SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pegasus

Pegasus is a mythical winged divine horse, one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology. Depicted as pure white, Pegasus is the offspring of the Olympian god Poseidon, he was foaled by the Gorgon Medusa upon her death. Pegasus is the uncle of Geryon. Pegasus was caught by the Greek hero Bellerophon, near the fountain Peirene, with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allowed Bellerophon to ride him in order to defeat the monstrous Chimera, which led to many other exploits. Bellerophon fell from the winged horse's back while trying to reach Mount Olympus. Afterwards, Zeus transformed Pegasus into the eponymous constellation; the poet Hesiod presents a folk etymology of the name Pegasus as derived from πηγή pēgē "spring, well": "the pegai of Okeanos, where he was born."A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas, meaning "lightning", Pihassassi, a local Luwian-Hittite name in southern Cilicia of a weather god represented with thunder and lightning. The proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus' role, reported as early as Hesiod, as the bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus.

It was first suggested in 1952 and remains accepted, but Robin Lane Fox has criticized it as implausible. Dr. Michael Brown, studying ancient and medieval Greek poetry in the context of the Greek-North European dialogue, has concluded from it that the word "Pegasus" is a pre-Celtic-PIE word, one which did not evolve into one of the numerous common names listed in both Greek and Western languages; this is discussed further in "Linguistics and Classical Theology," by William S. R. Miller, based on his work with Charles F. G. Osterhaus's analysis of the word and its relationships to Greek and Italian; the relationship of "Pegasus" to "Cyrillic" is discussed further in his Phrygian Monikers and the Naming of Greek Pronunciation "Cyrillic or Pene-Orthogyrin" and "Pegasus" as an Early Semitic construct. According to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring water spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses' Mount Helicon, the Hippocrene, Antoninus Liberalis suggested, at the behest of Poseidon to prevent the mountain swelling with rapture at the song of the Muses.

Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him. Hesiod says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus. There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod's "springs of Oceanus, which encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa: One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa's neck as Perseus was beheading her, similar to the manner in which Athena was born from the head of Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon's blood. A variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa's blood and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making; the last version bears resemblance to Hesiod's account of the birth of Aphrodite from the foam created when Uranus's severed genitals were cast into the sea by Cronus. Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against the Chimera.

There are varying tales about. The next morning, still clutching the bridle, Bellerophon found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring, caught him and tamed him. Michaud's Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning are released. According to certain versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus, who flew to Ethiopia to help Andromeda. In fact, Pegasus is a late addition to the story of Perseus, who flew on his own with the sandals lent to him by Hermes. Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus' other steeds, was given the task of carrying Zeus' thunderbolts, along with other members of his entourage, his attendants/handmaidens/shield bearers/shieldmaidens and Bronte; because of his years of faithful service to Zeus, Pegasus was honoured with transformation into a constellation. On the day of his catasterism, when Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a single feather fell to the earth near the city of Tarsus.

The pegasus became a common element in British heraldry, appearing chiefly as a supporter or a crest. Pegasi may appear upon escutcheons, although this is rare. A pegasus rampant is featured on the arms of the Inner Temple, while those of the Richardson family contain a rare depiction of a pegasus sejant. During World War II, the silhouetted image of Bellerophon the warrior, mounted on the winged Pegasus, was adopted by the United Kingdom's newly raised parachute troops in 1941 as their upper sleeve insignia; the image symbolized a warrior arriving at a battle by air, the same tactics used by paratroopers. The square upper-sleeve insignia comprised Bellerophon/Pegasus in light blue on a maroon background. One source suggests that the insignia was designed by famous English novelist Daphne du Maurier, wife of the commander of the 1st Airborne Division, General Frederick "Boy" Browning. According to the British Army Website, the insignia was designed by the celebrated East Anglian painter Major Edward Seago in May 1942.

The maroon background on the insignia was used again by the Airborne

Beccariophoenix alfredii

Beccariophoenix alfredii known as the high plateau coconut palm, is a discovered species of Arecaceae, endemic to Madagascar. It is in the genus Beccariophoenix, is related to the genus Cocos. Beccariophoenix alfredii is similar in appearance to the coconut palm, although somewhat cold hardy, making it a good look-alike for the coconut in cooler climates. Beccariophoenix alfredii grows up to 50 ft in height with a trunk up to 1 ft in diameter; the trunk is unarmed and bare, with ringed leaf scars. The crown holds 30–36 pinnate leaves, which reach lengths of 4.5 m. Each leaf holds 120 pairs of leaflets; the leaflets are slender and crowded at the base, are either rigid or somewhat pendulous. Towards the base of the leaf, leaflets are about 47 cm long and 1 cm wide. Mid leaf, leaflets are at their largest. At the tip of the leaf, leaflets become smaller again. Dead leaves are marcescent in juvenile palms, but abscise fall off the tree, neatly in adults; the inflorescence is infrafoliar and surrounded by a 90 cm long, leathery spathe, which curls up on itself after abscission.

The inflorescence stalk elliptic in cross-section. The rachis is short, 8–9 cm long and bearing about 30–50 crowded, spirally arranged rachillae; the fruit is 1.6 cm × 2.4 cm and dark purplish-black at maturity. Beccariophoenix is placed in the tribe Cocoseae; the species was first noted in 2002, when Alfred Razafindratsira noticed a picture of a Beccariophoenix species in photographs taken of the vegetation surrounding Andrembesoa. Alfred found this odd, considering this area of Madagascar is far from the other localities of Beccariophoenix and is, ecologically different from the east coast and littoral forests where the other Beccariophoenix species are known to occur. On a day in May 2004 an expedition was mounted into the High Plateau of Madagascar in order to confirm the existence of this species. On the fourth day of the expedition the new population of Beccariophoenix was found; this species is noted for having oblate rather than ovoid fruit, infrafoliar inflorescence, a peduncle not exceeding 13 cm long, a 3–5 mm thick leathery peduncular bract which rolls up on when itself when abscised and 15 stamens.

Due to these differences, Beccariophoenix alfredii was classified as a new species. B. alfredii was accepted by Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of 2010. Beccariophoenix alfredii occurs in the High Plateau of Madagascar at 20° S; the palm is found at an elevation of 1050 m growing along the sandy riverbeds. The surrounding vegetation is composed of various grasses, the area sees occasional fires. Due to the environment that B. alfredii is subjected to, it is hardy against frost and cold, fire and full sun. The seeds of B. alfredii are an important food source for Lemurs, notably the Black lemur, as the seeds ripen between the months of March and June, a time of relative scarcity of food in the area. Lemurs therefore play an important role in the seed dispersal in Madagascar. Indeed, germination trials found that seeds which passed through the gut of lemurs sprouted faster and in greater numbers than seeds not eaten by lemurs. Thus, it seems likely that lemurs are the main seed dispersers of B. madagascariensis and B. alfredii.

Due to its overall hardiness, B. alfredii is a good candidate for cultivation in central and southern Florida, south Texas, southern Arizona and locations such as Sydney Australia, the North Island of New Zealand. It is suitable to many other soil types, it can be expected that after it is less new to cultivation, it may become popular worldwide due to its coconut look-alike status, good growth rate, cold hardiness. Media related to Becarriophoenix alfredii at Wikimedia Commons Palmpedia A wiki based site dedicated to high quality images and information on palm trees

SS Sant Anna

SS Sant′ Anna was a Transatlantic ocean liner converted into a troopship in 1915, torpedoed and sunk in the Mediterranean Sea on 11 May 1918 with 605 casualties. Sant ′ Anna was built as an ocean liner for service between New York City; the ship was operational between 1912 and 1915, when she was requisitioned by the French Army and refitted as troopship for use in World War I. On 19 September 1915 a fire broke out on board, thought to be an act of German sabotage. On 12 April 1916 Sant′ Anna made her first trip to the Salonika Front with 1,027 Serbian Army soldiers and 129 horses on board. On 11 May 1918 she was again steaming in the Mediterrean Sea on a voyage from Bizerte for Thessaloniki under the escort of two British sloops, HMS Cyclamen and HMS Verhana, with 2,025 soldiers on board, she was torpedoed at 3:15 AM by the Imperial German Navy submarine SM UC-54, commanded by Heinrich XXXVII Prinz Reuß zu Köstritz, sank at 3:58 AM off the coast of French Tunisia, some 26 nautical miles east of Cape Bon, killing 605 of the soldiers.

The survivors were rescued by the two British sloops, the French Navy destroyer Catapulte, a British gunboat, the French sloop Saint Jean, the vessels Auguste Leblond and Marguerite Marie. List by death toll of ships sunk by submarines Navires 14-18 Technical data, lists of names Wreck site Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: ". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net