Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are translated into English as mayor. In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was held by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. Präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts. In an important city in a city state, where one of the Bürgermeister has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president, there can be several posts called Bürgermeister in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate, such as: Regierender Bürgermeister in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term Bürgermeister without attribute – English Mayor – refers to his deputies, while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called Bezirksbürgermeister, English borough mayor.
Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats in Bremen Amtsbürgermeister can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 Bürgermeister, in German: in Germany, South Tyrol, in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany; the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world; however the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister. Borgmester Borgarstjóri Borgermester Börgermester Burgomaestre Purkmistr Burgumaisu Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro: in few communes of Lombardy Burgemeester in Dutch: in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and the province.
Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. Bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Buergermeeschter Polgármester, derived from German. Burmistrz, a mayoral title, derived from German; the German form Oberbürgermeister is translated as Nadburmistrz. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare. Boargemaster Pormestari In the Netherlands and Belgium, the mayor is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality. In the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of the municipal council, they are members of the council of mayor and aldermen and have their own portfolios, always including safety and public order. They have a representative role for the municipal government, both to its civilians and to other authorities on the local and national level.
A large majority of mayors are members of a political party. This can be the majority party in the municipal council. However, the mayors are expected to exercise their office in a non-partisan way; the mayor is appointed by the national government for a renewable six-year term. In the past, mayors for important cities were chosen after negotiations between the national parties; this appointment procedure has been criticised. The party D66 had a direct election of the mayor as one of the main objectives in its platform. In the early 2000s, proposals for change were discussed in the national parliament. However
Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen, it is situated north of the Szczecin Lagoon estuary of the River Oder. About 80% of the island belongs to the German district of Vorpommern-Greifswald in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the eastern part and the largest city on the island, Świnoujście, are part of the Polish West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The island's total area is 445 square kilometres (the German part 373 square kilometres, its population is 76,500. With an annual average of 1906 sunshine hours, Usedom is the sunniest region of both Germany and Poland, it is one of the sunniest islands in the Baltic Sea, hence its nickname "Sun Island"; the island has been a tourist destination since the Gründerzeit in the 19th century, features resort architecture. Seaside resorts include Zinnowitz and the Amber Spas in the west, the Kaiserbad and Świnoujście in the east; the island is separated from the neighbouring island of Wolin to the east by the Strait of Świna, the main route connecting Szczecin Bay with the Pomeranian Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea.
The strait between the island and the mainland is called the Peenestrom. The island is flat covered by marshes. Geographical features include a number of lakes: The largest town on the island is Świnoujście, which has a population of 41,500. Another town, gives its name to the island; the largest town in the German part is Heringsdorf. There are many seaside resorts on the Baltic Sea coast, including Zinnowitz and Koserow in the west – and the three Imperial Spas Ahlbeck and Bansin forming a town, as well as neighbouring Świnoujście in the east of Usedom; the hinterland is called referring to the Achterwasser lagoon. It is characterized by unspoilt forests, lagoon landscapes, hills, as well as calm villages such as Loddin and Balmer See with its golf course. Main economic activities include tourism and life sciences, agriculture, animal husbandry, food processing, timber production. Settled since the Stone Age, the area was inhabited by Germanic Rugians, before the Polabian Slavs moved in during the fifth and seventh centuries.
Around the island, Wendish/Scandinavian trade centres such as Vineta/Jomsborg and Menzlin were established. In 1128 the Slavic Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw I was converted to Christianity through the efforts of Otto of Bamberg. In 1155 the Premonstratensians established a monastery in Grobe known as Usedom Abbey, which in 1309 was moved to the village of Pudagla. In the meantime, a Cistercian nunnery was founded in Krummin and soon the whole island was in the possession of one or the other of the ecclesiastical orders. During the Reformation, ownership passed to the Slavic dukes of Pomerania. During the Thirty Years' War, on June 26, 1630, the Swedish Army under King Gustavus Adolphus landed in the village of Peenemünde, located on the Peenestrom strait. Usedom was annexed by Sweden after the war for a century, until in 1720 it was sold for 2 million thalers to Prussian King Frederick William I. In 1740 Frederick the Great of Prussia developed a seaport in Swinemünde; the small village of Peenemünde came to prominence again during World War II.
The Luftwaffe tested rockets, including the V-1 and V-2 nearby. Germany used thousands of slave laborers on Usedom during World War II. In 1945 the eastern part of the island, together with the city and port of Swinemünde, was assigned to Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, the surviving German inhabitants of the town were expelled to the west; the territory was repopulated with Poles, most of whom had been expelled by the Soviets from what had been eastern Poland. The Isle of Usedom is one of Germany's major holiday and recreation areas due to its beaches, its natural environment, seaside towns such as Zinnowitz and Heringsdorf, which have been frequented by the German and international nobility as well as the general public. St. Peter Church in Benz is featured in the works of several artists, including the German-American painter Lyonel Feininger who spent summer vacations on the island from 1909 to 1921. Hotels and bed and breakfast establishments are available on both sides of the German-Polish border.
In addition to the coastline, the hinterland features nature reserves, castles and historic villages. Points of interest include: Usedom Botanical Gardens, Mellenthin, a botanical garden Karnin Lift Bridge, a technical monument to the former bridge over the Peenestrom. Dannenfeldt Mausoleum List of divided islands Armia Krajowa and V-1 and V-2 Usedom travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Usedom at Wikimedia Commons Usedom.de: Official Usedom webpage Visitusedom.com: Official Island of Usedom tourism website
The Peene is a river in Germany. The Westpeene, with Ostpeene as its longer tributary, Kleine Peene/Teterower Peene flow into Kummerower See, from there as Peene proper to Anklam and into the Oder Lagoon; the western branch of the Oder River, which separates the island of Usedom from the German mainland, is also called Peene, but is considered a part of the Baltic Sea called the Peenestrom. It is one of three channels connecting the Oder Lagoon with the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. Peene river itself has some properties of an inlet. From Kummerower See, inclusively, to the mouth, the ground of the water is five feet and more below sea level; the windkessel effect of the large surface of this lake allows reverse flows that with northern wind may last as long as a week. These reverse flows do not only occur in times of low discharge of its afffluents, but in times of an overflow of precipitation; the Peene Valley is one of the largest contiguous fen regions in central Europe. Thanks to its wilderness and intact nature, the river Peene and its valley is sometimes grandiloquently referred to as "the Amazon of the North".
Major towns at the Peene river are Malchin, Teterow and Anklam. Wolgast is on Peenestrom strait. Media related to Peene at Wikimedia Commons www.peenetal-landschaft.de - Association for natural protection of the Peene river valley
In Western usage, the phrase post-war era or postwar era refer to the time since the end of World War II though many nations involved in this war have been involved in other wars since. More broadly, a post-war period or postwar period is the interval following the end of a war. A post-war period can become an interwar period or interbellum, when a war between the same parties resumes at a date. By contrast, a post-war period marks the cessation of conflict entirely; the term "post-war" can have different meanings in different countries and refer to a period determined by local considerations based on the effect of the war there. In Britain, "post-war" refers to the period from the election of Clement Attlee in 1945 to that of Margaret Thatcher in 1979, a period of so-called post-war consensus, while it may refer to a shorter period, ending in 1960 or shortly after and corresponding to the 1950s era, hence 1945–1960. Considering the post-war era as equivalent to the Cold War era, post-war sometimes includes the 1980s, putting the end at 26 December 1991, with the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The 1990s and the 21st century are considered to be part of the post-war era. Interwar period Aftermath of the September 11 attacks Postbellum Pre-war Reconstruction Era of the U. S. Post–Cold War era
The Volksmarine was the naval force of the German Democratic Republic from 1956 to 1990. The Volksmarine was one of the service branches of the National People's Army, performed a coastal defence role along the GDR's Baltic Sea coastline and territorial waters. Soon after the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviet Union initiated the rearming of the German Democratic Republic, founded in October 1949 as a satellite state from the Soviet Zone of Occupation. Beginning in 1950, Soviet Navy officers helped to establish the Hauptverwaltung Seepolizei, renamed Volkspolizei–See on 1 July 1952. At the same time parts of the erstwhile maritime police were reorganized into the new Grenzpolizei–See, to guard the sea frontiers, incorporated into the Deutsche Grenzpolizei, set up in 1946. By 1952 the VP–See is estimated to have numbered some 8,000 personnel. On 1 March 1956, the GDR formally created its armed forces, the National People's Army, the VP–See became the Verwaltung Seestreitkräfte der NVA with about 10,000 men.
In November 1960, these maritime forces of the National People's Army were designated Volksmarine. Over the next years the navy received a number of new ships built in the GDR. Only the coastal protection ships and some of the fast torpedo boats were provided by the Soviet Union, as were all helicopters, some auxiliary craft were purchased from Poland. Following the building of the Berlin Wall on 13 August 1961, the Grenzbrigade Küste der Grenzpolizei was incorporated into the Volksmarine. With the reorganization of 1965 all attack forces, i.e. the fast torpedo boats, were combined into a single flotilla and stationed on the Bug peninsula of the island of Rügen. In the 1970s, the Volksmarine had grown to about 18,000 men. In the 1980s some of the ships were replaced and the Volksmarine acquired Soviet-built fighter-bombers. In 1988, the Volksmarine had brief hostile confrontations with the Polish Navy over a maritime border dispute; the Volksmarine was dissolved, like all other branches of the former National People's Army, on 2 October 1990 – the day before the official reunification of Germany.
Some of its staff was absorbed into some by the German Border Police. Most of the ships and other equipment were scrapped or sold, few if any former Volksmarine vessels remain in service with the modern-day German Navy; the last commander of the People's Navy, Vizeadmiral Hendrik Born, wrote a multi-paragraph commentary for Dieter Flohr and Peter Seemann's 2009 book, Die Volksmarine, a comprehensive and picture-oriented history of the Volksmarine. The Volksmarine was operationally incorporated into the United Baltic Sea Fleets of the Warsaw Pact states, its designated area of operations was the entrances to the Baltic Sea. Its task was to keep the sea lanes open for Soviet reinforcements and to participate in offensive actions against the coasts of hostile nations in the Baltic Sea. For these purposes, it was equipped with light forces such as anti-submarine ships, fast torpedo boats, minesweepers as well as landing craft. Routine duty was focused on extensive reconnaissance activities, carried out by the minesweepers and specialized electronic surveillance boats.
The 6th Border Brigade had a special responsibility for the prevention of "Republikflucht". With effect from 1 November 1961, it was subordinated to the Volksmarine, it had a substantial number of small patrol boats and surveillance posts along the coast. Konteradmiral Felix Scheffler Vizeadmiral Waldemar Verner Konteradmiral Wilhelm Ehm Konteradmiral Heinz Neukirchen Vizeadmiral Theodor Hoffmann Vizeadmiral Hendrik Born The People's Navy was headed by the Kommando der Volksmarine in Rostock-Gehlsdorf, it was structured as follows: 1st Flotilla in Peenemünde, 4th Flotilla in Rostock-Warnemünde, 6th Flotilla at Bug on Rügen Island, 6th Border Brigade in Rostock. In addition there were: one Torpedo Technical Support Company in Sassnitz one Naval Helicopter Wing in Parow near Stralsund one Naval Flight Wing in Laage one Navy Engineering Battalion in Sassnitz one Combat Swimmer Command in Kühlungsborn one Coastal Missile Regiment in Schwarzenpfost one Coastal Defense Regiment in Rostock one Naval Propaganda Company in Rostock-Warnemünde the Maritime Hydrographic Service of the GDR in Rostock testing and other special facilities training facilities Naval NCO Academy "Walter Steffens" in Parow Naval Officers Academy "Karl Liebknecht" in Stralsund NCO School for Support Services at Dänholm near Stralsund The People's Navy was equipped with: Landingcraft Minelayers and minesweepers Fast torpedo and missile boat Coastal defense ships Submarin
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe. Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends, it derived one of its names from the March of Brandenburg. Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor; the state thus became additionally known as the Electorate of Brandenburg. The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415. In 1417, Frederick I moved its capital from Brandenburg an der Havel to Berlin. Under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia; the resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, which became a leading German state during the 18th century. Although the electors' highest title was "King in/of Prussia", their power base remained in Brandenburg and its capital Berlin.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. It was replaced after the Napoleonic Wars with the Prussian Province of Brandenburg in 1815; the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. As Prussia was the legal predecessor of the united German Reich of 1871–1945, as such a direct ancestor of the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, Brandenburg is one of the earliest linear ancestors of present-day Germany; the Mark Brandenburg is still used informally today to refer to the present German state of Brandenburg. The territory of the former margraviate known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany and western Poland. Geographically it encompassed the majority of the present-day German states Brandenburg and Berlin, the Altmark, the Neumark. Parts of the present-day federal state Brandenburg, such as Lower Lusatia and territory, Saxon until 1815, were not parts of the Mark.
Colloquially but not the federal state Brandenburg is sometimes identified as the Mark or Mark Brandenburg. The region was formed during the ice age and characterized by moraines, glacial valleys, numerous lakes; the territory march because it was a border county of the Holy Roman Empire. The Mark is defined by two depressions; the depressions are taken up by rivers and chains of lakes with marsh and boggy soil along the shores. The Northern or Baltic Uplands of the Mecklenburg Lake Plateau have only minor extensions into Brandenburg; the 230 km-long range of hills in the Mark's south begins in the Lusatian Highlands and continues past Trzebiel and Spremberg to the northwest through Calau, ends in the bare and dry Fläming. The southern depression is to the north of this ridge and appears strikingly in the Spreewald; the northern depression, lying directly south of the Baltic uplands, is defined by the lowlands of the Noteć and Warta Rivers, the Oderbruch, the valley of the Finow, the Havelland moor, the Oder River.
Between these two depressions is a low plateau that extends from the Poznań area westward to Brandenburg through Torzym, the Spree plateau, the Mittelmark. From southeast to northwest, this plateau is intersected by the lowland of the Leniwa Obra and the Oder River below the confluence of the Lusatian Neisse, the lower Spree Valley, the Havel Valley. Between these valleys rise a series of hills and plateaus, such as the Barnim, the Teltow, the Semmelberg near Bad Freienwalde, the Müggelberge in Köpenick, the Havelberge, the Rauen Hills near Fürstenwalde; the region is predominantly marked by dry, sandy soil, wide stretches of which have pine trees and erica plants, or heath. However, the soil is loamy in the uplands and plateaus and, when farmed appropriately, can be agriculturally productive. Mark Brandenburg has a cool, continental climate, with temperatures averaging near 0 °C in January and February and near 18 °C in July and August. Precipitation averages between 500 mm and 600 mm annually, with a modest summer maximum.
By the 8th century, Slavic Wends, such as the Sprewane and Hevelli, started to move into the Brandenburg area. They intermarried with Bohemians; the Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established at the beginning of the 10th century. They were suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mainz. King Henry the Fowler started governing in the region in 928–9, allowing Emperor Otto I to establish the Northern March under Margrave Gero in 936 during the German Ostsiedlung. However, the march and the bishoprics were overthrown by a Slavic rebellion in 983. Though the bishopric was retained. Prince Pribislav of the Hevelli came to power at the castle of Brenna in 1127. During Pribislav's reign, in which he cultivated close connections with the Germ
Peenemünde Army Research Center
The Peenemünde Army Research Centre was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the German Army Weapons Office. On April 2, 1936, the aviation ministry paid 750,000 reichsmarks to the town of Wolgast for the whole Northern peninsula of the Baltic island of Usedom. By the middle of 1938, the Army facility had been separated from the Luftwaffe facility and was nearly complete, with personnel moved from Kummersdorf; the Army Research Center consisted of Werk Ost and Werk Süd, while Werk West was the Luftwaffe Test Site,one of the four test and research facilities of the Luftwaffe, with its headquarters facility at Erprobungsstelle Rechlin. Wernher von Braun was the HVP technical director and there were nine major departments: Technical Design Office Aeroballistics and Mathematics Laboratory Wind Tunnel Materials Laboratory Flight and Telemetering Devices Development and Fabrication Laboratory Test Laboratory Future Projects Office Purchasing Office The Measurements Group was part of the BSM, additional departments included the Production Planning Directorate, the Personnel Office, the Drawings Change Service.
Several German guided missiles and rockets of World War II were developed by the HVP, including the V-2 rocket, the Wasserfall, Rheintochter and Enzian missiles. The HVP performed preliminary design work on very-long-range missiles for use against the United States; that project was sometimes called "V-3" and its existence is well documented. The Peenemünde establishment developed other technologies such as the first closed-circuit television system in the world, installed at Test Stand VII to track the launching rockets; the supersonic wind tunnel at Peenemünde's "Aerodynamic Institute" had nozzles for speeds up to the record speed of Mach 4.4, as well as an innovative desiccant system to reduce the condensation clouding caused by the use of liquid oxygen, in 1940. Led by Rudolph Hermann, who arrived in April 1937 from the University of Aachen, the number of technical staff members reached two hundred in 1943, it included Hermann Kurzweg of the and Walter Haeussermann. Set up under the HVP as a rocket training battery, Heimat-Artillerie-Park 11 Karlshagen/Pomerania contained the A-A Research Command North for the testing of anti-aircraft rockets.
The chemist Magnus von Braun, the youngest brother of Wernher von Braun, was employed in the attempted development at Peenemünde of anti-aircraft rockets. These were never successful as weapons during World War II, their development as practical weapons took another decade of development in the United States and in the U. S. S. R. In November 1938, Walther von Brauchitsch ordered construction of an A-4 production plant at Peenemünde, in January 1939, Walter Dornberger created a subsection of Wa Pruf 11 for planning the Peenemünde Production Plant project, headed by G. Schubert, a senior Army civil servant. By midsummer 1943, the first trial runs of the assembly-line in the Production Works at Werke Süd were made, but after the end of July 1943 when the enormous hangar Fertigungshalle 1 was just about to go into operation, Operation Hydra bombed Peenemünde. On August 26, 1943, Albert Speer called a meeting with Hans Kammler, Gerhard Degenkolb, Karl Otto Saur to negotiate the move of A-4 main production to an underground factory in the Harz mountains.
In early September, Peenemünde machinery and personnel for production were moved to the Mittelwerk, which received machinery and personnel from the two other planned A-4 assembly sites. On October 13, 1943, the Peenemünde prisoners from the small F-1 concentration camp boarded rail cars bound for Kohnstein mountain. Two Polish janitors of Peenemünde's Camp Trassenheide in early 1943 provided maps and reports to Polish Home Army Intelligence, in June 1943 British intelligence had received two such reports which identified the "rocket assembly hall", "experimental pit", "launching tower"; as the opening attack of the British Operation Crossbow, the Operation Hydra air-raid attacked the HVP's "Sleeping & Living Quarters" the "Factory Workshops", the "Experimental Station" on the night of August 17/18, 1943. The Polish janitors were given advance warning of the attack, but the workers could not leave due to SS security and the facility had no air raid shelters for the prisoners. A year on July 18, August 4, August 25, the U.
S. Eighth Air Force conducted three additional Peenemünde raids to counter suspected hydrogen peroxide production; as with the move of the V-2 Production Works to the Mittelwerk, the complete withdrawal of the development of guided missiles was approved by the Army and SS in October 1943. On August 26, 1943, at a meeting in Albert Speer's office, Hans Kammler suggested moving the A-4 Development Works to a proposed underground site in Austria. After a site survey in September by Papa Riedel and Schubert, Kammler chose the code name Zement for it in December, work to blast an underground cavern into a cliff in Ebensee near Lake Traunsee commenced in January 1944. To build the underground tunnels, a concentration camp (a su