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Pediment

A pediment is an architectural element found in Classical and Baroque architecture, its derivatives, consisting of a gable of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the lintel, or entablature, if supported by columns. The tympanum, the triangular area within the pediment, is decorated with relief sculpture. A pediment is sometimes the top element of a portico. For symmetric designs, it provides a centre point and used to add grandness to entrances; the pediment is found in classical Greek temples, Roman, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture. A prominent example is the Parthenon, where it contains a tympanum decorated with figures in relief sculpture; this architectural element was developed in the architecture of ancient Greece and first appeared as gable ends of Greek temples. In ancient Rome, the Renaissance, architectural revivals, the pediment was used as a non-structural element over windows and aedicules; some used to protect openings from weather. As classical architecture moved to Britain during the Renaissance, pediments wouldn't fit with the steeply pitched roofs and became detached from the structure to only create an impression.

The form of the pediment is dictated by the primary function of the roof which in several areas is the dismissal of rainwater. A variant is the "segmental" or "arch" pediment, where the normal angular slopes of the cornice are replaced by one in the form of a segment of a circle, in the manner of a depressed arch. Both traditional and segmental pediments have "broken" and "open" forms. In the broken pediment the raking cornice is left open at the apex; the open pediment is open along the base – " sculpture, "tondo" paintings, mirrors or windows. These forms were adopted in Mannerist architecture, applied to furniture designed by Thomas Chippendale; the terms "open pediment" and "broken pediment" are used interchangeably. Another variant is the swan's neck pediment and is a refinement of a broken pediment with two "S"-shaped profiles resembling a swan's neck. Non-triangular variations of pediments are found over doors and porches. Gable Pedimental sculptures in the United States Temple Temple Dictionary of Ornament by Philippa Lewis & Gillian Darley NY: Pantheon Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"pediment". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Tregaron

Tregaron is an ancient market town in Ceredigion, astride the River Brenig, a tributary of the River Teifi. Tregaron is 11 miles northeast of Lampeter. According to the 2011 Census, the population of the ward of Tregaron was 1,213 and 67% of the population could speak Welsh. Tregaron is a community. Tregaron received its royal charter as a town in 1292, it owes its growth to its central location in the upper Teifi Valley. It was the market town for the scattered agricultural communities in the broad, fertile countryside to the south and the rich landowners with extensive holdings in the uplands to the east, the home of many sheep and few people. To the north was Cors Caron, a fertile land when drained, to the west a hilly region with self-sufficient farmers on smallholdings of a few acres; these people all converged on Tregaron for the weekly market and the annual fair, Ffair Garon, where the sale of poultry, pigs and horses took place. The charter for the yearly fair was granted by Edward I in the 13th century.

Sheep fairs were held in May and June and two hiring fairs took place in November. A large number of taverns and inns in the town catered for the influx of country folk to these events. In the middle of the 18th century, Matthew Evans kept an inn in the town, he had a daughter who were celebrated robbers and collectively known as Plant Mat. They lived for several years in a cave near Devils Bridge, they terrorized the district and would give to their friends a glove to act as a passport and identify them to their brethren. It was difficult to apprehend the trio because of the narrowness of the entrance to the cave which made it impossible to storm. After several years of success, they committed a murder and being taken, were sentenced to death and executed. Tregaron was a main gathering place for the drovers who, before the advent of rail transport, herded large numbers of cattle and geese hundreds of miles to the markets of southeast England. Many Tregaron men were accumulated considerable wealth in the process.

They acted as news carriers and unofficial postmen and some were adept at avoiding tollgates. The Tregaron area had a number of water-driven woollen mills and was a centre for the manufacture of hosiery. Woollen socks were knitted at home by men and children and sold at the market to dealers who resold them in the industrial valleys of South Wales. During the Second World War, the War Office used a site near Tregaron for training exercises; the church is dedicated to St Caron. He was a man of lowly origins but "his courage and generous deportment obtained him the sovereignty in Wales: he made war against the Romans, reigned seven years and was buried in Tregarron", he is certainly the same person as Carausius who took power in Britain in 286 and was assassinated in 293 by Allectus. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth in the translation from Welsh "there was a young man of the name of Caron, of a British family, but of low degree, who... went to Rome, solicited the Senate to grant him permission and aid to protect the sea coasts of Britain... proposed to the Britons that they should make him king...

Allectus with three legions... overpowered him..." An early Christian stone slab bearing the name Carausius and the Chi Rho symbol is preserved in Penmachno. The church stands on a rocky eminence, it consists of chancel. Other notable buildings in the town include the 13th-century Talbot Hotel, which has an elephant buried in its grounds; the remote chapel Soar y mynydd is close to Tregaron. In March, 1977, a cottage near Tregaron was one target of an Operation Julie police raid in which vast quantities of the drug LSD were seized. Nearby Cors Caron, is known for its adders, red kites, polecats; the River Brenig is noted for its brown eels. The river has been the subject of dredging and flood-protection works to provide 1-in-100-year flood protection to the town and improve the environment for wildlife along a stretch of river. An annual eisteddfod is held in the town each September, drawing performers from all parts of Wales and beyond. Eisteddfodau have been conducted at Tregaron for a century or more.

The Caron Male Voice Choir was formed in 1969 and has performed in Europe and America as well as the UK. The National Eisteddfod will be held in Tregaron in 2020; the town holds an annual festival of harness racing in August, which attracts racegoers from across the UK. This was started in 1980 by the Tregaron Trotting Club. A race day is now held early in May each year; the Tregaron Rugby Football Club plays in Division Two West C of the Welsh Rugby Union, having won promotion from Division 3 in 2015. An association football team, Tregaron Turfs F. C. plays in the Cambrian Tyres Aberystwyth and District League Division 1 In 1860, government approval to subsidise the construction of a railway from Manchester to Milford Haven was granted. At the urging of local people, led by David Davies and supported by Joseph Jenkins, capital was subscribed for a station at Tregaron; the Pencader–Lampeter section was completed in January 1866. The grand opening of the entire line was held the following year at Aberystwyth on 12 August 1867, providing a boost to the economy of the town.

In 1965, Tregaron's train service was withdrawn and the station closed after the line was badly damaged by flooding south of Aberystwyth. The main Aberystwyth-Lampeter-Carmarthen long-distance bus service runs via Aberaeron, bypassing Tregaron. There is a two-hourly bus service to Aberystwyth and Lampeter and a more sporadic service to other neighbouring small towns and villages. There are no buses in the even

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church; the most reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014.

Pope Francis canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018