SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Peking Man

Peking Man is a group of fossil specimens of Homo erectus, dated from 750,000 years ago, discovered in 1929–37 during excavations at Zhoukoudian near Beijing, China. Between 1929 and 1937, 15 partial crania, 11 mandibles, many teeth, some skeletal bones and large numbers of stone tools were discovered in the Lower Cave at Locality 1 of the Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian, their age is estimated to be between about 750,000 and 300,000 years old. Most of the early studies of these fossils were conducted by Davidson Black until his death in 1934. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin took over until Franz Weidenreich replaced him and studied the fossils until he left China in 1941; the original fossils inexplicably disappeared in 1941. Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson and American palaeontologist Walter W. Granger came to Zhoukoudian, China in search of prehistoric fossils in 1921, they were directed to the site at Dragon Bone Hill by local quarrymen, where Andersson recognised deposits of quartz that were not native to the area.

Realising the importance of this find he turned to his colleague and announced, "Here is primitive man. He returned to the site in 1923, materials excavated in the two subsequent digs were sent to Uppsala University in Sweden for analysis. In 1926 Andersson announced the discovery of two human molars in this material, Zdansky published his findings. Canadian anatomist Davidson Black of Peking Union Medical College, excited by Andersson and Zdansky's find, secured funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and recommenced excavations at the site in 1927 with both Western and Chinese scientists. Swedish palaeontologist Anders Birger Bohlin unearthed a tooth and Black placed it in a gold locket on his watch chain. Black published his analysis in the journal Nature, identifying his find as belonging to a new species and genus which he named Sinanthropus pekinensis, but many fellow scientists were skeptical about such an identification on the basis of a single tooth, the foundation demanded more specimens before it would agree to grant additional money.

A lower jaw, several teeth, skull fragments were unearthed in 1928. Black presented these finds to the foundation and was rewarded with an USD 80,000 grant that he used to establish the Cenozoic Research Laboratory. Excavations at the site under the supervision of Chinese archaeologists Yang Zhongjian, Pei Wenzhong, Jia Lanpo uncovered 200 human fossils from more than 40 individual specimens; these excavations came to an end in 1937 with the Japanese invasion. Excavations at Zhoukoudian resumed after the war; the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987. New excavations were started at the site in June 2009; the most complete fossils, all of which were portions of the skullcap, are: Skull II, discovered at Locus D in 1929 but only recognized in 1930, is an adult or adolescent with a brain size of 1030 cc. Skull III, discovered at Locus E in 1929 is an adolescent or juvenile with a brain size of 915 cc. Skulls X, XI and XII were discovered at Locus L in 1936.

They are thought to belong to an adult man, an adult woman and a young adult, with brain sizes of 1225 cc, 1015 cc and 1030 cc respectively. Skull V: two cranial fragments were discovered in 1966 which fit with two other fragments found in 1934 and 1936 to form much of a skullcap with a brain size of 1140 cc; these pieces were found at a higher level, appear to be more modern than the other skullcaps. A number of fossils of modern humans were discovered in the Upper Cave at the same site in 1933; the fossils were stored at the Union Medical College in Peking. Eye-witness accounts state that in 1941, while Beijing was under Japanese occupation, but just before the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the Allied Forces during the Second World War, the fossils were packed into two large crates and loaded onto a US Marine vehicle bound for the port of Qinhuangdao in northern China, close to the Marine base at Camp Holcomb. From there they were to be sent by ship to the American Museum of Natural History in New York, but the fossils vanished en route.

Various attempts have been made to locate the fossils, but so far without success. In 1972 US financier Christopher Janus offered a US$5,000 reward for the missing skulls. In July 2005, to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the end of the Second World War, the Chinese government set up a committee to find the bones. Rumours about the fate of the bones range from their having been on board a Japanese ship, or an American ship, sunk, to being ground up for traditional Chinese medicine. Four of the teeth, are still in the possession of the Paleontological Museum of Uppsala University; some opponents of the science of evolution think that the fossils may have been a fabrication, that their disappearance was intentional. The first specimens of Homo erectus had been found in 1891 by Eugene Dubois in Java, dubbed "Java Man", but were at first dismissed by many as the remains of a deformed ape; the discovery of the great quantity of finds at Zhoukoudian put this to rest and Java Man, named Pithecanthropus erectus, was transferred to the genus Homo along with Peking Man.

Contiguous findings of animal remains and evidence of fire and tool us

Elliott Leyton

Elliott Leyton is a Canadian social-anthropologist and author who, according to the CTV television news network, is amongst the most consulted experts on serial homicide worldwide. Professor Leyton has held faculty positions at Queen's University of Belfast in Ireland, at the University of Toronto, Ontario. Professor Leyton has served as president of the Canadian Anthropology Association. Leyton earned B. A. and M. A. degrees from the University of British Columbia went on to obtain his Ph. D. in anthropology from the University of Toronto in 1972. During his ensuing career, he dedicated himself to the analysis and research of social ills such as juvenile delinquency and the psychology behind perpetrators of serial killings. Leyton's achieved level of expertise has led to his giving lectures at the College of Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Ottawa; the author/editor of eleven books and numerous scholarly essays for academic journals, Professor Leyton's 1986 landmark study Hunting Humans is an international bestseller in multiple languages, reprinted in 1995 and again in 2005.

It won the 1987 Arthur Ellis Award for best new crime book. Professor Leyton traveled to Rwanda in the fall of 1996 where he studied the Rwandan genocide that spawned his 1998 book, Touched By Fire: Doctors Without Borders in a Third World Crisis. In 2004, a National Film Board of Canada film about Professor Leyton's life's work titled The Man Who Studies Murder, was premiered at the Montreal Film Festival and aired on CBC Television’s The Nature of Things. Consulted by the media, Professor Leyton was interviewed by CBC Newsworld on September 14, 2006 about the Dawson College shooting in Montreal, he stated that because all three such murderous rampages in Quebec involved a killer, either an immigrant or a child of immigrants, it warranted an examination of government and societal attitudes that can profoundly impact immigrant perceptions and hence their conduct. The following day, Professor Leyton was the guest expert on CBC Radio One's program The Current that analyzed the Dawson College shooting.

Leyton wrote the foreword for the "Dance With the Devil: A Memoir of Murder and Loss", a book telling the story of the murder of Zachary Turner. Dying Hard The Myth of Delinquency Hunting Humans first US edition titled "Compulsive Killers" Sole Survivor Violence and public anxiety: A Canadian case Touched by Fire Serial Murder: Modern Scientific Perspectives Men of Blood Hunting Humans University of Toronto article on Elliott Leyton Faculty profile for Elliott Leyton at Memorial University of Newfoundland

Richard McFadden

Richard McFadden was a Scottish footballer, Clapton Orient's top scorer for four consecutive seasons between 1911–1915. Having moved from Scotland to Blyth as a boy, McFadden started his career in the Northern League with Blyth in November 1910, before moving to Wallsend Park Villa for a fee of £2. In May 1911, he joined scoring on his debut against Derby County on 2 September. McFadden broke Orient's goalscoring record in his first season with the club, scoring 19 goals, only to break the record again in what was to be his final season, 1914–1915, with 21 goals. In the intervening two seasons, he was still Orient's top scorer, he represented a Southern XI in a match against England in November 1914, scoring the only goal of the game, after which a Daily Express reporter declared that McFadden was the "outstanding player on the field". McFadden attracted press attention off the pitch in 1912 when he rescued an 11-year-old boy from the River Lea, for which he received a medal from the Mayor of Hackney.

Prior to joining Clapton Orient McFadden had risked his own life when rescuing a man from a burning building. At the outbreak of World War I professional football was suspended, McFadden joined the 17th Battalion Middlesex Regiment, the "Footballers' Battalion", along with 40 other Orient players and staff, he rose to the rank of Company Sergeant Major. During the Battle of the Somme, he witnessed the death of his childhood friend and Orient teammate William Jonas in July 1916, was injured himself a few weeks later. On his recovery he returned to the front and earned the Military Medal, but on 22 October 1916, McFadden was fatally wounded by a shell blast whilst leading his men near Serre-lès-Puisieux, he died of wounds the next day in a field hospital. His death was acknowledged by other football clubs, including Arsenal in their official programme, the Manchester Football Chronicle stated, "In civil life he was a hero, he proved himself a hero on the battlefield." McFadden is buried at Couin British Cemetery