The term "Moors" refers to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers; the name was also applied to Arabs. Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica observed that "The term'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Europeans of the Middle Ages and the early modern period variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, Muslim Europeans. The term has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in South Asia and Sri Lanka, the Bengali Muslims were called Moors. In the Philippines, the longstanding Muslim community, which predates the arrival of the Spanish, now self-identifies as the "Moro people", an exonym introduced by Spanish colonizers due to their Muslim faith.
In 711, troops formed by Moors from northern Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in Classical Arabic as al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal. In 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, they went on to consolidate the rest of the island. Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. In 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, destroyed by European Christians in 1300; the fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, although a Muslim minority persisted until their expulsion in 1609. During the classical period, the Romans interacted with, conquered, parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern northern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla; the Berber tribes of the region were noted in the Classics as Mauri, subsequently rendered as "Moors" in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the native name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii; the Moors were mentioned by Tacitus as having revolted against the Roman Empire in 24 AD. During the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri was used to refer to Berbers and Arabs in the coastal regions of Northwest Africa; the 16th century scholar Leo Africanus identified the Moors as the native Berber inhabitants of the former Roman Africa Province. He described Moors as one of five main population groups on the continent alongside Egyptians, Abyssinians and Cafri. In medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations; the term denoted a specific Berber people in western Libya, but the name acquired more general meaning during the medieval period, associated with "Muslim", similar to associations with "Saracens". During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the derogatory suggestion of "infidels".
Apart from these historic associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco and Mali. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara; the authoritative dictionary of the Spanish language does not list any derogatory meaning for the word moro, a term referring to people of Maghrebian origin in particular or Muslims in general. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular and Muslims in general. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao and other southern islands Moros; the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people. The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, with many self-identifying as members of the Bangsamoro "Moro Nation".
Moreno can mean "dark-skinned" in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. In Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for "wine" that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e. pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, the moriscos of Granada. Moro refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", etc, it was used as a nickname. In Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where "Moor" implies "alien" and "non-Christian"; these beings were siren-like fairies with a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties. From this root, the name moor is applied to unbaptized children. In Basque, mairu means moor and refers to a mythical people. Muslims located in South Asia were distinguished by the Portuguese historians into two groups: Mouros da Terra and the Mouros da Arabia/Mouros de Meca ("Moors from Arabia/Mecca" or "Paradesi
Iglesia de Santa Eulalia (Abamia)
Iglesia de Santa Eulalia is a church in Asturias, Spain, in the vicinity of Covadonga. Pelagius of Asturias, who in 718 conquered a Moorish army in Covadonga to begin the so-called Spanish Reconquista, his wife were buried here
Santa Cueva de Covadonga
The Santa Cueva de Covadonga is a Catholic sanctuary located in Asturias, northern Spain. It is a cave in the Picos de Europa mountains, which gives its name to the parish of Covadonga in the municipality of Cangas de Onís; the name Covadonga refers to the sanctuary, dedicated to the Virgin of Covadonga. The origin of the cave as place of cult is controversial, it seems to have been another place of confluence of Pagan Cult as the Wilweorthunga, meaning "well of worship" had been in Prehistorical times and still during the Roman Empire occupation. The Christian tradition has it that Pelagius, chasing a criminal, who had taken refuge in the cave, meets a hermit, venerating the Virgin Mary; the hermit asked Pelagius to forgive the criminal, since the criminal had resorted to the protection of the Virgin, says that one day that he too would need to seek shelter in the Cave. Muslim chronicles about the Battle of Covadonga say that in this cave Pelagius's forces fled, feeding on honey bees left in the crevices of the rock.
Christian chronicles claim that the miraculous intervention of the Virgin Mary was crucial in the victory, repelling attacks against the cave. The first construction in the Holy Cave dates back of the reign of Alfonso I of Asturias, who, to commemorate the victory of Pelagius to the Muslims, built a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, that would give rise to the invocation of the Our Lady of Covadonga. In addition to the altar dedicated to the Virgin built other two for Saint John the Baptist and Saint Andrew. Alfonso make delivery of this church to the Benedictine monks; the cave was covered with wood, in 1777 a fire destroyed the medieval Marian statue. The current wooden image of Virgin and Child dates to the 16th century and was donated to the sanctuary by the Cathedral of Oviedo in 1778. During the civil war the Virgin image disappears and is found in the Embassy of Spain in France in 1939; the present chapel of Romanesque style is work of Luis Alvarez. The shrine of Covadonga was important for the early Christian kingdom of Asturias.
Members of the royal family buried in the Pantéon Real de Covadonga, were the following: Pelagius of Asturias. First king of Asturias and son of Duke Favila. Queen Gaudiosa, Pelagius's wife. A sister of the King Pelagius. Alfonso I of Asturias. Third king of Asturias, son of Peter of Cantabria, Duke of Cantabria. Queen Ermesinda. Alfonso I's wife, daughter of King Pelagius and Queen Gaudiosa, sister of the King Favila of Asturias. Pelagius died in Cangas de Onís, where he had his court in 737. After his death, his body was buried in the Church of Santa Eulalia of Abamia, located in the Asturian town of Abamia, where his wife had been previously buried; the chronicler Ambrosio Morales noted in his work that Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile and Leon, ordered to move the remains of Pelagius and his wife to the Holy Cave of Covadonga. Cueva de Achbinico Marian apparition Official website Real Sitio de Covadonga
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Kingdom of Asturias
The Kingdom of Asturias was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Asturian chief Pelagius of Asturias. It was the first Christian political entity established after the Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 718 or 722; that year, Pelagius defeated an Umayyad army at the Battle of Covadonga, in what is regarded as the beginning of the Reconquista. Pelagius died in Cangas de Onís, where he had his court in 737, his son Favila was killed while hunting, torn to pieces by a bear, was succeeded by Alfonso I, son-in-law of Pelagius, who set about pushing the Reconquest as far as Galicia and Tierra de Campos. Fruela I founded Oviedo, he was assassinated, was succeeded by several petty kings and at last Alfonso II, the Chaste, who set up his court at Oviedo, recommenced the expeditions against the Muslims. The Vikings were expelled by Ramiro I from A Coruña. Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' missile-throwing war machines. Vikings returned to Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I.
Alfonso III, the Great, continued the forays as far as the Sierra Morena, founded Burgos, the future capital of Castile. The Kingdom of Asturias transitioned into the Kingdom of León in 924, when Fruela II of Asturias became king with his royal court in León; the kingdom originated in the western and central territory of the Cantabrian Mountains the Picos de Europa and the central area of Asturias. The main political and military events during the first decades of the kingdom's existence took place in the region. According to the descriptions of Strabo, Cassius Dio and other Graeco-Roman geographers, several peoples of Celtic origin inhabited the lands of Asturias at the beginning of the Christian era, most notably: in the Cantabri, the Vadinienses, who inhabited the Picos de Europa region and whose settlement expanded southward during the first centuries of the modern era the Orgenomesci, who dwelled along the Asturian eastern coast in the Astures, the Saelini, whose settlement extended through the Sella Valley the Luggones, who had their capital in Lucus Asturum and whose territories stretched between the Sella and Nalón the Astures, who dwelled in inner Asturias, between the current councils of Piloña and Cangas del Narcea the Paesici, who had settled along the coast of Western Asturias, between the mouth of the Navia river and the modern city of Gijón Classical geographers give conflicting views of the ethnic description of the above-mentioned peoples.
Ptolemy says that the Astures extended along the central area of current Asturias, between the Navia and Sella rivers, fixing the latter river as the boundary with the Cantabrian territory. However, other geographers placed the frontier between the Astures and the Cantabri further to the east: Julius Honorius stated in his Cosmographia that the springs of the river Ebro were located in the land of the Astures. In any case, ethnic borders in the Cantabrian Mountains were not so important after that time, as the clan divisions that permeated the pre-Roman societies of all the peoples of Northern Iberia faded under similar political administrative culture imposed on them by the Romans; the situation started to change during the Late Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages, when an Asturian identity started to develop: the centuries-old fight between Visigothic and Suebian nobles may have helped to forge a distinct identity among the peoples of the Cantabrian districts. Several archaeological digs in the castro of La Carisa have found remnants of a defensive line whose main purpose was to protect the valleys of central Asturias from invaders who came from the Meseta through the Pajares pass: the construction of these fortifications reveals a high degree of organization and cooperation between the several Asturian communities, in order to defend themselves from the southern invaders.
Carbon-14 tests have found that the wall dates from the period 675-725 AD, when two armed expeditions against the Asturians took place: one of them headed by Visigothic king Wamba. The gradual formation of Asturian identity led to the creation of the Kingdom of Asturias after Pelagius' coronation and the victory over the Muslim garrisons in Covadonga in the early 8th century; the Chronica Albeldense, in narrating the happenings of Covadonga, stated that "Divine providence brings forth the King of Asturias". The kingdom was established by the nobleman Pelayo an Asturian noble. No substantial movement of refugees from central Iberia could have taken place before the Battle of Covadonga, in 714 Asturias was overrun by Musa bin Nusayr with no effective or known opposition, it has been claimed that he may have retired to the Asturian mountains after the Battle of Guadalete, where in the Gothic tradition of Theias he was elected by the other nobles as leader of the Astures. Pelayo's kingdom was little more than a rallying banner for existing guerilla forces.
In the progress of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the main cities and administrative centers fell into the hands of Muslim troops. Control of the central and southern regions, such as the Guadalquivir and Ebro valleys, presented few problems for the newcomers, who used the existing Visigothic administrative structures of Roman origin. Ho
Gijón or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. It is located on the Bay of Biscay 24 km north-east of Oviedo, the capital of Asturias. Early medieval texts mention it as "Gigia", derived from the identical Greek and Latin term "gigias", meaning "giant", both of which refer to the Greek mythological giant Gigas; the medieval "Gigia" name, in turn, more refers to the ancient Roman wall built on the peninsula of the Cimadevilla district of Gijón. This wall was called the "Gegionem" by the Romans and is itself a compound Latin term being either "geg-ionem", meaning "giant-ness/gigantic", "gegi-onem", meaning "concrete giant", or "gegio-nem" meaning "giant end"; the use of the term meaning "giant" referred to either the pre-Germanic Astur peoples who inhabited the area being of large physical stature or the largeness of the wall itself. The first evidence of human presence in what is known nowadays as the municipality of Gijón is located in Monte Deva, where exists a series of tumulus, in Monte Areo, where there are some neolithic dolmens.
These dolmens were discovered in 1990 and were built around 5000 BC. The first noticed settlement is located in Campa Torres, it has its origin between the 6th and 5th centuries BC. It was populated by Astures and Romanized. Noega was progressively abandoned when the Roman wall in the peninsula of Cimavilla, called the Gegionem, was built. Despite the Barbarian invasions leaving no trace, it seems the territory was submitted to the power of the Visigoth king Sisebut in the 7th century. From this moment there appears the first Christian worship demos, where one of its places was the Roman villa of Veranes. Gijón was capital of the Muslim territories in the Cantabric Sea, under the power of Munuza, who dominated the city between 713 and 718 or 722. In this last year, Asturians won the Battle of Covadonga, started in 718 and led by Pelagius, who would become the first King of the Kingdom of Asturias; until 1270 there were no reliable references to Gijón as a settlement, with only short mentions in some documents.
In this year, Alfonso X of Castile conceded the category of puebla. In the 14th century, the war between Alfonso Enríquez, Count of Gijón and Noreña and Henry III of Castile finished with the village of Gijón fenced and destroyed disappearing. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Gijón was again developed. A new dock was built in the port adding commerce to the area. In the 17th and 18th centuries Gijón started to have great development, growing out of the old city center; this happened. In the 18th century, due to the French invasions, the wars and the financial trouble in the era, the development stopped until late in the century, when the Oviedo-Gijón road was created and the port was recognized as the best one in Asturias, favouring the start of industrial activities in the village; the 19th century brought with it great development, with the commerce of coal, the Gijón–León road and the Langreo–Gijón railway. All this supposed the quick expansion of the port, due to the heavy traffic intensity in it.
A new port, El Musel, was built in 1893 and it was the first coal port of the peninsula. Gijón was going through a conversion to an industrial village with a new bourgeois and an urban development, opening new streets and squares, with new municipal equipments like water, garbage collection, so on. All this industrial development brought new manpower to the city and the creation of new neighbourhoods like Natahoyo, La Calzada, Tremañes or El Humedal. In the 20th century, with the Spanish Civil War, the city supported the Republican faction; the army was located in El Coto. The resistance was eliminated in August 1936; the village was the capital of the Sovereign Council of Asturias and León until 20 October 1937, when the troops of General Francisco Franco occupied the city. Ferrous metallurgy was the main industry of Gijón from the last years of the 19th century until the last decades of the 20th. Uninsa was created in 1971, it merged with Ensidesa. In the last years of the century was converted in Aceralia, integrated in Arcelor.
The last decades of the century brought an industrial crisis affecting the ferrous metallurgy and the local shipbuilding. This facts brought new terrain for the creation of new beaches and new neighbourhoods, it was created a campus of the University of Oviedo. The city is situated on the coast of central Asturias, from sea level to an altitude of 513 metres at Picu Samartín and 672 metres at Peña de los Cuatro Jueces, bordered on the West by Carreño, the East by Villaviciosa, to the South by Siero and Llanera The city is situated along the Asturian coast and is distinguished by the peninsula of Cimavilla which separates the beach of San Lorenzo and adjacent neighbourhoods to the east from the beaches of Poniente and Arbeyal, the shipyards, the recreational port and the Port of El Musel to the west, it is close to the other main Asturian cities and Avilés. Gijón has a temperate oceanic climate typical of the Atlantic coast of Spain, with cool summers and wet and mild winters; the onshore flow from the Atlantic Ocean creates a cool summer and mild winter climate where severe heat and cold temperatures are rare.
The narrow temperature range is demonstrated by the record August temperature being only 6.4 °C warmer than the all-time record January temperature. The climate is wet and cloudy by Spanish standards, but is indeed drier than other locations on the Atlantic in the country. Humidity is high year-round. Summer temperatu
Gallaecia known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania present-day Galicia, northern Portugal and Leon and the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia. The Roman cities included the port Cale, the governing centers Bracara Augusta, Lucus Augusti and Asturica Augusta and their administrative areas Conventus bracarensis, Conventus lucensis and Conventus asturicensis; the Romans gave the name Gallaecia to the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula after the tribes of the area, the Gallaeci or Gallaecians. The Gallaic Celts make their entry in written history in the first-century epic Punica of Silius Italicus on the First Punic War: Fibrarum et pennae divinarumque sagacem flammarum misit dives Callaecia pubem, barbara nunc patriis ululantem carmina linguis, nunc pedis alterno percussa verbere terra, ad numerum resonas gaudentem plaudere caetras."Rich Gallaecia sent its youths, wise in the knowledge of divination by the entrails of beasts, by feathers and flames— who, now crying out the barbarian song of their native tongue, now alternately stamping the ground in their rhythmic dances until the ground rang, accompanying the playing with sonorous caetrae".
Gallaecia, as a region, was thus marked for the Romans as much for its Celtic culture, the culture of the castros—hillforts of Celtic origin—as it was for the lure of its gold mines. This civilization extended over present day Galicia, the north of Portugal, the western part of Asturias, the Berço, Sanabria and was distinctive from the neighbouring Lusitanian civilization to the south, according to the classical authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder. At a far date, the mythic history, encapsulated in Lebor Gabála Érenn credited Gallaecia as the point from which the Gaels sailed to conquer Ireland, as they had Gallaecia, by force of arms. Strabo in his Geography lists the people of the northwestern Atlantic coast of Iberia as follows:...then the Vettonians and the Vaccaeans, through whose territory the Durius River flows, which affords a crossing at Acutia, a city of the Vaccaeans. For this reason, since they were hard to fight with, the Callaicans themselves have not only furnished the surname for the man who defeated the Lusitanians but they have brought it about that now the most of the Lusitanians are called Callaicans.
After the Punic Wars, the Romans turned their attention to conquering Hispania. The tribe of the Gallaeci 60,000 strong, according to Paulus Orosius, faced the Roman forces in 137 BC in a battle at the river Douro, which resulted in a great Roman victory, by virtue of which the Roman proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus returned a hero, receiving the agnomen Gallaicus. From this time, Gallaic fighters joined the Roman legions, to serve as far away as Dacia and Britain; the final extinction of Celtic resistance was the aim of the violent and ruthless Cantabrian Wars fought under the Emperor Augustus from 26 to 19 BC. The resistance was appalling: collective suicide rather than surrender, mothers who killed their children before committing suicide, crucified prisoners of war who sang triumphant hymns, rebellions of captives who killed their guards and returned home from Gaul. For Rome Gallaecia was a region formed by two conventus—the Lucensis and the Bracarensis—and was distinguished from other zones like the Asturica, according to written sources: Legatus iuridici to per ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE.
Procurator ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE. Cohors ASTURUM ET GALLAECORUM. Pliny: ASTURIA ET GALLAECIAIn the 3rd century, Diocletian created an administrative division which included the conventus of Gallaecia and Cluniense; this province took the name of Gallaecia since Gallaecia was the most populous and important zone within the province. In 409, as Roman control collapsed, the Suebi conquests transformed Roman Gallaecia into the kingdom of Galicia. Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius, praeses before 338 On the night of 31 December 406 AD, several Germanic barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suebi, swept over the Roman frontier on the Rhine, they advanced south, pillaging Gaul, crossed the Pyrenees. They set about dividing up the Roman provinces of Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis and Baetica; the Suebi took part of Gallaecia, where they established a kingdom. After the Vandals and Alans left for North Africa, the Suevi took control of much of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Visigothic campaigns took much of this territory back.
The Visigoths emerged victorious in the wars that followed, annexed Gallaecia. After the Visigothic defeat and the annexation of much of Hispania by the Moors, a group of Visigothic states survived in the northern mountains, including Gallaecia. In Beatus of Liébana, Gallaecia became used to refer to the Christian part of the Iberian peninsula, whereas Hispania was used for the Muslim one; the emirs found it not worth their while to conquer these mountains filled with warlike tribes and lacking oil or wine. In Charlemagne's time, bishops of Gallaecia attended the Council of Frankfurt in 794. During his residence in Aachen, he received embassies from Alfonso II of Asturias, according to the Frankish chronicles. Sancho III of Navarre in 1029 refers to Vermudo III. Gallaecian lang