American Zoetrope is a run American film production company, centered in San Francisco and founded by Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas. Opened on December 12, 1969, the studio has produced not only the films of Coppola, but George Lucas's pre-Star Wars films, as well as many others by avant-garde directors such as Jean-Luc Godard, Akira Kurosawa, Wim Wenders and Godfrey Reggio. American Zoetrope was an early adopter of digital filmmaking, including some of the earliest uses of HDTV. Four films produced by American Zoetrope are included in the American Film Institute's Top 100 Films. American Zoetrope-produced films have received 68 nominations. Located in a warehouse on Folsom Street, the company's headquarters have since 1972 been in the historic Sentinel Building, at 916 Kearny Street in San Francisco's North Beach neighbourhood. Coppola named the studio after a zoetrope he was given in the late 1960s by the filmmaker and collector of early film devices, Mogens Skot-Hansen. "Zoetrope" is the name by which Coppola's quarterly fiction magazine, Zoetrope: All-Story, is known.
American Zoetrope is now owned by Coppola's son and daughter, directors Roman Coppola and Sofia Coppola. It administers the Zoetrope Virtual Studio, a complete motion picture production studio for members only. Launched in June 2000 after more than four years work, it brings together departments for screenwriters, directors and other filmmaker artists, plus new departments for other creative endeavours, offering e-collaborative tools. Filmmaker members can workshop a wide range of film arts, including music, graphics and film & video. In the building lobby Coppola operates a small Italian café, Cafe Zoetrope, featuring Inglenook Estate wine and memorabilia from his films; the neighborhood is well known for its writers. Coppola wrote much of the screenplay for The Godfather in the nearby Caffe Trieste and Lawrence Ferlinghetti's City Lights Books is located up Columbus Avenue from the Sentinel Building. Official website
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, sociologists call this polygyny; when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called a group marriage or mixed-orientation marriage. In contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like "monogamy", the term "polygamy" is used in a de facto sense, applied regardless of whether the state recognizes the relationship. In sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. Worldwide, different societies variously encourage, outlaw polygamy. Of societies which allow or tolerate polygamy, in the vast majority of cases the form accepted is polygyny. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny, 186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry. From a religious point of view, "The bible shows over 36 named men who had more than one wife."
In cultures which practice polygamy, its prevalence among that population is connected to class and socioeconomic status. From a legal point of view, in many countries, although marriage is monogamous, adultery is not illegal, leading to a situation of de facto polygamy being allowed, although without legal recognition for non-official "spouses". According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be monogamous, with cultural practice of polygamy to be in the minority, based on both surveys of world populations, on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Polygamy exists in three specific forms: Polygyny, wherein a man has multiple simultaneous wives Polyandry, wherein a woman has multiple simultaneous husbands Group marriage, wherein the family unit consists of multiple husbands and multiple wives of legal age Polygyny, the practice wherein a man has more than one wife at the same time, is by far the most common form of polygamy. Many Muslim-majority countries and some countries with a sizeable Muslim minority accept polygyny and culturally to varying extents.
Polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent in West Africa, some scholars see the slave trade's impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated an historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygamy in the majority of sub-Saharan African societies. Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies between the male-dominated intensive plough-agriculture common in Eurasia and the extensive shifting horticulture found in sub-Saharan Africa. In some of the sparsely-populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work; this favours polygamous marriages in which men seek to monopolize the production of women "who are valued both as workers and as child bearers".
Goody, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied, discusses more traditionally male-dominated though extensive farming systems such as those that exist in much of West Africa in the West African savanna, where polygyny is desired by men more for the generation of male offspring, whose labor is valued. Anthropologists Douglas R. White and Michael L. Burton discuss and support Jack Goody's observation regarding African male farming systems in "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy and Warfare" where these authors note: Goody argues against the female contributions hypothesis, he notes Dorjahn's comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa the West African savanna, where one finds high male agricultural contributions. Goody says, "The reasons behind polygyny are sexual and reproductive rather than economic and productive", arguing that men marry polygynously to maximize their fertility and to obtain large households containing many young dependent males.
Polygynous marriages fall into two types: sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters, non-sororal, where the co-wives are not related. Polygyny offers husbands the benefit of allowing them to have more children, may provide them with a larger number of productive workers, allows them to establish politically useful ties with a greater number of kin groups. Senior wives can benefit as well when the addition of junior wives to the family lightens their workload. Wives' senior wives', status in a community can increase through the addition of other wives, who add to the family's prosperity or symbolize conspicuous consumption. For such reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the bride price for an extra wife. Polygyny may result from the practice of levirate marriage. In such cases, the deceased man's heir may inherit his assets and wife; this provides support for the widow and her children and maintains t
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Robert Jonathan Demme was an American director and screenwriter. He is best known for directing the psychological horror The Silence of the Lambs, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director, he directed Melvin and Howard, Swing Shift, Something Wild, Married to the Mob, the concert film Stop Making Sense and Rachel Getting Married. Demme was born on February 22, 1944 in Baldwin, New York, the son of Dorothy Louise and Robert Eugene Demme, a public relations executive, he graduated from the University of Florida. Demme broke into feature film working for exploitation film producer Roger Corman early in his career, co-writing and producing Angels Hard as They Come, a motorcycle movie loosely based on Rashomon, The Hot Box, he moved on to directing three films for Corman's studio New World Pictures: Caged Heat, Crazy Mama, Fighting Mad. After Fighting Mad, Demme directed the comedy film Handle with Care for Paramount Pictures; the film was well received by critics, but received little promotion, performed poorly at the box office.
Demme's next film and Howard, did not get a wide release, but received a groundswell of critical acclaim, led to the signing of Demme to direct the Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell star vehicle Swing Shift. Intended as a prestige picture for Warner Bros. as well as a major commercial vehicle for Demme, it instead became a troubled production due to the conflicting visions of Demme and star Hawn. Demme ended up renouncing the finished product, when the film was released in May 1984, it was panned by critics and neglected by moviegoers. After Swing Shift, Demme stepped back from Hollywood to make the Talking Heads concert film Stop Making Sense which won the National Society of Film Critics Award for best documentary. Demme formed his production company, Clinica Estetico, with producers Edward Saxon and Peter Saraf in 1987, they were based out of New York City for fifteen years. Demme won the Academy Award for The Silence of the Lambs —one of only three films to win all the major categories. Inspired by his friend Juan Suárez Botas's illness with AIDS and fueled by his own moral convictions, Demme used his influence to make Philadelphia, one of the first major films to address the AIDS crisis and which garnered star Tom Hanks his first Best Actor Oscar.
He co-directed the music video for Bruce Springsteen's Best Song Oscar-winning "Streets of Philadelphia" from the film's soundtrack. Subsequently, his films included an adaptation of Toni Morrison's Beloved, remakes of two films from the 1960s: The Truth About Charlie, based on Charade, that starred Mark Wahlberg in the Cary Grant role. Demme's documentary film Man from Plains, a documentary about former U. S. President Jimmy Carter's promotional tour publicizing his book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, had its premiere at the Venice Film Festival and Toronto International Film Festival, his art-house hit Rachel Getting Married was compared by many critics to Demme's films of the late 1970s and 1980s. It was included in many 2008 "best of" lists, received numerous awards and nominations, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress by lead Anne Hathaway. In 2010, Demme made his first foray into theater, directing a play by Beth Henley; the play was produced by co-starred Rosemarie DeWitt and Kathleen Chalfant.
At one time, Demme was signed on to direct and write an adaptation of Stephen King's sci-fi novel 11/22/63, but left due to disagreements with King on what should be included in the script. He returned to the concert documentary format with Justin Timberlake + the Tennessee Kids, which he described as a "performance film, but a portrait of an artist at a certain moment in the arc of his career", his last project was a history of rock & roll for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame compiled from footage from Hall of Fame induction ceremonies set to debut in summer 2017. Demme directed music videos for artists such as Suburban Lawns, New Order, KRS-One's H. E. A. L. Project and Bruce Springsteen, he produced a compilation of Haitian music called Konbit: Burning Rhythms of Haiti, released in 1989.. Demme was on the board of directors at Jacob Burns Film Center in New York. In addition to his role on the board, he curated and hosted a monthly series called "Rarely Seen Cinema". Throughout 1986–2004, Demme was known for his dramatic close-ups in films.
This style of close-ups involves the character looking directly into the camera during crucial moments in the "Quid pro quo" scene in Silence of the Lambs. According to Demme, this was done to put the viewer into the character's shoes. Beginning with Rachel Getting Married, Demme adopted a documentary style of filmmaking. Writer/director Paul Thomas Anderson has paid homage to Demme in his films and has cited him as a major influence in his work. In an interview, Anderson jokingly stated that the three filmmakers who inspired him the most are "Jonathan Demme, Jonathan Demme and Jonathan Demme." Other directors such as Ale
Don Murray (actor)
Donald Patrick Murray is an American actor. Murray is best known for his breakout performance in the film Bus Stop with Marilyn Monroe, which earned him an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor nomination. Murray's other theatrical films include A Hatful of Rain, Shake Hands with the Devil with James Cagney, One Foot in Hell with Alan Ladd, The Hoodlum Priest, Advise & Consent with Henry Fonda and Charles Laughton, Baby the Rain Must Fall with Steve McQueen, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, Deadly Hero and Francis Ford Coppola's Peggy Sue Got Married, he starred in television series such as Knots Landing and Twin Peaks. Murray was born in 1929 the only child of Dennis Aloisius Murray, a Broadway dance director and stage manager, Ethel Murray, a former Ziegfeld performer. Murray attended East Rockaway High School in East Rockaway, New York where he played football and was on the track team, he was a member of the student government, glee club, joined the Alpha Phi Chapter of the Omega Gamma Delta Fraternity.
Upon graduation from high school, he went on to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. After graduating, he soon made his Broadway debut as Jack Hunter. Registering as a conscientious objector during the Korean War when many young American men were being drafted into the armed forces, Murray was assigned to alternative service in Europe, helping orphans and war casualties. In 1954, he returned from Europe to America and to acting, when he starred alongside Mary Martin in the stage version of The Skin of Our Teeth. Upon seeing his performance in the play, director Joshua Logan decided to cast him in 20th Century Fox's film version of Bus Stop. Don Murray's role as Beauregard "Beau" Decker in Bus Stop marked his film debut, he starred alongside Marilyn Monroe, who played the object of his desire. His performance as the innocent cowboy, determined to get Cherie was well received, he was nominated for a BAFTA for Most Promising Newcomer and for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
In 1957, he starred as reserved, married bookkeeper Charlie Sampson in The Bachelor Party. The same year he starred in one of his most successful roles, that of Johnny Pope in the drama A Hatful of Rain. Despite director Fred Zinnemann's intention to typecast the actor as the comical brother Polo, Murray insisted on playing the lead, thus he portrayed a morphine addicted Korean War veteran. The film was one of the first to show the effects of drug abuse on the addicted and those around him, he starred as a blackmailed United States senator in Advise & Consent, a film version of a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Allen Drury. The movie cast Murray opposite Henry Fonda and Charles Laughton, he co-starred with Steve McQueen in the film Baby the Rain Must Fall and played the ape-hating Governor Breck in Conquest of the Planet of the Apes. In 1976, Murray starred in the film Deadly Hero. In addition to acting, Murray directed a film based on the book The Cross and the Switchblade starring Pat Boone and Erik Estrada.
Murray starred with Otis Young in the ground breaking ABC western television series The Outcasts featuring an interracial bounty hunter team in the post-Civil War West. In 1979, he starred as Sid Fairgate on the long-running prime-time soap opera Knots Landing, he scripted two episodes of the program in 1980. In 1981 Murray decided to leave the series after two seasons to concentrate on other projects, although some sources say he left over a salary dispute; the character's death was notable at the time because it was considered rare to kill off a star character. The death came in the second episode of season three, following season two's cliffhanger in which Sid's car careened off a cliff. To make viewers doubt that the character had died, Murray was listed in the credit sequence for season three. Although he distanced himself from the series after that, Murray contributed an interview segment for Knots Landing: Together Again, a reunion special made in 2005. In July 2014, there was a retrospective of Murray's films held at the Roxie Theater in San Francisco.
In 1956, Murray married Hope Lange. They had two children and Patricia, they divorced in 1961. In 1962, he married Elizabeth Johnson and had three children: Coleen and Michael. List of earliest surviving Academy Award nominees Don Murray on IMDb Don Murray at the Internet Broadway Database
Nicolas Kim Coppola, known professionally as Nicolas Cage, is an American actor and producer. During his early career, Cage starred in a variety of films such as Valley Girl, Racing with the Moon, Peggy Sue Got Married, Raising Arizona, Vampire's Kiss, Wild at Heart, Fire Birds, Honeymoon in Vegas, Red Rock West. Cage received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild Award for his performance as an alcoholic Hollywood writer in Leaving Las Vegas before coming to the attention of wider audiences with mainstream films, such as The Rock, Face/Off, Con Air and City of Angels, he earned his second Academy Award nomination for his performance as Charlie and Donald Kaufman in Adaptation. He directed the film Sonny, for which he was nominated for Grand Special Prize at Deauville Film Festival. Cage owns the production company Saturn Films and has produced films such as Shadow of the Vampire and The Life of David Gale, he has appeared in National Treasure, Lord of War, Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans, Kick-Ass.
Films such as Ghost Rider and Knowing were box office successes. In the 2010s, he has starred in The Croods, Joe and Dad, Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse and Love, Antosha. Cage was born in Long Beach, California, to August Coppola, a professor of literature, Joy Vogelsang, a dancer and choreographer, he was raised in a Catholic family. His father was of Italian descent and his mother was of German and Polish ancestry, his paternal grandparents were composer Carmine Coppola and actress Italia Pennino, his paternal great-grandparents were immigrants from Bernalda, Basilicata. Through his father, he is a nephew of director Francis Ford Coppola and of actress Talia Shire, the cousin of directors Roman Coppola and Sofia Coppola, film producer Gian-Carlo Coppola, actors Robert Carmine and Jason Schwartzman. Cage's two brothers are New York radio personality Marc "The Cope" Coppola and director Christopher Coppola, he attended Beverly Hills High School, known for its many alumni who became entertainers.
He aspired to act from an early age and attended UCLA School of Theater and Television. His first non-cinematic acting experience was in a school production of Golden Boy, he said. I saw him in Rebel Without a East of Eden. Nothing affected me—no rock song, no classical music—the way Dean affected me in Eden, it blew my mind. I was like,'That's what I want to do'."At fifteen years old he tried to convince his uncle, Francis Ford Coppola, to give him a screen test, telling him "I'll show you acting." His outburst was met with "silence in the car". By this stage of his career, Coppola had directed Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, Gene Hackman and Robert De Niro. To avoid the appearance of nepotism as Coppola's nephew, he changed his name early in his career to Nicolas Cage, inspired in part by the Marvel Comics superhero Luke Cage. Since his film debut with a minor role in Fast Times at Ridgemont High, opposite Judge Reinhold and Sean Penn, Cage has appeared in a wide range of films, both mainstream and offbeat.
He auditioned for the role of Dallas Winston in his uncle's film The Outsiders, based on S. E. Hinton lost to Matt Dillon, he was in Coppola's films Rumble Fish and Peggy Sue Got Married. Other Cage roles included appearances in the acclaimed 1987 romantic-comedy film Moonstruck starring Cher. Cage has been nominated twice for an Academy Award, winning once for his performance as a suicidal alcoholic in Leaving Las Vegas, his other nomination was for his portrayal of real-life screenwriter Charlie Kaufman and Kaufman's fictional twin Donald in Adaptation. Despite these successes, most of his lower-profile films have performed poorly at the box office compared to his mainstream action/adventure roles; the suspense thriller 8mm is considered a cult film. He took the lead role in the 2001 film Captain Corelli's Mandolin and learned to play the mandolin from scratch for the part, he made his directorial debut with 2002's Sonny. In 2005, two films he headlined, Lord of War and The Weather Man, failed to find a significant audience despite nationwide releases and good reviews for his performances.
Poor reviews for The Wicker Man resulted in low box office sales. The much criticized Ghost Rider, based on the Marvel Comics character, fared better, earning more than $45 million during its opening weekend and over $208 million worldwide through the weekend ending on March 25, 2007. In 2007, he starred in Next, which shared the concept of a glimpse into an alternate timeline with Cage's film, The Family Man. Most of Cage's movies that have achieved financial success were in the action/adventure genre. In his second-highest-grossing film to date, National Treasure, he plays an eccentric historian who goes on a dangerous adventure to find treasure hidden by the Founding Fathers of the United States. Other action hits include The Rock, in which Cage plays a young FBI chemical weapons expert who infiltrates Alcatraz Island in the hope of neutralizing a terrorist threat, Face/Off, a John Woo film where he plays both a hero and a villain, World Trade Center, director Oliver Stone's film about the Se