of the revolt have shifted over the years, it was once seen as a defining moment in English history, but modern academics are less certain of its impact on subsequent social and economic history.

The revolt influenced the course of the Hundred Years' War, by deterring Parliaments from raising additional taxes to pay for military campaigns in France. The revolt has been used in socialist literature, including by the author William Morris, remains a potent political symbol for the political left, informing the arguments surrounding the introduction of the Community Charge in the United Kingdom during the 1980s; the Peasants' Revolt was fed by the social upheaval of the 14th century. At the start of the century, the majority of English people worked in the countryside economy that fed the country's towns and cities and supported an extensive international trade. Across much of England, production was organised around manors, controlled by local lords – including the gentry and the Church – and governed through a system of manorial courts; some of the population were unfree serfs, who had to work on their lords' lands for a period each year, although the balance of free and unfree varied across England, in the south-east there were few serfs.

Some serfs were born unfree and could not leave their manors to work elsewhere without the consent of the local lord. Population growth led to pressure on the available agricultural land, increasing the power of local landowners. In 1348 a plague known as the Black Death crossed from mainland Europe into England killing an estimated 50 per cent of the population. After an initial period of economic shock, England began to adapt to the changed economic situation; the death rate among the peasantry meant that land was plentiful and manpower in much shorter supply. Labourers could charge more for their work and, in the consequent competition for labour, wages were driven upwards. In turn, the profits of landowners were eroded; the trading and financial networks in the towns disintegrated. The authorities responded to the chaos with emergency legislation; these attempted to fix wages at pre-plague levels, making it a crime to refuse work or to break an existing contract, imposing fines on those who transgressed.

The system was enforced through special Justices of Labourers and from the 1360s onwards, through the normal Justices of the Peace members of the local gentry. Although in theory these laws applied to both labourers seeking higher wages and to employers tempted to outbid their competitors for workers, they were i

2003–04 A Group

The 2003–04 A Group is the 56th season of the top Bulgarian national football league and the 80th edition of a Bulgarian national championship tournament. This is the first season since the revision of the league rules after an unsuccessful attempt for a creation of a so-called Premier Professional Football League. In the doorstep of the new millennium the Bulgarian Football Union decided to reform the football league system creating the Premier Professional Football League; the new top tier of Bulgarian football required all of its participants to be licensed as professional football clubs. The reforms saw the number of teams reduced and introduced relegation play-offs during the years of its existence; the Bulgarian Premier League, was unsuccessful so from season 2003–04 the top Bulgarian league was re-established as the Bulgarian A Professional Football Group, returning to the traditions of A Republican Football Group and increasing the number of teams participating back to 16. Still, A Group retained the requirement of a professional status of all participants.

In the 2003–04 season Lokomotiv Plovdiv became champions for the first time in their history. A total of 16 clubs contested the league, including 12 from the previous season in the tier, 4 promoted from the second flight; as before the start of the season, the top flight of Bulgarian football was once again restructured and the number of participants in the league was increased back to the traditional 16 teams from 14 the previous season, there were no promotion play-offs for the right to participate in A Group that season. Instead after the end of season 2002–03 the last two teams in the top level - Dobrudzha Dobrich placed 13th, Rilski Sportist Samokov placed 14th - were directly relegated to B Group, while the winners and the runners-up from the two divisions of B Group in season 2002–03 - Vidima-Rakovski and Rodopa Smolyan from the East division, Belasitsa and Makedonska slava from the West division - were directly promoted to the top level of Bulgarian football, their home grounds are located.

Lokomotiv Plovdiv Serafimovski, Özgür, Georgiev and Spalević left the club during a season. Bulgaria - List of final tables 2003–04 Statistics of A Group at a-pfg.com

Across the Plains (1939 film)

Across the Plains is a 1939 American Western film directed by Spencer Gordon Bennet and starring Addison Randall, Frank Yaconelli, Joyce Bryant. Written by Robert Emmett Tansey, the film is about two brothers who are separated when they are young and who meet again as adults, one good and one bad. Addison Randall as Jack Winters, aka Cherokee Frank Yaconelli as Lopez Joyce Bryant as Mary Masters Hal Price as Buckskin Dennis Moore as Jimmy Winters, aka The Kansas Kid Glenn Strange as Jeff Masters Bob Card as Buff Gordon Bud Osborne as Henchman Lex Monte Rawlins as Henchman Rip Wylie Grant as Henchman Rawhide Across the Plains on IMDb Across the Plains at the TCM Movie Database Across the Plains at AllMovie