In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Sol S. Metzger was an American football player, coach of football and basketball, college athletics administrator, and sports journalist. Metzger was the basketball coach at South Carolina for one season in 1920–21. In addition, Metzger wrote a syndicated sports column. Metzger was born in Bedford, Pennsylvania on December 29,1880 and he was of son of American Civil War veteran Captain Sol Metzger and his wife Margaret Metzger. He was one of six children with three brothers and two sisters, growing up in Bedford he attended Bedford Public Schools and the Bedford Academy before going to Phillips-Andover Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He graduated from Phillips-Andover Academy in 1899 where he was a member of the team as a member of the quarter mile relay team. Metzger was a graduate of University of Pennsylvania in 1903 with a Bachelor of Architecture and he was active in many organizations including Phi Kappa Psi fraternity and Sphinx Society. He was manager of the University’s monthly periodical, The Red.
At Penn he was much involved in several athletic programs including being the manager of the varsity rowing team. Metzger made the football team. He lettered three years at end and quarterback on the varsity team and his first varsity year was played under College Football Hall of Fame coach George Washington Woodruff and last two under Carl S. Williams. In 1901, Metzger first season for the Quakers, he played as a backup, the team started strong by winning their first seven games, but were weakened in part to injuries accumulated during the earlier games. The Quakers lost five out the last eight to finish the season 10–5, the five losses were the most under Woodruff. In addition to the season the team had to deal with an undergraduate. This led to Head Coach George W. Woodruff to resign as coach, after Woodruff resignation was accepted, the members of the football team sent a letter to the Football Committee unanimously requesting that Woodruff be reinstated as coach. In 1902, Carl Sheldon Williams succeeded George W.
Woodruff as coached, the following year Metzger was named captain and led Penn to a 9–3 mark. During his playing career he was best known for playing right end on Defense where he was known for his tackling and stopping the opposition’s runs around end, after graduating from Penn, he took a job as coach at Baylor University. He compiled a 2–5–1 record in 1904, in 1908, Metzger succeeded Carl Williams, his former coach, at the University of Pennsylvania
Yale Bulldogs football
The Yale Bulldogs football program represents Yale University in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Yales football program is one of the oldest in the world, with 890 wins, Yale ranks second in wins in college football history, trailing only the University of Michigan. The Bulldogs were the dominant team in the days of intercollegiate football, winning 27 college football national championships. Walter Camp, known as the Father of Football, graduated from Hopkins Grammar School in 1876 and he served as the head football coach at Yale from 1888 to 1892. The team made the down and went on to win the game in one of Yales greatest victories in its history, laRoche went on to spearhead the creation of the National Football Foundation and Hall of Fame. When the Ivy League athletic conference was formed in 1955, conference rules prohibited post-season play in football. While Yale had always abstained from post-season play, other schools had participated in bowls before, and the new policy further insulated Yale.
The NCAA decided to split Division I into two subdivisions in 1978, called I-A for larger schools, and I-AA for the smaller ones. In 1982, the NCAA created a rule that stated an average attendance must be at least 15,000 to qualify for I-A membership. This forced the hand, as only some of the member schools met the attendance qualification. Choosing to stay rather than stand their ground separately in the increasingly competitive I-A subdivision. Since the formation of the Ivy League in 1956, Yale has won 14 Ivy League championships,1956,1960,1967,1968,1969,1974,1976,1977,1979,1980,1981,1989,1999,2006. Harvard and Yale have been competing against each other in football since 1875, the annual rivalry game between the two schools, known as The Game, is played in November at the end of the football season. As of 2016, Yale leads the series 66–59–8, the Game is the second oldest continuing rivalry and the third most-played rivalry game in college football history, after the Lehigh–Lafayette Rivalry and the Princeton–Yale game.
Sports Illustrated On Campus rated the Harvard–Yale rivalry the sixth-best in college athletics in 2003, Harvard had been unbeaten versus Yale from 2007 to 2015. The nine game winning streak was the longest during the rivalry, Yales 2016 victory over Harvard in Cambridge, 21-14, ended the streak. The Game is significant for historical reasons as the rules of The Game soon were adopted by other schools. Footballs rules and equipment, as well as elements of such as the mascot and fight song, include many elements pioneered or nurtured at Harvard
Notre Dame Fighting Irish football
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team is the intercollegiate football team representing the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana. The team is coached by Brian Kelly. The team plays its games at the campuss Notre Dame Stadium. One of the most iconic and successful programs in sports, have 13 national championships recognized by the NCAA. With 486 players selected, Notre Dame is second to USC in the number of players chosen by NFL teams in the draft, all Notre Dame home games have been televised on NBC since 1991, and Notre Dame is the only school to have such a contract. It was the only independent program to be part of the Bowl Championship Series coalition and its guaranteed payout and these factors help make Notre Dame one of the most financially valuable football programs in the country, allowing them to remain independent of a conference. Football did not have a beginning at the University of Notre Dame. In their inaugural game on November 23,1887, the Irish lost to Michigan by a score of 8–0 and their first win came in the final game of the 1888 season when the Irish defeated Harvard Prep by a score of 20–0.
At the end of the 1888 season they had a record of 1–3 with all three losses being at the hands of Michigan by a score of 43–9. Between 1887 and 1899 Notre Dame compiled a record of 31 wins,15 losses, in 1908, the win over Franklin saw end Fay Wood catch the first touchdown pass in Notre Dame history. By the end of the 1912 season they had amassed a record of 108 wins,31 losses, jesse Harper became head coach in 1913 and remained so until he retired in 1917. During his tenure the Irish began playing only intercollegiate games and posted a record of 34 wins, five losses and this period would mark the beginning of the rivalry with Army and the continuation of rivalries with Michigan State. In 1913, Notre Dame burst into the consciousness and helped to transform the collegiate game in a single contest. In an effort to respect for a regionally successful but small-time Midwestern football program, Harper scheduled games in his first season with national powerhouses Texas, Penn State. On November 1,1913, the Notre Dame squad stunned the Black Knights of the Hudson 35–13 in a game played at West Point and this game has been miscredited as the invention of the forward pass.
Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918, under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins,12 losses, and five ties. During his 13 years the Irish won three championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp. Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage in NCAA Division I/FBS football history, Rocknes offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme
Parke H. Davis
Parke Hill Davis was an American football player and historian who retroactively named national championship teams in American college football from the 1869 through the 1932 seasons. He named co-national champions at the conclusion of the 1933 season, Davis selections are included in the NCAAs official football record books, as the only championship teams chosen on the basis of research. Davis was a lineman for Princeton and a member of the Tigers tug-of-war team in 1889 before going on to coach at Wisconsin and Lafayette and he displayed an admirable range of talents. The biggest win of the 1896 season came in Philadelphia against Pennsylvania on October 24, a standout for Lafayette was a newcomer named Fielding Hurry Up Yost. Yost began playing football at West Virginia University in 1894 at the age of 23, a 6-foot, 200-pounder, Yost was a star tackle at WVU into the 1896 season. He transferred in mid-season to join what would be Coach Davis national championship team, true to his nickname, just a week after playing against Davis in West Virginia, Hurry Up was playing for Davis in Lafayettes historic 6–4 win over the Quakers.
The fortuitous timing of Yosts appearance on the Lafayette roster did not go unnoticed by Penn officials and they called it the Yost affair. The Philadelphia Ledger quoted Yost as saying that he came to Lafayette only to play football, the fact that Yost appeared in a Lafayette uniform only once. In the Penn game… and that he returned to West Virginia within two weeks of the contest, Yost assured all concerned that he would return to Lafayette for at least three years of study. But 1897 found Hurry Up no longer a student or a player, in 1901, he was hired as head coach at the University of Michigan, beginning a storied 25-year, Hall of Fame career. After concluding his own career as a football coach, Davis became a prominent attorney in Easton, Pennsylvania. He lived there the rest of his life, in the October 1900 meeting of the Lafayette Democratic Club, Davis was the orator of the evening, after the group unanimously endorsed the national ticket of William Jennings Bryan. The ex-coach and loyal supporter of athletics of Lafayette served as an umpire in football games and as starter at the colleges track meets.
Davis wrote an history of American football in 1911, tracing the sports origins to ancient times. abundant evidence may be marshalled to prove that this is the oldest outdoor game in existence. In the 22nd chapter of Isaiah is found the verse, He will turn and he helped select the 1913 College Football All-America Team while serving as Princetons representative on the American Intercollegiate Football Rules Committee. He served on the Rules Committee from 1909 to 1915, playing a key role in shaping the evolution of the game. Among the innovations with which he is credited are the division of the game into quarters, numbering of players, abolition of inter-locked interference, if the fumble is recovered behind an opponents goal line the ball shall be put in play at the point where it was fumbled. Davis was a friend and admirer of Walter Camp, Father of American Football, in a 1926 authorized biography of Camp, author Harford Powel, Jr
Miami Hurricanes football
The Miami Hurricanes football team represents the University of Miami in the sport of American football. The Hurricanes compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association s Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, the program began in 1926 and has won five AP national championships. Miami is ranked fourth on the list of All-time Associated Press National Poll Championships, tied with Southern California and Ohio State and behind Alabama, Notre Dame, and Oklahoma. Miami holds a number of NFL Draft records, including most first round selections in a single draft, two Hurricanes have won the Heisman Trophy and nine have been inducted to the College Football Hall of Fame. The team plays its games at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens. The Hurricanes are currently coached by Mark Richt, UM began with just a freshman football team in 1926. Its first game was played on October 23,1926, a 7–0 win over Rollins College before 304 fans, under the guidance of head coach Howard P. Buck, the freshman team posted a perfect 8–0 record in its inaugural season.
Two of the wins were against the University of Havana, one on Thanksgiving Day in Miami, Miamis last home game at of the season featured a first, the first Hurricane football game played on New Years Day against Howard at Miamis University Stadium. Varsity competition began in 1927, with Miami beating Rollins 39–3 in its first game and going on to a 3–6–1 record. The team improved to 4–4–1 in 1928, but it was not enough for Buck to keep his job, rixs arrival was funded by a group of local businessmen. That off-season, the program, which competed as an independent during its first two years of existence, joined the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association,1929 saw Miami play its first varsity road game, and Rix led the team to its first winning season, going 3–2. His tenure, was short-lived, off-campus financing for the dried up in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash. Ernest Brett replaced Rix, and in 1930, Miami played Temple in its first game outside the South, losing 34–0 to the Owls in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
On October 31,1930, the Hurricanes played in one of the nations first night games vs. Bowden College in Miami, Brett only lasted one year, and Tom McCann became the programs fourth head coach in 1931. Under McCann, the program experienced its most successful seasons to that point. After a difficult first year, Miami put together a record in 1932 and served as host to the inaugural Palm Festival. A 5–1–2 campaign and another Palm Festival berth followed in 1933, and in 1934, in 1935, a group of Miami football supporters sought to hire Red Grange as coach. However, the move was vetoed by President Bowman Foster Ashe, instead Irl Tubbs took over as head coach in 1935, and though Miami compiled an 11–5–2 record in his two seasons, it did not play in a bowl in either year
George Washington Woodruff
George Washington Woodruff was an American football player, coach, teacher and politician. Woodruffs Penn teams of 1894,1895, and 1897 have been recognized as national champions, Woodruff was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1963. Woodruff graduated from Yale University in 1889, where he was a member of Skull and Bones, and his football teammates at Yale included Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pudge Heffelfinger, and Pa Corbin. At Penn, Woodruff coached Truxtun Hare, Carl Sheldon Williams, John H. Outland, his brother Wylie G. Woodruff, in his ten years of coaching at Penn, Woodruff compiled a 124–15–2 record while his teams scored 1777 points and only gave up 88. He coached one year each at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, after coaching, Woodruff practiced law and was active in politics as a Republican. Note, Before 1936, national champions were determined by research and retroactive ratings. Ralph Kinney completed Carlisles season, going 3–2 over the five games played after Woodruffs departure, George Washington Woodruff at the College Football Hall of Fame George Washington Woodruff at the College Football Data Warehouse
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
Rose Bowl Game
The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Years Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, the Rose Bowl is nicknamed The Granddaddy of Them All because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and has played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game and it is a part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Associations Americas New Year Celebration, which includes the historic Rose Parade. Beginning with the 2015 game, the name for sponsorship reasons is the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. Vizio was the sponsor from 2012, prior sponsors included AT&T, Sony. In 2015, the game was officially known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. In 2002 and 2006, under the Bowl Championship Series system, the Rose Bowl was designated as its championship game, beginning in 2015, the Rose Bowl has been part of the College Football Playoff system and hosts one of its semi-final games every three years.
During non-Playoff years, the Rose Bowl reverts to a Pac-12/Big Ten matchup, originally titled the Tournament East–West football game, the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1,1902, starting the tradition of New Years Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade, the inaugural game featured Fielding H. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion, yost had been Stanfords coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 13 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football. But, on New Years Day 1916 football returned to stay as The State College of Washington defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game, the Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, hosted the first Rose Bowl game in 1923.
The name of the stadium was alternatively Tournament of Roses Stadium or Tournament of Roses Bowl, the stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, the maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl, the 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986, and a crowd of 94,118 saw the 2011 Rose Bowl game between TCU and Wisconsin. The Rose Bowl is the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium. S, during the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl
The University of Pennsylvania Band
The University of Pennsylvania Band is among the most active collegiate band programs in the U. S. The organization is a part of the Department of Athletics at the University of Pennsylvania, like most of the other 50 performing arts groups on the Penn Campus, it has no affiliation with any academic department and is sponsored by the Vice Provosts Office for Undergraduate Life. Typically ranging between 80 and 100 members every year, it is among the largest and most active student-run organizations on campus, like most of the Ivy League Bands, the Penn Band is a scramble band. Founded in 1897, the Penn Band stands among the oldest college bands in the country, according to popular legend, the band began after a single cornet player named A. Felix DuPont played to the jeers of residents in the student quadrangle, a more understanding upperclassman, John Ammon, helped DuPont gather 27 volunteers who formed the schools first band. Its history is marked with a record of performance and achievement.
In its first year, the Band performed twice for President William McKinley, as well as at the opening of Houston Hall, the organization became an integral part of Penn sporting events—one of the first college bands to play regularly at sporting events. It has been a staple at historic Franklin Field and the Palestra, and campus traditions such as ‘Hey Day, ’ ‘Rowbottoms, ’, and Commencement ceremonies. Appearances during the 20th century include countless NCAA tournament games, the Macys Thanksgiving Day Parade, the 1964 New York Worlds Fair, and the Miss America Pageant Parade. In popular culture, Chuck Barris of Gong Show fame performed with the Band in 1977, the group has performed at the pleasure of many dignitaries and celebrities over its history in the context of celebrations on-campus and within the city of Philadelphia. This list includes Governor Ed Rendell, Vice President Al Gore, Grace Kelly, President Ronald Reagan, Bill Cosby, Lech Wałęsa, President Theodore Roosevelt, Peter Lynch, Dolly Parton, Dan Aykroyd, Chris Matthews, and Rudy Giuliani.
By the 1970s, along with most of the other Ivy League bands, however, it had begun moving away from the traditional corps style in the 1940s. Its current uniform, however, is an inadvertent nod to the past—it is a copy of the uniform worn by the freshman band in the early 1930s. The first one hundred years of the history was recently described in a book from Arcadia Publishing, Images of America. Today, the Penn Band is a bastion of music and mirth on the Penn Campus, performing at events and traditions, all Football games. The group tours along the East Coast, in the past decade, the groups appearances include eight NCAA tournament games on national television in the past fifteen years, ESPN Game Day Live, MSNBC Hardball, and the Fox and Friends Morning Show. In 2007, the band had the opportunity to perform with rock drummer Simon Kirke on the Penn campus. Today, the Penn Band stands as one of the few, if not the only, college bands in the country that attends all conference basketball games
John William Heisman was a player and coach of American football and baseball, as well as a sportswriter and actor. His 1917 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado were recognized as the national champion and he served as the athletic director at Georgia Tech from 1904 to 1919 and at Rice from 1924 to 1927. While at Georgia Tech, he was president of the Atlanta Crackers baseball team, fuzzy Woodruff dubbed Heisman the pioneer of Southern football. Heisman was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1954 and his entry there notes that Heisman stands only behind Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, and Walter Camp as a master innovator of the brand of football of his day. One writer says Heisman and Warner constitute the Football Trinity, the Heisman Trophy, awarded annually to the seasons most outstanding college football player, is named after him. Heisman was born in Cleveland, the son of Bavarian German immigrants Sara and he grew up in northwestern Pennsylvania near Titusville, where he played varsity football for Titusville High School from 1884 to 1886, and was salutatorian of his graduating class.
Although he was a student, he confessed he was football mad. Heismans father refused to him play at Titusville, calling football bestial. He went on to football as a lineman at Brown University and at the University of Pennsylvania. In constant dread that his immediate teammates—guards weighing 212 and 243—would fall on him and he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1892. In his book Principles of Football, Heisman described his strategy, The coach should be masterful and commanding. He has no time to say please or mister, at times he must be severe and little short of a czar. Heisman always used a megaphone at practice, Heisman first coached at Oberlin College in 1892. Wrote The Oberlin Review in 1892, Mr. Heisman has entirely remade our football and he has taught us scientific football. Influenced by Yale and Pudge Heffelfinger, Heisman implemented seven-man interference and his best lineman at Oberlin was the half German, half Hawaiian John Henry Wise. Heisman used a pass and a double pass.
Heisman returned to Oberlin in 1894, in 1893 he moved to Buchtel College, where he helped make the first of many permanent alterations to the sport of football. It was customary for the center to begin a play by rolling the ball backwards, under Heisman, the center began tossing the ball to Clark, a practice that evolved into the snap that today begins every play