In finance, private equity is a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisting of equity securities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. A private equity investment will generally be made by an equity firm. Bloomberg Businessweek has called private equity a rebranding of leveraged-buyout firms after the 1980s, common investment strategies in private equity include, leveraged buyouts, venture capital, growth capital, distressed investments and mezzanine capital. In a typical leveraged-buyout transaction, a private-equity firm buys majority control of an existing or mature firm and this is distinct from a venture-capital or growth-capital investment, in which the investors invest in young, growing or emerging companies, and rarely obtain majority control. Private equity is often grouped into a broader category called private capital, generally used to describe capital supporting any long-term. The strategies private equity firms may use are as follows, leveraged buyout being the most important, the companies involved in these transactions are typically mature and generate operating cash flows.
Leveraged buyouts involve a financial sponsor agreeing to an acquisition without itself committing all the capital required for the acquisition, to do this, the financial sponsor will raise acquisition debt which ultimately looks to the cash flows of the acquisition target to make interest and principal payments. Acquisition debt in an LBO is often non-recourse to the sponsor and has no claim on other investments managed by the financial sponsor. Historically the debt portion of a LBO will range from 60%–90% of the purchase price, between 2000–2005 debt averaged between 59. 4% and 67. 9% of total purchase price for LBOs in the United States. A private equity fund say for example, ABC Capital II, to this it adds $2bn of equity – money from its own partners and from limited partners. With this $11bn it buys all the shares of an underperforming company and it replaces the senior management in XYZ Industrial, and they set out to streamline it. The workforce is reduced, some assets are sold off, the objective is to increase the value of the company for an early sale.
The stock market is experiencing a market, and XYZ Industrial is sold two years after the buy-out for $13bn, yielding a profit of $2bn. The original loan can now be paid off with interest of say $0. 5bn, the remaining profit of $1. 5bn is shared among the partners. Taxation of such gains is at capital gains rates, The lenders can insure against default by syndicating the loan to spread the risk, or by buying credit default swaps or selling collateralised debt obligations from/to other institutions. Often the loan/equity is not paid off after sale but left on the books of the company for it to pay off over time and this can be advantageous since the interest is typically offsettable against the profits of the company, thus reducing, or even eliminating, tax. Most buyout deals are much smaller, the average purchase in 2013 was $89m. The target company does not have to be floated on the stockmarket, buy-out operations can go wrong and in such cases the loss is increased by leverage, just as the profit is if all goes well
Hunter S. Thompson
Hunter Stockton Thompson was an American journalist and author, and the founder of the gonzo journalism movement. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, to a family, Thompson had a turbulent youth after the death of his father left the family in poverty. He was unable to finish high school as he was incarcerated for 60 days after abetting a robbery. He subsequently joined the United States Air Force before moving into journalism and he traveled frequently, including stints in California, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, before settling in Aspen, Colorado, in the early 1960s. Thompson became internationally known with the publication of Hells Angels, The Strange, for his research on the book he had spent a year living and riding with the Angels, experiencing their lives and hearing their stories first-hand. The work he remains best known for and Loathing in Las Vegas, A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream, politically minded, Thompson ran unsuccessfully for sheriff of Pitkin County, Colorado, in 1970, on the Freak Power ticket.
Thompsons output notably declined from the mid-1970s, as he struggled with the consequences of fame and he was known for his lifelong use of alcohol and illegal drugs, his love of firearms, and his iconoclastic contempt for authoritarianism. He remarked, I hate to advocate drugs, violence, or insanity to anyone, after a bout of health problems, Thompson committed suicide at the age of 67. In accordance with his wishes, his ashes were fired out of a cannon in a ceremony funded by his friend Johnny Depp and attended by friends including then-Senator John Kerry, hari Kunzru wrote that the true voice of Thompson is revealed to be that of American moralist. One who often makes himself ugly to expose the ugliness he sees around him and his parents were introduced to each other by a friend from Jacks fraternity at the University of Kentucky in September 1934, and married on November 2,1935. Thompsons first name came from an ancestor on his mothers side. On December 2,1943, when Thompson was six years old, on July 3,1952, when Thompson was 14 years old, his father, aged 58, died of myasthenia gravis.
Hunter and his brothers, Davison Wheeler and James Garnet, were raised by their mother, Hunter had a much older half-brother, James Thompson, Jr. from his fathers first marriage, who was not part of the Thompson household. Virginia worked as a librarian to support her children, and is described as having become a heavy drinker following her husbands death, ultimately he never joined any sports teams in high school. Thompson attended I. N. Bloom Elementary School, Highland Middle School, in 1952, he was accepted as a member of the Athenaeum Literary Association, a school-sponsored literary and social club that dated to 1862. Its members at the time, generally drawn from Louisvilles wealthy upper-class families, included Porter Bibb, during this time Thompson read and admired J. P. Donleavys The Ginger Man. As an Athenaeum member, Thompson contributed articles to and helped produce the clubs yearbook The Spectator, the group ejected Thompson in 1955, citing his legal problems. Charged as an accessory to robbery after being in a car with the perpetrator and he served 31 days and, a week after his release, enlisted in the United States Air Force
Daniel Dan Gilbert is the chairman and founder of Rock Ventures and Quicken Loans Inc. He is the operator of the Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland and chairman of JACK Entertainment, Gilbert was born to a Jewish family in Detroit and grew up in Southfield, Michigan where he attended Southfield-Lathrup High School. He earned his bachelors degree from Michigan State University and a Juris Doctor from Wayne State University Law School, while in college he earned a real estate agent’s license and while in law school, he worked part-time at his parents Century 21 Real Estate agency. In 2000, software maker Intuit Inc. purchased Rock Financial and it renamed the national web operation Quicken Loans and grew substantially as the leading provider of direct-to-consumer home loans on the Internet, offering mortgages in all 50 states. Gilbert remained at the company as CEO, in 2010, Quicken Loans moved its headquarters and 1,700 of its employees to downtown Detroit. In 2007, Gilbert bought the dormant Utah Grizzlies American Hockey League franchise, moved it to Cleveland, in early 2012, Gilbert became the new owner of the Arena Football Leagues Cleveland Gladiators.
Gilbert became majority owner of the Cleveland Cavaliers in March 2005 and undertook a complete overhaul of the front office, coaching staff, player personnel and game presentation. Under his tenure, the Cavs won four Central Division championships, in 2016, Gilberts Lake Erie Monsters won the Calder Cup, giving Gilbert two championships within eight days. In 2011, Gilbert purchased the NBADLs New Mexico Thunderbirds, and moved them to Canton, Ohio renaming them the Canton Charge, following the special, Gilbert published an open letter in Comic Sans font to Cleveland Cavaliers fans in which he strongly criticized how James made his announcement. July 12,2010, NBA Commissioner David Stern fined Gilbert $100,000 for his remarks in the letter, though some members of the media criticized Gilbert for this letter, many Cleveland Cavaliers fans embraced him for it and even offered to pay the fine. Gilbert instead insisted on donating the money to charity, four years when James opted out of his contract with Miami and James met privately.
James expressed his regret to Gilbert about The Decision, the two embraced, and James subsequently returned to Cleveland in free agency days later. James explained his homecoming to Cleveland in his Sports Illustrated announcement writing “I’ve met with Dan, face-to-face, who am I to hold a grudge. ”Gilbert is a founding partner in private equity group Rockbridge Growth Equity LLC. The partnership invests in growing businesses in the services, Internet technology, consumer-direct marketing. Gilbert is a principal of Detroit Venture Partners, a venture firm that funds start-up. Some of the companies DVP has invested in includes, LevelEleven, iRule, in addition, Gilbert recently cofounded StockX, a stock market of things for high-demand, limited edition products such as sneakers. Gilbert is invested and involved in the operation of several consumer-based technology-centered businesses, including Fathead, Xenith, StyleCaster, in November 2009, Gilbert and a group of partners successfully backed a statewide referendum to bring casino gaming to Ohio’s four largest cities.
Through a joint venture with Caesars Entertainment Corporation, the groups operate urban-based casinos in both Cleveland and Cincinnati, the first of the casinos, Horseshoe Cleveland, opened in May 2012
LA Weekly is a free weekly tabloid-sized alternative newspaper in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in 1978 by Editor/Publisher Jay Levin and a board of directors that included actor-producer Michael Douglas, according to its website, LA Weekly has been the premier source for award-winning coverage of Los Angeles music, film, culture, events. The LA Weekly recognizes outstanding small theatre productions in Los Angeles, with their annual LA Weekly Theater Awards, starting in 2006, LA Weekly has hosted the LA Weekly Detour Music Festival every October. The entire block surrounding Los Angeles City Hall is closed off to accommodate the three stages. The paper was founded in 1978 by Jay Levin, who served as its editor from 1978 to 1991, Levin put together an investment group that included actor Michael Douglas, Burt Kleiner, Joe Benadon and Pete Kameron. The majority of its core of staff members came from the Austin Sun, a similar-natured bi-weekly. Some of those disgruntled ex-employees complained when New Times replaced news editor Alan Mittelstaedt with veteran New Times editor Jill Stewart, on June 1,2009, the paper announced that Editor-in-Chief Laurie Ochoa, who began helming the paper in 2001, was parting ways with the Weekly.
On that same day, ads for her replacement appeared on Craigslist, though some speculated that Stewart was a shoo-in for the position, the job quickly went to Drex Heikes, formerly of the Los Angeles Times. When Heikes left in 2011, he was replaced by Sarah Fenske, Weekly management said staff cuts were necessary due to poor economic conditions. However, some of the cuts are likely attributable to differences with the papers then-owners. Any old-school Village Voice Media manager who resisted the metamorphosis was denounced as a lefty, a throwback and they were fired or simply fled. Since 2008, LA Weekly has hosted a food and wine festival, now dubbed The Essentials, in 2009, former Los Angeles Times food writer Amy Scattergood became food blogger at LA Weeklys Squid Ink, and was promoted to food editor. In late 2009, the paper hired Dennis Romero, formerly of Ciudad magazine, following the recession, in 2012 the paper added food critic Besha Rodell, a James Beard nominee and former food editor of Atlantas Creative Loafing.
Then in 2013, LA Weekly named Amy Nicholson as its film critic. In 2016, LA Weekly named multimedia journalist and Emmy-winning producer Drew Tewksbury as managing editor, southland owns the Pasadena Weekly, and The Argonaut on the Westside of Los Angeles, and other print products in Southern California
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. The last daily printed edition was put out on March 19,2013, Variety originally reported on theater and vaudeville. Variety has been published since December 16,1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City, on January 19,1907, Variety published what is considered the first film review in history. In 1933, Sime Silverman launched Daily Variety, based in Hollywood, Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931, he remained as publisher until his death in 1933 soon after launching the Daily. His son Sidne Silverman, known as Skigie, succeeded him as publisher of both publications, both Sidne and his wife, stage actress Marie Saxon, died of tuberculosis. Their only son Syd Silverman, born 1932, was the heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syds legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc.
until 1956, after that date Syd Silverman was publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to the Cahners Corp. In L. A. the Daily was edited by Tom Pryor from 1959 until 1988, for twenty years its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart, originally only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked previously at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times, in April 2009, Bart moved to the position of vice president and editorial director, characterized online as Boffo No More, Bart Up and Out at Variety. From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter, in October 2014, Eller and Wallenstein were upped to Co-Editors in Chief, with Littleton continuing to oversee the trades television coverage. This dissemination comes in the form of columns, news stories, video, Cahners Publishing purchased Variety from the Silverman family in 1987.
On December 7,1988, Barts predecessor, Roger Watkins, upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodicals owner, PMC is the owner of Deadline. com, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Varietys largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October,2012, Jay Penske announced that the paywall would come down, the print publication would stay. A significant portion of the advertising revenue comes during the film-award season leading up to the Academy Awards. During this Awards Season, large numbers of colorful, full-page For Your Consideration advertisements inflate the size of Variety to double or triple its usual page count, paid circulation for the weekly Variety magazine in 2013 was 40,000. Each copy of each Variety issue is read by an average of three people, with a total readership of 120,000. Variety. com has 17 million unique monthly visitors, Variety is a weekly entertainment publication with a broad coverage of movies, theater and technology, written for entertainment executives
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
Yahoo Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. Yahoo was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 2,1995, Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early internet era in the 1990s. Marissa Mayer, a former Google executive, Google Employee number 20 and it is globally known for its Web portal, search engine Yahoo. Search, and related services, including Yahoo, advertising, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports, and its social media website. It is one of the most popular sites in the United States, according to news sources, roughly 700 million people visit Yahoo websites every month. Yahoo itself claims it attracts more than half a billion consumers every month in more than 30 languages, in January 1994 Yang and Filo were electrical engineering graduate students at Stanford University, when they created a website named Jerry and Davids guide to the World Wide Web. The site was a directory of websites, organized in a hierarchy.
In March 1994, Jerry and Davids Guide to the World Wide Web was renamed Yahoo, the yahoo. com domain was created on January 18,1995. The word yahoo is a backronym for Yet Another Hierarchically Organized Oracle or Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle, the term hierarchical described how the Yahoo database was arranged in layers of subcategories. However and Yang insist they mainly selected the name because they liked the definition of a yahoo, unsophisticated. This meaning derives from the Yahoo race of beings from Gullivers Travels. Yahoo grew rapidly throughout the 1990s, like many search engines and web directories, Yahoo added a web portal. By 1998, Yahoo was the most popular starting point for web users and it made many high-profile acquisitions. Its stock price skyrocketed during the bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at an all-time high of $118.75 a share on January 3,2000. However, after the bubble burst, it reached a post-bubble low of $8.11 on September 26,2001. Yahoo began using Google for search in 2000, over the next four years, it developed its own search technologies, which it began using in 2004.
In response to Googles Gmail, Yahoo began to offer unlimited email storage in 2007, the company struggled through 2008, with several large layoffs. In February 2008, Microsoft Corporation made a bid to acquire Yahoo for $44.6 billion
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
ARTnews is an American visual-arts magazine, based in New York City. It covers art from ancient to contemporary times and it includes news dispatches from correspondents, investigative reports, reviews of exhibitions, and profiles of artists and collectors. The magazine was founded by James Clarence Hyde in 1902 as Hydes Weekly Art News and was published eleven times a year. 18, the magazine was published as American Art News. From February 1923 to the present, in April 2014, Milton and Judith Esterow, the magazines owners since 1972, sold the publication to Skate Capital Corp. a private asset-management firm owned by Sergey Skaterschikov. It was revealed that Skate Capital was acting on behalf of the Polish company Abbey House, following this change in ownership the magazine merged with Art in America in June 2015, owned by Brant Publications BMP Media Holdings, LLC. In October 2015 the monthly frequency of ARTnews was switched to quarterly, the magazines offices are at 40 West 25th Street in Manhattan.
List of art magazines List of United States magazines Official website
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety