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Penicillin

Penicillin is a group of antibiotics, derived from common moulds known as Penicillium moulds. Penicillin antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci, they are still used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. About 10 % of people report. Serious allergies only occur in about 0.03%. Those who are allergic to penicillin are most given cephalosporin C because of its functional groups. All penicillins are β-lactam antibiotics, which are some of the most powerful and successful achievements in modern science. Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming. People began using it to treat infections in 1942. There are several enhanced penicillin families, they are derived from Penicillium fungi. The term "penicillin" was used for benzylpenicillin, penicillin G. Currently, "Penicillin" is used as a generic term for antibiotics that contain the beta lactam unit in the chemical structure.

For example, amoxicillin tablets may be labelled as "a penicillin". Other derivatives such as procaine benzylpenicillin, benzathine benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin are described as "penicillins". Procaine penicillin and benzathine penicillin have the same antibacterial activity as benzylpenicillin but act for a longer period of time. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is less active against gram-negative bacteria than benzylpenicillin. Benzylpenicillin, procaine penicillin and benzathine penicillin can only be given by intravenous or intramuscular injections, but phenoxymethylpenicillin can be given by mouth because of its acidic stability. While the number of penicillin-resistant bacteria is increasing, penicillin can still be used to treat a wide range of infections caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including those in the Streptococcus, Clostridium and Listeria genera; the following list illustrates minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility data for a few medically significant bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes: from less than or equal to 0.06 μg/ml to 0.25 μg/ml Neisseria meningitidis: from less than or equal to 0.03 μg/ml to 0.5 μg/ml Staphylococcus aureus: from less than or equal to 0.015 μg/ml to more than 32 μg/ml Common adverse drug reactions associated with use of the penicillins include diarrhoea, nausea, neurotoxicity and superinfection.

Infrequent adverse effects include fever, erythema, angioedema and pseudomembranous colitis. Penicillin can induce serum sickness or a serum sickness-like reaction in some individuals. Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction that occurs one to three weeks after exposure to drugs including penicillin, it is not a true drug allergy, because allergies are type I hypersensitivity reactions, but repeated exposure to the offending agent can result in an anaphylactic reaction. Allergy will occur in 1-10 % of people. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis will occur in 0.01% of patients. Pain and inflammation at the injection site are common for parenterally administered benzathine benzylpenicillin, and, to a lesser extent, procaine benzylpenicillin. Penicillin G Penicillin K Penicillin N Penicillin O Penicillin V Methicillin Nafcillin Oxacillin Cloxacillin Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin Ampicillin Amoxicillin Pivampicillin Hetacillin Bacampicillin Metampicillin Talampicillin Epicillin Carbenicillin Ticarcillin Temocillin Mezlocillin Piperacillin Azlocillin Clavulanic acid Sulbactam Tazobactam Penicillin inhibits activity of enzymes that are needed for the cross linking of peptidoglycans in bacterial cell walls, the final step in cell wall biosynthesis.

It does this by binding to penicillin binding proteins with the beta-lactam ring, a structure found on penicillin molecules. This causes the cell wall to weaken due to fewer cross links and means water uncontrollably flows into the cell because it cannot maintain the correct osmotic gradient; this results in death. Some bacteria produce enzymes that break down the beta-lactam ring, called beta-lactamases, which make the bacteria resistant to penicillin. Therefore, some penicillins are modified or given with other drugs for use against antibiotic resistant bacteria or in immunocompromised patients. Use of clavulanic acid or tazobactam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, alongside penicillin gives penicillin activity against beta-lactamase producing bacteria. Beta lactamase inhibitors irreversibly bind to beta-lactamase preventing it from breaking down the beta-lactam rings on the antibiotic molecule. Alternatively, flucloxacillin is a modified penicillin that has activity against beta-lactamase producing bacteria due to an acyl side chain that protects the beta-lactam ring from beta-lactamase.

Bacteria remodel their peptidoglycan cell walls building and breaking down portions of the cell wall as they grow and divide. Β-Lactam antibiotics inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. As a conseq

Optic radiation

The optic radiation are axons from the neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus to the primary visual cortex. The optic radiation receives blood through deep branches of the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, they carry visual information through two divisions to the visual cortex along the calcarine fissure. There is one such tract on each side of the brain. If a lesion only exists in one optic radiation, the consequence is called quadrantanopia, which implies that only the respective superior or inferior quadrant of the visual field is affected; the upper division: Projects to the upper bank of the calcarine fissure, called the cuneus Contains input from the superior retinal quadrants, which represents the inferior visual field quadrants Transection causes contralateral lower quadrantanopia Lesions that involve both cunei cause a lower altitudinal hemianopia The lower division: Loops from the lateral geniculate body anteriorly posteriorly, to terminate in the lower bank of the calcarine sulcus, called the lingual gyrus Contains input from the inferior retinal quadrants, which represents the superior visual field quadrants Transection causes contralateral upper quadrantanopia Transection of both lingual gyri causes an upper altitudinal hemianopia A distinctive feature of the optic radiations is that they split into two parts on each side: The optic radiation contains tracts which transmit visual information from the retina of the eye to the visual cortex.

Lesions of the optic radiations are unilateral and vascular in origin. Field defects therefore develop abruptly, in contrast to the slow progression of defects associated with tumors. Tracts contained within the optic radiation are examined as part of a cranial nerve examination. Kier LE, Staib LH, Davis LM, Bronen RA. "MR Imaging of the Temporal Stem: Anatomic Dissection Tractography of the Uncinate Fasciculus, Inferior Occipitofrontal Fasciculus, Meyer's Loop of the Optic Radiation". Am J Neuroradiol. 25: 677–691. PMID 15140705. Retrieved 2007-12-19. Http://www2.umdnj.edu/~neuro/studyaid/Practical2000/Q34.htm A 3D model of optic tract and optic radiation

Rani

Rani in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, sometimes spelled Ranee, is a Hindu/Sanskrit feminine given name. The term is the female form of the term for princely rulers in India and Southeast Asia and applies to the wife of a Raja or Rana. Rani, Pakistani actress and model. Rani Agrawal, Indian actress. Rani Bhabani, Indian philanthropist and zamindar. Rani Chandra, Indian actress and winner of the Miss Kerala pageant. Rani Chatterjee, Indian actress and presenter. Rani Chitralekha Bhonsle, Indian political and social worker. Rani Gaidinliu, Indian activist and political leader. Rani Hamid, Bangladeshi chess player. Rani Kamalesvaran, an Australian singer, popular in the late 1990s Rani Karnaa, Indian dancer. Rani Khedira, German footballer. Rani Maria Vattalil, Indian catholic religious and missionary social worker. Rani Mukerji, Indian actress. Rani Mundiasti, Indonesian badminton player. Rani Price, English television presenter. Rani Rampal, Indian field hockey player. Rani Rashmoni, Indian activist, philanthropist and founder of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.

Rani Sharone, American bassist and guitarist. Rani Taj, British-Pakistani dhol player. Rani Vijaya Devi, Indian princess and musician. Rani Yahya, Brazilian mixed martial artist and Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioner. Ranee Brylinski, American mathematician Ranee Campen, Thai-British actress Ranee Lee, Canadian jazz vocalist and musician Ranee Narah, Indian politician Devika Rani, Indian actress and textile designer Pooja Rani, Indian boxer Krishna Rani, Bangladeshi footballer The Rani, from the British science-fiction television series Doctor Who. Rani Chandra, from 2007's British science fiction television The Sarah Jane Adventures. Rani, from the Disney franchise Disney Fairies. Rani Kapoor, from the Australian soap opera Neighbours; the Rani of Cooch Naheen, from the Salman Rushdie's novel, Midnight's Children. Rani, the leader of the Night Pride and love interest of Kion in The Lion Guard. Prabhu, Sanskrit for "prince". Queen regnant Rani, Rajasthan

Alexandre Robinet de La Serve

Alexandre-Marie-Nicolas Robinet de La Serve was a French sugar manufacturer and politician, deputy and senator of Réunion from 1870 to 1882 in the first years of the French Third Republic. Alexandre Robinet de La Serve was born in Paris on 30 March 1821, his parents were Clélie-Germinal Chevassut. His father was a lawyer and scholar, born and died on the Île Bourbon, his father moved to France after the British annexed the island in 1810, married the daughter of Alexandre Chevassut. Chevassut was a political agent and journalist, the valet of Madame de Staël and founded the journal Le Constitutionnel under the Bourbon Restoration. Chevassut employed Nicole Robinet de La Serve on the anti-royalist and Bonapartist daily Le Constitutionnel. Nicole Robinet de La Serve's returned to Reunion with his family in 1825 when he heard his mother was dying, became leader of the clandestine francs-créoles political organization and founder of two unauthorized newspapers, le Furet and le Salazien. Alexandre Robinet de Serve received his primary education in Réunion and completed his secondary education in Paris at the Lycée Henri-IV.

He returned to Réunion in 1840 before completing the course. He contributed to the journal L'Hebdomadaire. On 16 January 1841 La Serve married Florine de Nas de Tourris in Réunion. After his father died on 18 December 1842 La Serve became part owner and operator of a sugar factory at Saint-André, his establishment had a concession to use the water of the Rivière du Mât. He welcomed the February Revolution of 1848, although the abolition of slavery threatened him with ruin, he launched the clandestine paper Le Cri Public. He ran for election to the legislature in 1851 on a liberal platform, but withdrew his candidacy on 23 December 1851. La Serve was passionately opposed to the imperial government. In 1866 he was accused of having stirred up the disturbances that broke out in Réunion, but the government representatives acknowledged that this was false. After the fall of the Empire on 4 September 1870 the Government of National Defense issued a decree calling for the electors of France and the colonies to elect a National Assembly.

The election was postponed, but news of the postponement had not reached the island of Réunion when they held an election on 25 November 1870. La Serve was elected Representative of Réunion by 12,804 votes out of 14,218; this vote was declared valid for the future National Assembly, where La Serve sat with the Republican Union group, Union républicaine. La Serve voted with the left for the government of Adolphe Thiers, for dissolution of the assembly, against the ministry of 24 May 1873, against the seven-year term, against the law on mayors, for the amendments of Henri-Alexandre Wallon and Pascal Pierre Duprat and for the constitutional laws, he was a member of the committees of deportation and on colonial banks. In 1871 François de Mahy and Robinet de La Serve obtained the annexation of the Île Sainte-Marie off Madagascar to Reunion, as had been the case in the past. Robinet de La Serve published influential articles on the colonial situation in Leon Gambeta's journal la République française.

After the assembly was dissolved La Serve was elected Senator of Reunion on 19 March 1876 by 32 out of 37 votes. He sat with the moderate left, from 1879 with the Republican majority, he voted against dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies, against the ministry of Albert de Broglie formed after the 16 May 1877 crisis and for the ministry of Jules Armand Dufaure. La Serve died in Marseille on 4 February 1882

All-payer rate setting

All-payer rate setting is a price setting mechanism in which all third parties pay the same price for services at a given hospital. It can be used to increase the market power of payers versus providers, such as hospital systems, in order to control costs. All-payer characteristics are found in most developed economies with multi-payer healthcare systems, including France, Germany and the Netherlands; the U. S. state of Maryland uses such a model. All-payer rate setting have been proposed in the United States as a healthcare reform measure; the proposal for a public option has been cited as indirectly sharing some of the same goals as all-payer rate-setting systems. Since the late 1970s, Maryland has operated an all-payer system for hospital services. An independent commission establishes the rate structure for each hospital; that eliminated hospital cost shifting across payers and spread more equitably the costs of uncompensated care and medical education and limited cost growth, but per capita Medicare hospital costs are among the country's highest.

Medicare's participation in the system is authorized by the Social Security Act and is tied to a growth limit in payment per admission. The Medicare waiver created incentives to increase the volume of services. Medicare pays higher rates for hospital services in Maryland than it does under the national prospective payment systems. On January 10, 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the State announced a new model that will focus on overall per capita expenditures for hospital services as well as on improvements in the quality of care and population health outcomes. For 5 years beginning in 2014, Maryland will limit the growth of per capita hospital costs to the lesser of 3.58% or 0.5% less than the actual national growth rate for 2015 through 2018. The change is forecast to save Medicare at least $330 million. 3.58% is Maryland's historical 10-year growth rate of per capita gross state product. Capitation Fee-for-service Single-payer health care

Museum of Biblical Art (Dallas)

The Museum of Biblical Art in Dallas, Texas, USA, exhibits art with a Biblical theme. The museum was founded in 1967 by Mattie Caruth Byrd, it was known as the Biblical Arts Center. In 2005, a fire destroyed 2,500 works of art; the museum rebuilt and reopened in 2010 in a modern building with eleven galleries and 30,000 square feet of exhibition and event space. The museum holds and displays 2,500 works by artists including John Singer Sargent, Andy Warhol, Marc Chagall, Leonard Baskin, William Gropper, Jack Levine, Jacques Lipchitz, Ben Shahn and Max Weber, Gib Singleton as well as ceremonial art and over 100 Bibles; the National Center for Jewish Art was launched in October 2014, occupies 10,000 square feet of the museum, showcasing its expanded Judaica collection. The inaugural exhibit featured the work of Barbara Hines; the museum was praised by the Texas Jewish Arts Association, but provoked some other members of the local Jewish community to voice misgivings that a museum with "clearly Christian roots" has won strong support among Jewish patrons of the arts and Jewish artists.

Museum of Biblical Art official site Barbara Hines Exhibit at The Museum of Biblical Art, 2015