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Pebble Beach, California

Pebble Beach is an unincorporated community on the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey County, California. The small coastal residential community of single-family homes is notable as a resort destination, the home of the golf courses of Cypress Point Club, Monterey Peninsula Country Club, Pebble Beach Golf Links; the Pebble Beach Golf Links, The Inn at Spanish Bay, The Lodge at Pebble Beach and four of the eight golf courses inside the Pebble Beach community are among the local assets owned by the Pebble Beach Company. Residents pay road fees for maintenance as well as Monterey County property taxes. Application of the property tax revenues is the realm of the Pebble Beach Community Services District, a public agency, independent of local private facilities, e.g. golf courses, with an elected Board of Directors that manages essential functions including fire protection and emergency medical services, supplemental law enforcement, wastewater collection and treatment, recycled water distribution, garbage collection and recycling.

The community's post office is named Pebble Beach. S. Census Bureau aggregates census returns from Pebble Beach as part of the larger census-designated place of Del Monte Forest; however and visitors associate and identify with the name Pebble Beach. Area open space is administered by the Del Monte Forest Conservancy, a non-profit organization designated by Monterey County and the California Coastal Commission to acquire and manage certain properties by conservation easement and, as well, by fee title; the Conservancy is governed by a self-elected volunteer board of up to 12 members working with a small part-time group of contractors and volunteers to preserve the open space within the Del Monte Forest and non-forested sites of Pebble Beach. All board members must be property residents of Pebble Beach. Pebble Beach lies at sea level, its ZIP Code is 93953, the community is inside area code 831; the name Pebble Beach was given to a rocky cove and beach strand, a prominent coastal segment of the Rancho Pescadero Mexican land grant, awarded to Fabián Barreto in 1836.

Barreto died and the land went through several owners. In the 1850s, Chinese immigrants formed a series of fishing settlements along Carmel Bay including one at Stillwater Cove, next to Pebble Beach, they collected various fish. In 1860, David Jack bought the Mexican land grant sold it in 1880 to the Pacific Improvement Company, a consortium of The Big Four "railroad barons."By 1892, the PIC laid out a scenic road that they called the 17-Mile Drive, meandering along the beaches and among the forested areas between Monterey and Carmel. The drive was offered as a pleasure excursion to guests of the PIC-owned Hotel Del Monte, it was intended to attract wealthy buyers of large and scenic residential plots on PIC land. Sightseers riding horses or carriages along the 17-Mile Drive sometimes stopped at Pebble Beach to pick up agate and other stones polished smooth by the waves, they commented on a few unusual tree formations known as the Witch Tree and the Ostrich Tree—the latter formed by two trees leaning on each other.

At that time, the Chinese fishing community continued in existence despite mounting anti-Chinese sentiment among Monterey residents of European heritage. At roadside stands, Chinese-American girls sold polished pebbles to tourists. In the 1900s, the automobile began replacing horses on 17-Mile Drive, by 1907 there were only automobiles. Adverse sentiments by local non-Chinese towards the Chinese fisherman and villagers of Pebble Beach was ironic in view of the vital contribution Chinese laborers made to the development of the Central Pacific Railroad, the fundamental fount of capital for the "Big Four," founders of PIC. In 1908, architect Lewis P. Hobart was hired by PIC manager A. D. Shepard to design the Pebble Beach Lodge, a rustic log-cabin-style one-story inn completed by 1909; the rambling lodge, featuring private patio nooks and a wide pergola made of local logs, was positioned halfway along 17-Mile Drive, overlooking Pebble Beach. The great hall or assembly room was 35 by 70 feet wide and was flanked by massive fireplaces at each end.

A tavern and kitchen supplied food and drink, cottages could be rented for overnight guests. Operated under the same management as the Hotel Del Monte, food service was available at all hours, including fresh local abalone chowder; the lodge was built as the community center for the wealthy residents of the Del Monte Forest, was popular as a rest stop for 17-Mile Drive motorists. Samuel Finley Brown Morse, a distant cousin to Samuel F. B. Morse known as the inventor of Morse Code, was hired in the 1910s to manage the PIC. In 1916, Morse convinced the PIC to create a golf course at the edge of Pebble Beach and Stillwater Cove; the lodge burned down on December 17, 1917, while the course was under construction, a different structure replaced it: the Del Monte Lodge. Hobart worked with Clarence Tantau to create a luxurious multi-story hotel, Hobart designed a signature "Roman Plunge" pool to the east of the hotel; the golf course and the new lodge held a grand opening on February 22, 1919. Morse formed the Del Monte Properties Company on February 27, 1919, acquired the extensive holdings of the PIC, which included the Del Monte Forest, the Del Monte Lodge and the Hotel Del Monte.

Morse brought his son on board as president in 1948. The lodge was expanded with a shopping arcade. In 1954, Morse's son-in-law was named president of the Del Monte Pro

Marina Tsvetaeva

Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva was a Russian and Soviet poet. Her work is considered among some of the greatest in twentieth century Russian literature, she lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it. In an attempt to save her daughter Irina from starvation, she placed her in a state orphanage in 1919, where she died of hunger. Tsvetaeva left Russia in 1922 and lived with her family in increasing poverty in Paris and Prague before returning to Moscow in 1939, her husband Sergei Efron and her daughter Ariadna Èfron were arrested on espionage charges in 1941. Tsvetaeva committed suicide in 1941; as a lyrical poet, her passion and daring linguistic experimentation mark her as a striking chronicler of her times and the depths of the human condition. Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Moscow, the daughter of Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev, a professor of Fine Art at the University of Moscow, who founded the Alexander III Museum of Fine Arts. Tsvetaeva's mother, Maria Alexandrovna Mein, Ivan's second wife, was a concert pianist literate, with German and Polish ancestry.

Growing up in considerable material comfort, Tsvetaeva would come to identify herself with the Polish aristocracy. Tsvetaeva's two half-siblings and Andrei, were the children of Ivan's deceased first wife, Varvara Dmitrievna Ilovaiskaya, daughter of the historian Dmitry Ilovaisky. Tsvetaeva's only full sister, was born in 1894; the children quarrelled and violently. There was considerable tension between Tsvetaeva's mother and Varvara's children, Tsvetaeva's father maintained close contact with Varvara's family. Tsvetaeva's father was kind, but wrapped up in his studies and distant from his family, he was still in love with his first wife. Maria Tsvetaeva had had a love affair before her marriage. Maria Tsvetaeva disapproved of Marina's poetic inclination. In 1902 Tsvetaeva's mother contracted tuberculosis. A change in climate was believed to help cure the disease, so the family travelled abroad until shortly before her death in 1906, when Tsvetaeva was 14, they lived for a while near Genoa. There, away from the rigid constraints of a bourgeois Muscovite life, Tsvetaeva was able for the first time to run free, climb cliffs, vent her imagination in childhood games.

There were many Russian émigré revolutionaries residing at that time in Nervi, who may have had some influence on the young Tsvetaeva. In June 1904 Tsvetaeva was sent to school in Lausanne. Changes in the Tsvetaev residence led to several changes in school, during the course of her travels she acquired the Italian and German languages, she gave up the strict musical studies that her mother had turned to poetry. She wrote "With a mother like her, I had only one choice: to become a poet". In 1908, aged 16, Tsvetaeva studied literary history at the Sorbonne. During this time, a major revolutionary change was occurring within Russian poetry: the flowering of the Russian symbolist movement, this movement was to colour most of her work, it was not the theory, to attract her, but the poetry and the gravity which writers such as Andrei Bely and Alexander Blok were capable of generating. Her own first collection of poems, Vecherny Albom, self-published in 1910, promoted her considerable reputation as a poet.

It was well received, although her early poetry was held to be insipid compared to her work. It attracted the attention of the poet and critic Maximilian Voloshin, whom Tsvetaeva described after his death in A Living Word About a Living Man. Voloshin soon became her friend and mentor, she began spending time at Voloshin's home in the Black Sea resort of Koktebel, a well-known haven for writers and artists. She became enamoured of the work of Alexander Blok and Anna Akhmatova, although she never met Blok and did not meet Akhmatova until the 1940s. Describing the Koktebel community, the émigré Viktoria Schweitzer wrote: "Here inspiration was born." At Koktebel, Tsvetaeva met a 17-year-old cadet in the Officers' Academy. She was 19, he 18: they fell in love and were married in 1912, the same year as her father's project, the Alexander III Museum of Fine Arts, was ceremonially opened, an event attended by Tsar Nicholas II. Tsvetaeva's love for Efron was intense. At around the same time, she became involved in an affair with the poet Sophia Parnok, 7 years older than Tsvetaeva, an affair that caused her husband great grief.

The two women fell in love, the relationship profoundly affected both women's writings. She deals with the ambiguous and tempestuous nature of this relationship in a cycle of poems which at times she called The Girlfriend, at other times The Mistake. Tsvetaeva and her husband spent summers in the Crimea until the revolution, had two daughters: Ariadna, or Alya and Irina. In 1914, Efron volunteered for the front and by 1917 he was an officer stationed in Moscow with the 56th Reserve. Tsvetaeva was a close witness of the Russian Revolution. On trains, she came into contact with ordinary Russian people a

Anne Marie Milan Desguillons

Anne Marie Milan Desguillons née Milan was a French stage actress. She was active in French theater of Gustav III in Sweden in 1781-92, principal of the Dramatens elevskola jointly with Joseph Sauze Desguillons 1793-98. Anne Marie Milan debuted in Le Havre 1773, was active in Lille 1774–75. In 1781, she arrived in Sweden as a member of the newly created French theater troupe of Jacques Marie Boutet de Monvel, engaged by king Gustav III of Sweden to perform for the Swedish royal court; the French Theatre performed at the court theatres in Gripsholm Castle, Drottningholm Palace Theatre and Confidencen at Ulriksdal Palace for the Swedish royal court: from the season of 1783-84, they performed for the public at Bollhuset in Stockholm in winters, though the audience consisted of the upper class society, who could speak French. Anne Marie Milan Desguillons became a valued member of the French theater and was favored by the king. To her appearance, she was described as overweight and not regarded to be beautiful, but she was much praised for her artistic talent and enjoyed great respect within the court.

She was foremost a tragedienne, performed in tragedies and mére nobleroles, was given main parts in the French tragedies. Among her parts was Merope and Athalie, but she did perform comic parts, such as Madame Turcaret. In 1789, she married her colleague Joseph Sauze Desguillons, thus required the name Desguillons. After the assassination of Gustav III in 1792, the French theater was dissolved. Desguillons chose to remain in Sweden. In 1793, Anne Marie Milan Desguillons and her spouse Joseph Sauze Desguillons where appointed joint principals of the acting school Dramatens elevskola; the school had been founded in 1787, but the Desguillons couple was responsible for giving it a proper organisation, kept by their successor Sofia Lovisa Gråå. The two Desguillons were instructors at the school, they instructed the students in drama, while the music lessons was given by Johann Christian Friedrich Hæffner and L. Piccini, the dancing lessons by Julie Alix de la Fay and Jean-Rémy Marcadet, they pupils where enrolled at the age of nine or ten and performed as child actors in minor plays as well as in special pupil's plays staged by the school.

She was responsible for the female students, her husband for the male students. They are known as the mentors of many famous Swedish stage artists in Swedish theater history, thus contributed in shaping the contemporary Swedish acting method in a French pattern. Among her more known students was Jeanette Wässelius, Sofia Frodelius, Ulrika Wennerholm and Carolina Kuhlman. Anne Marie Milan Desguillons retired as a principal in 1798. In 1803, king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden engaged a French theatre company to perform, the Desguillons couple were made joint directors responsible of the company during its stay in Sweden, they kept this role until the French company left in 1806. Marie Louise Marcadet Marie Baptiste Österberg, Lewenhaupt, Inga & Wahlberg, Anna Greta, Svenska kvinnor: föregångare nyskapare, Lund, 1990 1990 Kjellberg, Beijer, Agne & Andersson, Gustavianskt:, Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm, 1945

Banwari Lal (biotechnologist)

Banwari Lal is an Indian environmental and industrial biotechnologist and the director of the Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division at The Energy and Resources Institute. Known for the development of oilzapper technology, Lal is the chief operating officer of ONGC-TERI Biotech Limited, a collaborative venture between TERI and the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation; the Department of Biotechnology of the Government of India awarded him the National Bioscience Award for Career Development, one of the highest Indian science awards, for his contributions to biosciences in 2004. Banwari Lal, born on 1 July 1960 in the Indian state of Rajasthan, completed his undergraduate studies at The University of Rajasthan in 1981 and continued at the university to earn an MSc in microbiology in 1983, his doctoral studies were at the same university and after securing a PhD in microbial biotechnology in 1987, he joined the TERI School of Advanced Studies as a member of faculty. He has served The Energy and Resources Institute in various capacities and is the director of the Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology.

In 1996, when the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation and TERI formed ONGC TERI Biotech Limited for exploiting the commercial prospects of technologies developed by Lal, he became the chief operating officer of the newly formed company. He is associated with Glori Energy, a Houston-based energy firm, as the chief scientist and is a member of scientific panels of the Food Authority of India and the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, both government agencies working under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Banwari Lal's research interests covered the fields of bioresources as well as environmental and industrial biotechnology, he is known to have made contributions in the areas of clean technology development, bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, oil recovery using microbes, preventive protocol development for blocking paraffin deposition in oil well flow lines. The team led by him developed an oilzapper technology, a bioremediative and organic technology for cleaning the oil spills using microbes and bacteria, employed for cleaning the 2010 Mumbai oil spill.

The technology is reported to be cost-effective and most of major oil companies in India such as the Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation and Natural Gas Corporation, Oil India, Indian Petrochemicals Corporation and Reliance Petroleum as well as Abu Dhabi National Oil Company employ it. His studies have been documented by way of a number of articles and ResearchGate, an online repository of scientific articles has listed 141 of them. Besides, he has published Wealth from waste: trends and technologies, he holds 8 patents for the processes developed by him and is a member of the American Society for Microbiology, the Society of Applied Microbiology, the Society of General Microbiology, the International Water Association, the Society for Industrial Microbiology and the Association of Microbiologists of India. Banwari Lal received the AIBA Award from the All India Biotech Association in 2001 and he was chosen to receive three awards in 2002 namely, the Biotech Product and Process Development for Commercialization Award of the Department of Biotechnology, the Jawarharlal Nehru Memorial National Gold Medal Award of the International Greenland Society and the Burhani Foundation-NEERI Award for the development of oilzapper technology.

The National Petroleum Management Association presented him the Program Award in 2003 and he was one of the finalists shortlisted for the 2004 World Technology Award of the World Technology Network. The Department of Biotechnology of the Government of India awarded him the National Bioscience Award for Career Development, one of the highest Indian science awards in 2004; the same year, he received the NRDC Innovation Award of the National Research Development Corporation. The Department of Biotechnology honored him again with a second Biotech Product and Process Development for Commercialization Award in 2008, the award presented to him by the President of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. Lal, Banwari. Wealth from waste: trends and technologies. New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute. ISBN 9788179934241. OCLC 858862144. Mishra, Sanjeet. "In Situ Bioremediation Potential of an Oily Sludge-Degrading Bacterial Consortium". Current Microbiology. 43: 328–335. Doi:10.1007/s002840010311. ISSN 0343-8651.

Singh, Sneha. "Dark fermentative biohydrogen production by mesophilic bacterial consortia isolated from riverbed sediments". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 35: 10645–10652. Doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.03.010. Chatterjee, Dibyendu. "Comparative assessment of urea briquette applicators on greenhouse gas emission, nitrogen loss and soil enzymatic activities in tropical lowland rice". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 252: 178–190. Doi:10.1016/j.agee.2017.10.013. "Oil-Eating Microbes Successfully Clean Up Mumbai Oil Spill". Inhabitat. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2017. "Oilzapper and Oilivorous-S oil spill treatment bacteria, microbes". 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. "Author details". 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. Green Leaf Ent. "ONGC TERI - Oilzapper". Retrieved 14 December 2017

San Giuseppe nero

San Giuseppe nero is a red Italian wine grape variety, grown in central Italy where it is a permitted variety in the Indicazione geografica tipica wines of the Lazio region. Some plantings of the grape can be found in southern Italy which combined with the central Italy plantings gave San Giuseppe nero a total of 387 hectares reported in the official 2000 Italian viticultural census; the exact origins of San Giuseppe nero are not yet known though some ampelographers suspect that the grape variety maybe related of old Lazio grape variety Abbuoto but so far DNA analysis has not yet confirmed such suspicions. Over the years, San Giuseppe nero has been known under a variety of synonyms including: Saint Joseph noir and S. Giuseppe nero


The Izod Corporation is an American mid-range clothing company that produces dressy-casual clothing, sportswear for men, as well as footwear and accessories. It is part of PVH, forming part of its Heritage Brands division along with Van Heusen, Warner's, True & Co. and Geoffrey Beene. It is best known for its short-sleeved piqué polo shirt produced by Lacoste and featuring the Lacoste crocodile on the left breast, now replaced with an embroidered crest. One variation is the "IZ" patch instead of crest. Other Izod classics include the Harrington jacket G-9 model v-neck and cardigan sweaters. Today, the Izod brand competes most directly with the similarly-priced Chaps brand owned by Ralph Lauren Corporation, while competing more indirectly on the lower end with U. S. Polo Assn. and on the higher end with Nautica. In the late 1930s, Vincent dePaul Draddy, an American businessman employed by David Crystal Co. needed a strong name to associate with his quality merchandise for menswear. While vacationing with his family in London, he encountered Jack Izod's tailoring boutique.

Izod produced bespoke shirts and created the Windsor tie-knot for King George V, but was ready to retire, accepted Draddy's offer to purchase the rights to his distinctive name. The A. J. Izod of London clothing company was introduced to the United States in 1938. Izod of London would become most notable for its pairing with the Lacoste shirt company from 1952 to 1993. Vincent Draddy began to license the Lacoste shirt to add prestige to the Izod line, but he could not find a market for the then-expensive $8.00 retail price. After Draddy began giving the shirts away to his famous friends, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Bing Crosby, Daniel Platt, John F. Kennedy, the shirts soon became popular with department stores. "Izod of London" became a brand known as "Izod Lacoste". While the shirts were Izod and Lacoste, they became abbreviated and popularized as "Izod" shirts. In 1964, Bernard Lacoste took over the management of the company. Significant company growth was seen under Bernard's management; when he became president, around 300,000 Izod Lacoste products were sold annually.

The Izod Lacoste brand reached its height of popularity in the US during the late 1970s and became the signature 1980s "preppy" wardrobe item, mentioned in The Official Preppy Handbook. The company began to introduce other products into their line including shorts, perfume and sunglasses, tennis shoes, deck shoes, walking shoes and various leather goods. In 1977, Le Tigre Clothing was founded in an attempt to directly compete with Izod Lacoste in the US market, selling a similar array of apparel, but featuring a tiger in place of the signature Lacoste crocodile. During this period Izod's parent, Crystal Brands, came under the management of General Mills, purchased the Gant U. S. A. brand. During the early 1990s, Izod Lacoste struggled to maintain the market dominance it had enjoyed in previous decades; the initial reaction from Crystal Brands was to separate the two names and target two groups of customers at once. This tactic did not provide the financial gain Crystal had hoped and the license partnering ended in 1993.

Sportloisirs S. A. purchased the Lacoste brand in 1993, while Izod was sold to Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation in 1995. PVH repositioned and restored some of Izod's previous relevance while introducing a number of products lines and brands. Complete with an Izod "crest" logo, or patch. In addition to its sportswear, Izod designs a full range of men's suits, neckties, shoes and fragrances, continues to produce its famous polo shirts. Within the PVH corp. the Izod branded shirt has become part of the biggest shirt company in the United States. From 2003 to 2007, PVH formed a licensing deal with Kellwood Company to produce Izod-branded women's clothing. Production of the women's line was brought in-house in 2007 until its discontinuation in 2015. On January 7, 2015 parent company Phillips-Van Heusen announced that it would be closing all 120 Izod retail outlets due to an increasing competitive environment driven by more premium brands in the outlet retail channel; this move will not affect Izod's growing wholesale business to department stores and other retailers.

Coinciding with the closure of the retail outlets, in 2015 the women's line was discontinued. In Spring 2016, Izod introduced the Advantage Polo, a new take on their traditional piqué polo featuring a cotton/polyester blend with natural stretch, moisture wicking fabric, UPF-15 sun protection; the Advantage Polo remains available today and now outsells Izod's original 100% cotton Heritage piqué polo. The Advantage brand was expanded to include other products with stretch and/or moisture-wicking fabric such as fleece sweatshirts and button-down shirts. On June 7, 2017, parent company PVH announced that it has reached a licensing agreement with Adjmi Apparel Group subsidiary Sports Products of America to manufacture women's sportswear and activewear under the Izod brand beginning February 2018, thus signifying Izod's return to the women's clothing market. On August 28, 2018, it was announced that PVH would expand the Izod brand to Europe starting with the Fall/Winter 2018 collection in Spain, the Netherlands, Scandin