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Pedestrian zone

Pedestrian zones are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. Converting a street or an area to pedestrian-only use is called pedestrianisation. Pedestrianisation aims to provide better accessibility and mobility for pedestrians, to enhance the amount of shopping and other business activities in the area and/or to improve the attractiveness of the local environment in terms of aesthetics, air pollution and crashes involving motor vehicle with pedestrians. However, pedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation, displacement of economic activity to other areas. In some cases traffic in surrounding areas may increase, due to displacement, rather than substitution of car traffic. Nonetheless, pedestrianisation schemes are associated with significant drops in local air and noise pollution and with increased retail turnover and increased property values locally. A car-free development implies a large scale pedestrianised area that relies on modes of transport other than the car, while pedestrian zones may vary in size from a single square to entire districts, but with variable degrees of dependence on cars for their broader transport links.

Pedestrian zones have a great variety of approaches to human-powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates and kick scooters. Some have a total ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic, others still have no rules at all. Many Middle Eastern kasbahs have no wheeled traffic, but use donkey-driven or hand-driven carts for freight transport; the idea of separating pedestrians from wheeled traffic is an old one, dating back at least to the Renaissance. However, the earliest modern implementation of the idea in cities seems to date from about 1800, when the first covered shopping arcade was opened in Paris. Separated shopping arcades were constructed throughout Europe in the 19th century, precursors of modern shopping malls. A number of architects and city planners, including Joseph Paxton, Ebenezer Howard, Clarence Stein, in the 19th and early 20th centuries proposed plans to separate pedestrians from traffic in various new developments.

The first "pedestrianisation" of an existing street seems to have taken place "around 1929" in Essen, Germany. This was in Limbecker Straße, a narrow shopping street that could not accommodate both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Two other German cities followed this model in the early 1930s, but the idea was not seen outside Germany. Following the devastation of the Second World War a number of European cities implemented plans to pedestrianise city streets, although on a ad hoc basis, through the early 1950s, with little landscaping or planning. By 1955 twenty-one German cities had closed at least one street to traffic, although only four were "true" pedestrian streets, designed for the purpose. At this time pedestrianisation was not seen as a traffic restraint policy, but rather as a complement to customers who would arrive by car in a city centre. Pedestrianisation was common in the United States during the 1950s and 60s as downtown businesses attempted to compete with new suburban shopping malls.

However, most of these initiatives were not successful in the long term, about 90% have been changed back to motorised areas. A car-free zone is different from a typical pedestrian zone, in that it implies a development predicated on modes of transport other than the car. A pedestrian zone may be much more limited in scope, for example a single square or street being for pedestrians, but serviced by cars. A number of towns and cities in Europe have never allowed motor vehicles. Archetypal examples are: Venice, which occupies many islands in a lagoon, divided by and accessed from canals. Motor traffic stops at the car park at the head of the viaduct from the mainland, water transport or walking takes over from there. However, motor vehicles are allowed on the nearby Lido. Zermatt in the Swiss Alps, which most visitors reach by a cog railwayOther examples are: Cinque Terre in Italy Ghent in Belgium, one of the largest car-free areas in Europe. Pontevedra in Spain, an international model of pedestrianization 50% of the city is pedestrianised..

Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state under the sovereignty of Greece, does not permit automobiles on its territory. Trucks and work-related vehicles only are in use there; the medieval city of Mdina in Malta does not allow automobiles past the city walls. It is known as the "Silent City" because of the absence of motor traffic in the city. Sark, an island in the English Channel, is a car-free zone where only bicycles and tractors are used as transportation. To assist with transport from the car parks in at the edge of car-free cities, there are bus stations, bicycle sharing stations, the like; the term car-free development implies a physical change: either new building or changes to an existing built area. Melia et al. define car-free developments as residential or mixed use developments which: Normally provide a traffic-free immediate environment, Offer no parking or limited parking separated from the residence, Are designed to enable residents to live without owning a car. This definition is based on experience in North West Europe, where the movement for car-free developme


Obergösgen is a municipality in the district of Gösgen in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. Obergösgen is first mentioned in 1161 as Gozequouon. In 1308 it was mentioned as Göskon superior. Obergösgen has an area, as of 2009, of 3.64 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.48 km2 or 40.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.07 km2 or 29.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.77 km2 or 21.2% is settled, 0.29 km2 or 8.0% is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 or 0.5% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 14.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.7%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 1.1%. Out of the forested land, 28.0% of the total land area is forested and 1.4% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 32.1% is used for growing crops and 7.7% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located along the Aare river.

It consists of the village section of Schachen. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per bend sinister Gules a Castle Argent with two towers roofed and topped with a flag each on a triple mount Vert and Argent a Bend wavy Azure. Obergösgen has a population of 2,206; as of 2008, 21.6% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 5.7%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. There are 13 people who speak 1 person who speaks Romansh; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50.1 % female. The population was made up of 251 non-Swiss men. There were 214 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 513 or about 26.4% were born in Obergösgen and lived there in 2000. There were 508 or 26.2% who were born in the same canton, while 514 or 26.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 360 or 18.5% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 11 live births to Swiss citizens and 7 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 12 deaths of Swiss citizens and 2 non-Swiss citizen deaths.

Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 1 while the foreign population increased by 5. There were 3 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 12 non-Swiss men and 8 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 3 and the non-Swiss population increased by 6 people. This represents a population growth rate of 0.4%. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Obergösgen is. Of the adult population, 108 people or 5.6 % of the population are between 24 years old. 610 people or 31.4% are between 25 and 44, 501 people or 25.8% are between 45 and 64. The senior population distribution is 187 people or 9.6% of the population are between 65 and 79 years old and there are 43 people or 2.2% who are over 80. As of 2000, there were 793 people who never married in the municipality. There were 106 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 792 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household.

There were 230 households that consist of only one person and 54 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 804 households that answered this question, 28.6% were households made up of just one person and there were 8 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 240 married couples without children, 266 married couples with children There were 42 single parents with a child or children. There were 6 households that were made up of unrelated people and 12 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 284 single-family homes out of a total of 401 inhabited buildings. There were 73 multi-family buildings, along with 32 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 12 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single-family homes 17 were built before 1919, while 43 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single-family homes were built between 1946 and 1960. In 2000 there were 841 apartments in the municipality.

The most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 311. There were 265 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 781 apartments were permanently occupied, while 26 apartments were seasonally occupied and 34 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 14 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 7.23%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 30.77% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the CVP. In the federal election, a total of 689 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 51.2%. As of 2010, Obergösgen had an unemployment rate o

Joachim B. Hansen

Joachim Brandt Hansen is a Danish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour. Hansen was born in Hillerød, he took up golf at the age of 12 enjoyed a successful amateur career which culminated with representing his country, being the lowest-scoring player in the 2010 Eisenhower Trophy. He turned professional following this performance, earning a place on the Challenge Tour after three runner-up finishes on the third-tier Nordic League in 2011. A further three runner-up finishes at Challenge Tour level, during Hansen's rookie 2012 season, earned him fourth place in the season-ending rankings and a further promotion to the European Tour, his best performance to date at this level has been a tie for third at the Aberdeen Asset Management Scottish Open, where he led late in the final round despite carding a quadruple-bogey nine at his second hole. 2010 Eisenhower Trophy, Finnish Amateur Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 2010 2012 Challenge Tour graduates 2015 Challenge Tour graduates 2018 Challenge Tour graduates Joachim B.

Hansen at the European Tour official site Joachim B. Hansen at the Official World Golf Ranking official site


Damion Young, better known by his stage name Damizza, is an American radio executive, record producer and author. He completed working with J. Marshall Craig on a book on his life, Guilty By Association, scheduled for release sometime late-2011 after two years of delays over legal issues and made some public appearances at various California universities and colleges discussing the book and his life as a radio prodigy-turned hip-hop producer and performer; when Damizza was asked to give a brief insight to his book he said "A kid from a small town with a dream.. That never took no for an answer, made his dreams come true and did it his way.". Damizza Presents... Where I Wanna Be: The Compilation No. 28 R&B/Hip-Hop No. 143 Billboard 200 Damizza on HipHopDX Damizza Interview on

Sick and Tired (2006)

Sick and Tired is a stand-up comedy special written and performed by actress and comedian Wanda Sykes. The show premiered on October 14, 2006 on HBO, it is directed by Michael Drumm and was filmed in front of a live audience at the Moore Theatre in Seattle, WA. The show was nominated for the 2007 Emmy Award for Outstanding Music or Comedy Special. According to Linda Mizejewski, a Women and Sexuality Studies professor at Ohio State University, in her book, Pretty/Funny: Women Comedians and Body Politics, the title of the special refers to the quote by Fannie Lou Hamer, "I am sick and tired of being sick and tired." Sykes begins her performance by sharing two anecdotes, the first about a surprising interaction with a fan and the second about a talkative child whom she was seated next to on a flight. Sykes talks about American Idol, which she applauds for its meanness in making eliminated contestants sing before they are told to go home. Next, she addresses the joys of being a pet owner, mentioning her dog Riley.

She talks about her love and respect for animals and expresses that she doesn’t understand how people can be cruel towards them. Keeping with the theme of animals, Sykes moves on to describe her experience swimming with a dolphin that she supposed to be racist. Sykes’ next topic is money, she shares her misgivings about investing in stocks, comments on the national deficit, criticizes the spending of government money on a space program. Sykes criticizes President George W. Bush’s foreign policy, his administration, politicians in general, she talks about the adverse effects of politics on the elderly and women, addressing such issues as Medicaid and abortion. This discussion leads into a conversation about pornography which segues into a discourse on same-sex marriage. Sykes talks about racial profiling and the ways in which people are treated differently depending on their race, she comments on the objectification of women. Sykes wraps up her special by discussing her new-found sense of apathy and how it has affected her sex life

Fall of a Kingdom

Fall of a Kingdom is the first novel in the Farsala Trilogy by American author Hilari Bell. It was published under the name Flame; the series it was in was referred to as the "Book of Sorahb". When the Hrum army arrive in the country of Farsala, a war is started, just three people can stop it. Kavi is a peasant peddler selling bronze goods plated in gold and he holds a grudge against the deghans; when he was a young apprentice to a man in the city of Mazad, a deghan came in looking for a remarkable sword and is willing to pay an astronomical price for it, but does not have the money with him. Kavi grabs for the sword. A year the deghan returns for the swords pay, throws in a bonus amount "For his troubles"; the cut cripples him with an injury. While Kavi is running from a city where he is found to be selling false gold items, he is caught up in High Commander Merahb's plan, he is to visit the cottage where Soraya is staying to supply her with the goods and news that a deghass is accustomed to, he is to do it like an obedient peasant should.

But while he is on his usual rounds of the northern mining towns selling second rate iron goods to the country folk, he is captured by Hrum scouts who have infiltrated Farsala unknown. To save his own life Kavi agrees to spy for the Hrum, he believes that the Hrum will be better rulers of Farsala than the deghans. When the Hrum arrive in Farsala the deghans and their unstoppable charge is ready to meet them. Seconds before the wall of horses slams into the Hrum's front line, spears five yards long and as thick as saplings appear throughout the Hrum line; the deghans' charge is dissolved and half of their army is killed in their initial charge. Jiaan is knocked unconscious, he thinks he broke his collar bone. During this time the Farsalan army is being driven back to their camp; when Jiaan wakes up, all he sees is his father attempting to save his army and challenge the Hrum's champion to a life or death duel for victory or defeat. Before Commander Merahb could do anything else, he is shot by four arrows.

Attempting to get up, he gets shot with another volley of arrows that kills him. With the High Commander dead and the Farsalan army defeated and non-existent, Jiaan has to scrounge up an army of peasants and try to defeat an empire that spans half of the known world. Jiaan – An eighteen-year-old peasant, he is the illegitimate son of the High Commander Merahb, therefore is Soraya's half-brother. He has light-greenish eyes, he is brave and loyal to Farsala. Kavi – A nineteen-year-old peddler, raised in Mazad working in a blacksmith, he hates deghans and gives information to the Hrum army so that they can defeat the Farsalan army, because he believes that his country will be a better place under Hrum rule. Soraya – A fifteen-year-old deghass with long black hair and brown eyes, she is arrogant, self-centered, is used to getting what she wants when she wants it. Patrius – A kind and honest Hrum officer who befriends Kavi. Fasal – A young deghan who doesn't get along well with Jiaan. One of the few deghans to survive the battle with the Hrum.

Commander Merahb – Soraya and Jiaan's father and commander of the Farsalan army. Sudaba – Soraya's mother. Demanding and is like her daughter in the sense that they both enjoy the luxury of the palace life