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The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. The Pechenegs were mentioned as Bjnak, Bjanak or Bajanak in medieval Arabic and Persian texts, as Be-ča-nag in Classical Tibetan documents, as Pačanak-i in works written in Georgian. Anna Komnene and other Byzantine authors referred to them as Patzinakitai. In medieval Latin texts, the Pechenegs were referred to as Bisseni or Bessi. East Slavic peoples use the terms Pečenegi or Pečenezi, while the Poles mention them as Pieczyngowie or Piecinigi; the Hungarian word for Pecheneg is besenyő. In Mahmud Kashgari's 11th-century work Dīwān lughāt al-turk, the name Beçenek is given two meanings; the first is "a Turkish nation living around the country of the Rum", where Rum was the Turkish word for the Eastern Roman Empire. Kashgari's second definition of Beçenek is "a branch of Oghuz Turks". Pechenegs are mentioned as one of 24 ancient tribes of Oghuzes by 14th century statesman and historian of Ilkhanate-ruled Iran Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in his work Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh with the meaning of the ethnonym as "the one who shows eagerness".

17th century Khan of Khanate of Khiva and historian Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur mentions the pechenegs as bechene among 24 ancient tribes of Turkmens in his book Shajare-i Tarakime and provides for its meaning as "the one who makes". Three of the eight Pecheneg "provinces" or clans were collectively known as Kangars. According to Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, the Kangars received this denomination because "they are more valiant and noble than the rest" of the people "and, what the title Kangar signifies". For no Turkic word with similar meaning is known, Ármin Vámbéry connected the ethnonym to the Kirghiz words kangir and kani-kara, while Carlile Aylmer Macartney associated it with the Chagatai word gang. Omeljan Pritsak proposed that the name had been a composite term deriving from the Tocharian word for stone and the Iranian ethnonym As. If the latter assumption is valid, the Kangars' ethnonym suggests that Iranian elements contributed to the formation of the Pecheneg people. Mahmud al-Kashgari, an 11th-century man of letters specialized in Turkic dialects argued that the language spoken by the Pechenegs was a variant of the Cuman and Oghuz idioms.

He suggested that foreign influences on the Pechenegs gave rise to phonetical differences between their tongue and the idiom spoken by other Turkic peoples. Anna Komnene stated that the Pechenegs and the Cumans shared a common language. Although the Pecheneg language itself died out centuries ago, the names of the Pecheneg "provinces" recorded by Constantine Porphyrogenitus prove that the Pechenegs spoke a Turkic language; the Huns and Pechenegs are thought to have belonged to the same proto-Turkic group of languages as the modern Chuvash language. Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos lists eight Pecheneg tribal groupings, four on each side of the Dnieper river, reflecting the bipartite left-right Turkic organization; these eight tribes were in turn divided into 40 sub-tribes clans. Constantine VI records the names of eight former tribal leaders who'd been leading the Pechenegs when they were expelled by the Khazars and Oghuzes. Golden, following Németh and Ligeti, proposes that each tribal name consists of two parts: the first part being an equine coat color, the other the tribal ruler's title.

The Erdim, Čur, Yula tribes formed the Qangar/Kenger and were deemed "more valiant and noble than the rest". According to Omeljan Pritsak, the Pechenegs are descendants from the ancient Kangars who originate from Tashkent; the Orkhon inscriptions listed the Kangars among the subject peoples of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. Pritsak says that the Pechenegs' homeland was located between the Aral Sea and the middle course of the Syr Darya, along the important trade routes connecting Central Asia with Eastern Europe, associates them with Kangars. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing in c. 950, the Pecheneg realm, stretched west as far as the Siret River, was four days distant from "Tourkias". The whole of Patzinakia is divided into eight provinces with the same number of great princes; the provinces are these: the name of the first province is Irtim. At the time at which the Pechenegs were expelled from their country, their princes were, in the province of Irtim, Baïtzas. Paul Pelliot originated the proposal that the Book of Sui—a 7th-century Chinese work—preserved the earliest record on the Pechenegs.

The book mentioned a people named Bĕirù, who had settled near the Ēnqū and *Alan peoples

Hössi Ólafsson

Hössi Ólafsson is a singer, producer and actor. He is best known as a founding member of Quarashi. Hössi first met future Quarashi member Sölvi Blöndal at the University of Iceland in the early'90s. According to Blöndal, the first thing Hössi said to him was if he had any marijuana to sell. Sölvi and Hössi would go on to play in the punk rock band, 2001. However, Sölvi soon began to develop a preference for studio production over band rehearsal-style songwriting, he wanted to make different types of music besides industrial rock and punk, so he quit 2001 and began making rap music. On, Sölvi invited Hössi to join him in making rap music along with famous Icelandic skater and graffiti artist, Steini a.k.a. Stoney. Hössi would sing, while Steini would rap, but when Sölvi heard Hössi rap, he decided that his music group would have two rappers. Once, settled, the three men formed Quarashi in 1996. Hössi would serve as a vocalist in Quarashi from their first record, an EP entitled, Switchstance, in 1996, until their first international release, Jinx, in 2002.

Hössi rapped the most on Quarashi songs, did some singing for the group, singing on "Dive In", "Into Your Arms", "Fly to the Sky", in addition to singing the chorus of some songs. Hössi, along with the rest of Quarashi, were featured in a 1999 documentary about the group entitled, Around The Country On Medicine, he was seen in a 1998 documentary that talked about Icelandic music. In 2001, Hössi and Sölvi Blöndal produced the soundtrack for the Halldór Laxness play, Kristnihald undir Jökli, directed by Bergur Þór Ingólfsson, ran in the Borgarleikhús in the winter of 2001; the album was released under the Quarashi name and most of the 500 copies made were sold. Hössi has been quoted as saying that working on Kristnihald undir Jökli was "one of the most amazing things I've done in my life." After spending 6 years with Quarashi, Hössi became bored with performing. He claimed that he was forgetting how to speak Icelandic due to being away from Iceland for long periods of time; because of these two reasons, Hössi left Quarashi in December 2002.

Quarashi announced Hössi's departure from the group on their official messageboard on 3 January 2003. In August 2006, Hössi Ólafsson joined Ske, as the lead singer. Hössi has a deep low pitched voice when he talks and sings, but a high pitched nasally voice when he raps which some have compared to Rage Against the Machine frontman, Zack de la Rocha, King Adrock from Beastie Boys; this was used as a point of criticism when Quarashi released Jinx in 2002, as some felt that Hössi's voice made the group sound like a Beastie Boys rip-off. Hössi's voice was noticeably higher on Switchstance and Quarashi's 1997 full-length debut album than it was on his last two albums with the group; this could be because of Hössi's well known chain smoking habit. The Quarashi Source's page on Hössi Ólafsson Hössi Ólafsson's debut performance with Ske on Kastljos on Icelandic National Television. Original Air Date: September 22, 2006

IndyCar Series

The IndyCar Series known as the NTT IndyCar Series under sponsorship, is the premier level of open-wheel racing in North America. Its parent company began in 1996 as the Indy Racing League, created by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony George as a competitor to CART. In 2008, the IndyCar Series merged with the Champ Car World Series; the series is self-sanctioned by IndyCar. The series' premier event is the Indianapolis 500. For 1996–1997, the series was referred to as the Indy Racing League. For 1998–1999, the series garnered its first title sponsor, was advertised as the Pep Boys Indy Racing League. In 2000, the series sold its naming rights to Internet search engine Northern Light, the series was named the Indy Racing Northern Light Series; the IndyCar Series name was adopted beginning in 2003, as the series was now entitled to use it due to the expiration of a 1996 legal settlement with CART. The series began to progressively downplay the former IRL name, changing its name to IndyCar for the 2008 season.

Izod was announced as the series title sponsor beginning on November 5, 2009. Izod ended its sponsorship after the 2013 season. In 2014, Verizon Communications became title sponsor of the series through 2018. In January 2019, it was announced that Japanese communications company NTT would become title sponsor and official technology partner of the IndyCar Series; the IndyCar Series is not an open formula motor sport archetype. A spec-series, the league mandates chassis and engine manufacturers which teams must use each season. Dallara provides a specification chassis to all teams, with Honda and Chevrolet providing teams engines. In the series' first season, 1992 to 1995 model year CART chassis built by Lola and Reynard were used; the first new Indycar came into being in 1997. Tony George specified new technical rules for production-based engines; the move outlawed the CART chassis and turbocharged engines, the mainstay of the Indianapolis 500 since the late 1970s. Starting with the 2003 season, the series rules were changed to require chassis manufacturers to be approved by the league before they could build cars.

Prior to that, any interested party could build a car, provided it met the rules and was made available to customers at the league-mandated price. In total, four manufacturers have built IndyCar chassis. Dallara began producing Indycars for the 1997 season; the Dallara and G Force chassis were evenly matched over their first few seasons, but the Dallara began to win more races. This caused more teams further increasing their success; as of 2017, a Dallara chassis has been used by 17 Indy 500 winners, although there have not been any competing manufacturers since 2008. Dallara was tabbed to build the Firestone Indy Lights machines. After the withdrawal of factory support from Panoz Auto Development, they are the only supplier of new chassis; the G Force chassis was introduced in 1997, won the 1997 and 2000 Indy 500 races. In 2002, Élan Motorsport Technologies bought G Force, the chassis was renamed "Panoz G Force", shortened to "Panoz" in 2005. In 2003 a new model was introduced, it won the Indy 500 in 2003–2004, finished second in 2005.

It fell out of favor starting in 2006, by only one finished in the top ten at Indy. Little factory support was given to IndyCar teams by Panoz after that point, as they had concentrated on their DP01 chassis for the rival Champ Car World Series. By 2008, only one Panoz saw track time, an aborted second weekend effort at Indy, that resulted in Phil Giebler being injured in a practice crash. Riley & Scott produced IndyCar chassis from 1997 to 2000, their initial effort, the Mark V, was introduced late in the 1997 season limiting its potential market. It proved to be uncompetitive. After Riley & Scott was purchased by Reynard, an all-new model, the Mark VII, was introduced for the 2000 season, it won in Phoenix, the second race of the season, but was off the pace at Indy and was dropped by its teams. Falcon Cars was founded by Michael Kranefuss and Ken Anderson in 2002 as the third approved chassis supplier for the 2003 season. One rolling chassis was completed and shown, but it was never fitted with a working engine and never ran.

No orders were filled. Superficially, IndyCar machines resemble those of other open-wheeled formula racing cars, with front and rear wings and prominent airboxes; the cars were unique, being designed for oval racing. Cars were designed to accommodate the added requirements of road racing; because of a preexisting schedule conflict, the Champ Car World Series spec Panoz DP01, with a Cosworth engine, was run in an IndyCar Series points event in the 2008 Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach. In 2012 the series adopted the Dallara IR-12 chassis as a cost control method, IndyCar negotiated a price of $349,000 per chassis; the new specification improved safety, the most obvious feature being the partial enclosure around the rear wheels, which acts to prevent cars ramping up over another vehicle's back end. This chassis was intended to support multiple aerodynamic kits, but introduction of these was delayed until 2015 with teams citing costs. In 2015, teams began running aero kits developed by their engine manufacturers.

The kits, while increasing speeds and offering clear distinction between the two manufacturers, did lead to significant cost increases. Further, Chevrolet's aero kit was the more dominant with Honda only able to mount a competitive charge on ovals

Steve Lightle

Steve Lightle is an American comics artist who has worked as a penciller. He is best known as the artist of DC Comics' Legion of Super-Heroes and Doom Patrol titles. Steve Lightle attended the Johnson County Community College in the Kansas City metropolitan area, his first professional comic book work was a five–page story in Black Diamond #4 published by AC Comics. He followed this with his debut at DC Comics, drawing a 10–page story in New Talent Showcase #4, a series intended to provide work for up–and–coming artists who did not have a regular assignment. In 1984, Lightle followed Keith Giffen as the penciller of Legion of Super-Heroes. Lightle described it as being a "dream assignment". One of Lightle's issues featured the death of the longtime Legion member the Karate Kid. Although Lightle's tenure as interior artist was brief, he continued as the cover artist until 1988. Lightle co-created two Legionnaires and Quislet, whose unusual appearances contrasted with the humanoid appearances of the other Legionnaires.

In 1986, Lightle was one of the contributors to the DC Challenge limited series and drew part of Batman #400. The following year, he was the original penciler of the revival of Doom Patrol, but he left after the first five-issue story arc due to creative differences. Much of Lightle's work since has been as a cover artist for which he inks his own penciled artwork. In 1989 and 1990, Lightle was the regular cover artist for Classic X-Men, he produced new frontispieces to accompany the reprinted stories. Black Diamond #4 Steve Lightle at the Comic Book DB Steve Lightle at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Steve Lightle at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

Dercongal Abbey

Dercongal Abbey was a Premonstratensian monastic community located in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. The date of its foundation is not known, but it was in existence as a Premonstratensian monastic community by 1225; the founder was Alan, Lord of Galloway. Dercongal seems to come from Doire Congaill, Congall's oak-copse, Congall being a saint venerated by the natives of the area. For this reason the abbot of Dercongal became known as the abbot "de Sacro Nemore", becoming "Holywood" in English. Little of its history is known and few of the abbots of Dercongal names have survived, although a good deal of archaeological remains are extant; the abbey became secularized in the 16th century and in the beginning of the 17th century was turned into a secular lordship. The ruins of the abbey were demolished in the last quarter of the 18th century. Hewison records that in 1912 a few fragments of the abbey and hospital survived together with a bell from the old abbey, now located in the replacement parish church bearing the Latin inscription that translates as "John Welsh, Abbot of Holywood, caused me to be made in 1505".

This author records that the abbey Sacrum Nemus or Dercongal was built in 1141. Sir Herbert Maxwell records that Archibald Douglas,'Archibald the Grim', Earl of Wigtown, built a hospital at the Monastery of Holywood in gratitude for his successes, both personal and political. Archibald had endowed the establishment with the lands of Crossmichael and Troqueer in the Stewartry. Maxwell regards the Abbey of Holywood as being founded by Devorgilla, daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway and mother of King John Balliol. Grose records that a fine Gothic arch supported the oak roof and under the floor were a number of sepulchral vaults. Stated is that the renowned medieval scholar and astronomer Johannes de Sacrobosco was once a monk at the abbey; the RCAHMS records that in 1362 almhouses for men were set up within the abbey precincts and that in 1609 the temporal Barony of Holywood was established. Cowan, Ian B. & Easson, David E. Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, p. 102.

Grose, Francis. The Antiquities of Scotland. High Holborn: Hooper and Wigstead. V. 2. P. 170. Hewison, James K.. Cambridge County Geographies Dumfrieshire. Cambridge University Press, p. 106. Maxwell, Sir Herbert. A History of Dumfries and Galloway. Edinburgh & London: William Blackwood and Sons, p. 118. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Canmore Website - Holywood Abbey. Watson, W. J; the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, with an Introduction, full Watson bibliography and corrigenda by Simon Taylor, p. 169 Watt, D. E. R. & Shead, N. F; the Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from the 12th to the 16th Centuries, The Scottish Records Society, New Series, Volume 24, pp. 97-9 Abbot of Dercongal DFSGal, Holywood Abbey Video footage of Holywood Abbey

Randall W. Eberts

Randall W. Eberts is an American economist who specializes in the public workforce system, public finance, urban economics, labor economics and productivity, policies promoting student achievement, he was president of the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research in Kalamazoo, Michigan from 1993 until 2019 and is a senior researcher there, his research and expertise focus on the public workforce development system, with particular emphasis on statistical methodologies to set performance targets and to refer participants to services, determinants of student achievement and productivity, factors related to local and regional economic development. Work on economic development includes collaboration with the OECD/LEED to examine the role of local partnerships in workforce development and economic development, including an examination of the role of workforce intermediaries in addressing the needs of local businesses by promoting workforce solutions for incumbent workers. Eberts earned a B. A. degree from the University of California-San Diego in 1973, an M.

S. from Northwestern University in 1975, a Ph. D. degree in economics from Northwestern in 1982. Prior to joining the Upjohn Institute in 1993, Eberts was associate professor of economics at the University of Oregon, senior staff economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisors, assistant vice president and economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Older and Out of Work: Jobs and Social Insurance for a Changing Economy. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2008. ISBN 978-0-88099-329-6. Labor Exchange Policy in the United States. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2004. ISBN 978-0-88099-306-7. Targeting Employment Services. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2002. ISBN 978-0-88099-243-5. Wage and Employment Adjustment in Local Labor Markets. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1992. ISBN 978-0-88099-116-2. Structural Changes in U. S. Labor Markets in the 1980s: Causes and Consequences.

Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1992. ISBN 978-0-87332-825-8. Economic Restructuring in the American Midwest. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. ISBN 978-0-79239-066-4. Unions and Public Schools: The Effect of Collective Bargaining on American Education. Lexington, MA: D. C Heath, Lexington Books, 1984. ISBN 978-0-66906-372-1. Eberts is the author or co-author of numerous book chapters, journal articles, working papers. A collection of works by Randall W. Eberts