Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pepin is a village in Pepin County, United States. The population was 837 at the 2010 census; the village is located within the Town of Pepin. By the mid-17th century, the French had begun to send expeditions into Wisconsin via the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River. King Louis XIII of France is believed to have granted a huge piece of land in the Upper Mississippi River Valley to two brothers, Etiene Pepin de la Fond and Guillaume dit Tranchemontagne. Two of Guillaume’s sons, Pierre Pepin and Jean Pepin du Cardonnets explored and traded in this area, their surname became attached to the lake, to the village and the county. Pepin is located at 44°26′33″N 92°8′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.70 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 837 people, 399 households, 226 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,195.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 490 housing units at an average density of 700.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.2% of the population. There were 399 households of which 18.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.4% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.98 and the average family size was 2.58. The median age in the village was 53.9 years. 14.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 878 people, 381 households, 241 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,238.1 people per square mile. There were 430 housing units at an average density of 606.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.29% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.68% from two or more races. There were 381 households out of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.74. In the village, the population was spread out with 17.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 28.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,319, the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $31,393 versus $22,875 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $17,755. About 2.0% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Nathaniel O. Murray, steamboat owner and Wisconsin state legislator, lived in Pepin; the author Laura Ingalls Wilder was born in the Pepin area, near Lund, where her family lived. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Museum is in the village; the Little House Wayside is located seven miles northwest in the town of Pepin. Pepin, Wisconsin
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Wisconsin Highway 35
State Trunk Highway 35 is a Wisconsin state highway running north–south across western Wisconsin. It is 412.15 miles in length, is the longest state highway in Wisconsin. Portions of WIS 35 are part of the Great River Road. WIS 35 is a major north-south route through westernmost Wisconsin following close to the state border; because of the lower population of counties along the state's western border with Iowa and Minnesota, it is a rural routing with lower traffic counts than in other parts of the state. WIS 35 is the terminus of 15 different state, US, Interstate highways along its route; the southern terminus of WIS 35 is at the Illinois–Wisconsin border, three miles north of East Dubuque, Illinois. It continues on into that state as Illinois Route 35, the shortest state highway in Illinois. From the state line, WIS 35 continues north for about a mile before intersecting with WIS 11 at Badger Road; this section of highway is the only segment of WIS 35 between the state line and Prairie du Chien, not co-signed with at least one other highway.
WIS 35/WIS 11 continues to the west to the interchange with U. S. Highway 61 and US 151, as the two US Highways enter Wisconsin after crossing the Mississippi River from Dubuque, Iowa. WIS 11 terminates at the Welcome Center on the other side of US 61/US 151, while WIS 35 continues north with the two US routes on an expressway to the city of Dickeyville. WIS 35 and US 61 exit the freeway to the northwest into Dickeyville at exit 8, while US 151 continues north towards Platteville. WIS 35 and US 61 continue to the northwest to the village of Tennyson before heading north towards the city of Lancaster. On the outskirts of Lancaster, WIS 35 and US 61 interchange with WIS 81, which continues on into the city with the other two routes. After intersecting with the southern terminus of WIS 129, the three routes enter Lancaster as Madison Street. In downtown Lancaster, at the Grant County Courthouse square, Madison Street becomes one-way northbound at Cherry Street. WIS 35 and WIS 81 turn left a block north at West Maple Street, while US 61 continues north on North Madison Street out of the city.
On the west side of the Courthouse Square, WIS 35/WIS 81 turns south on South Jefferson Street for one block to West Cherry Street. The two state highways head west for two blocks. At South Harrison Street, WIS 35/WIS 81 heads south for two blocks before turning southwest and out of the city. About a mile outside the city limits of Lancaster, WIS 35/WIS 81 turns in a westerly direction for about six miles before the two highways split up in rural Grant County. WIS 81 continues southwest towards Beetown, while WIS 35 heads northwest toward the village of Bloomington. On the northwest side of Bloomington, WIS 35 intersects with WIS 133 at 4th Street; the two highways continue in a northerly direction towards the village of Patch Grove, where they intersect with US 18. WIS 133 turns east with US 18, while WIS 35 continues towards the northwest with US 18 towards the Wisconsin River and Bridgeport. Crossing the Wisconsin River into Crawford County, WIS 35/WIS 18 intersects with WIS 60 in Bridgeport, with the three highways continuing on into the city of Prairie du Chien as South Marquette Road.
At Wisconsin Street in downtown Prairie du Chien, US 18 and WIS 60 head west as a one-way street to the bridge crossing the Mississippi into Marquette, Iowa. Eastbound US 18 and WIS 60 joins WIS 35 one block prior at Iowa Street. One block north of Wisconsin Street, WIS 35 meets the western terminus of WIS 27 at East Blackhawk Avenue. WIS 35 continues north out of the city. WIS 35 runs along the Mississippi River's east banks through the cities of Ferryville. About three miles south of the city of De Soto, WIS 35 intersects with the western segment of WIS 82, which crosses over the Mississippi River into the city of Lansing, Iowa. In downtown De Soto, WIS 82 heads to the Northeast as Main Street, while WIS 35 continues across the Vernon County line. WIS 35 continues north along the eastern banks of the Mississippi River into the city of Genoa. Here, it meets another western terminus of WIS 56 at Main Street. WIS 35 continues north to the city of Stoddard, where it meets yet another western terminus, this time of WIS 162 at Division Street.
WIS 35 continues into La Crosse County. Upon entering the southern edge of the city of La Crosse, WIS 35 interchanges with US 14 and US 61; the three routes continue into the city as Mormon Coulee Road. At Ward Avenue, the street name changes to South Avenue until it reaches Hood Street on the southern edge of downtown La Crosse. At the intersection, northbound traffic for WIS 35 and US 14/US 61 continues on Fourth Street, while southbound traffic takes Third Street. Nine blocks to the north at Cameron Avenue, the three routes intersect with WIS 16 and the southern terminus of US 53. WIS 16/WIS 35 and US 14/US 53/US 61 continue north together for one block to Cass Street, where WIS 16 turns east towards the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse campus. WIS 16 turns west with US 14/US 61 across the river to Pettibone Park and into Minnesota, while WIS 35 and US 53 continue north on Fourth Street. Southbound WIS 35/US 53 crosses both eastbound WIS 16 on Third Street South. Just north of La Crosse Street, the two one-way routes come together to become Copeland Avenue, crossing over the La Crosse River.
On the other side of the river, the routes split again into two one-way routings, with northbound traffic turning onto Rose Street and southbound traffic on Copeland Avenue. This continues for about 12 blocks, passing the Amtrak Station to its end at Clinton Street on the edge of North La Crosse. WIS 35 and US 53 continue nort
Lake Pepin is a occurring lake on the Mississippi River on the border between the U. S. states of Wisconsin. It is located in a valley carved by the outflow of an enormous glacial lake at the end of the last Ice Age; the lake formed when the Mississippi, a successor to the glacial river, was dammed by a delta from a tributary stream and spread out across the ancient valley. Lake Pepin is now a corridor for water and rail transportation. Known as the birthplace of water skiing, it hosts a variety of recreational activities. Lake Pepin has a surface area of about 40 square miles and an average depth of 21 feet, It is up to 2 miles wide and 22 miles long; the wide area of the lake stretches from Bay City, Wisconsin, in the north, down to Reads Landing, Minnesota in the south. The villages of Pepin, Maiden Rock and Stockholm are on the Wisconsin side, while Frontenac State Park takes up a large part of the Minnesota side; the largest city on the waterfront is Minnesota. The Canadian Pacific Railway now owns the former mainline of the Milwaukee Road on the Minnesota side, the Burlington Northern's former Burlington Route mainline is lakeside on the Wisconsin side.
Both were former racetracks for the premier passenger trains of their owners, the CP rails still carry Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and the Pacific Northwest. Lakeside highways are U. S. Route 61 on the Minnesota side, across the lake Wisconsin State Highway 35 is just inland from the railroad. Both are parts of the Great River Road. Maiden Rock, on Lake Pepin, is one site said to be the locale where a Dakota woman named Winona leapt to her death. Lake Pepin occupies a valley carved by the waters of Glacial River Warren, which drained Lake Agassiz in a catastrophic flood at the end of the last Ice Age, to a lesser extent from Lake Duluth, a smaller glacial lake which drained through the present valley of the St. Croix River; when the continental glacier's meltwaters found other outlets to the sea, River Warren was succeeded by the more modest Upper Mississippi, which drains a much smaller basin, the St. Croix spillway became the present river. Over a long period of time, the deep valley was filled with sediments, forming a broad floodplain.
In this plain Lake Pepin formed behind a delta comprising sediments deposited into the ancient lake bed by the Chippewa River near the present community of Wabasha at the southern end of the lake. The lake backed up behind this sediment dam as far north as the location of Saint Paul. In the 10,000 years since the lake's creation, ongoing sedimentation into Lake Pepin has caused its upper end to migrate downstream some 80km to its present location east of Red Wing, Minnesota; the process of sedimentation continues at an accelerated rate. Pepin's natural flora are threatened by these increased rates of sedimentation, leading the Lake Pepin Legacy Alliance to call the phenomenon a "wet desert." Some theorize the lake is filling in at a rate of ten times greater than pre-colonization, due to increased run-off from farms along the Minnesota River. Other research maintains sediment accumulation is from a more diverse and complicated series of processes, including natural bank sloughing of large amounts of soil from steep river banks, a result of the geography of the area and physical properties of the soil, man-made restriction of river flooding, access to flood plains and wetlands, forced straightening an deepening of river channels.
Research suggests these processes are being heightened due to increasing precipitation due to climate change. The lake was first named in a map of New France made by Guillaume Delisle at the request of Louis XIV of France in 1703; the lake was named for Jean Pepin who settled on its shores in the late 1600s after exploring the Great Lakes from Boucherville. Nicolas Perrot erected the first of a number of fur trade posts, Fort Saint Antoine, in 1686. In 1727 René Boucher de La Perrière and Michel Guignas built Fort Beauharnois on the lake. In 1730 it had to be rebuilt on higher ground. Boucher was the military leader and Father Guignas was a missionary to the Sioux. In the nineteenth century the lake was used to transport freshly-cut trees for the lumber industry. Cut logs were floated across the lake, from the 1840s with the assistance of steamboats to counter adverse winds and the sluggish currents in the lake. Large rafts were assembled at Reads Landing at the southern end, towed downstream to mills at Winona and St. Louis.
In 1890 it was the site of one of the worst maritime disasters on the Mississippi, known as the Sea Wing disaster when the Sea Wing ferry capsized in a bad storm, killing 98 people. In 1922, Lake City native Ralph Samuelson invented the sport of water skiing on the lake, Lake City is known as "the birthplace of waterskiing." The city celebrates. Lake Pepin is the lake that Laura and her family visit in the "Going to Town" chapter of Little House in the Big Woods, the first book in Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House series. Laura's family and their covered wagon cross the frozen Lake Pepin in the chapter "Going West", the first chapter of the second book, Little House on the Prairie. Ojakangas, Richard W.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0953-5. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0821-0
Buffalo County, Wisconsin
Buffalo County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,587, its county seat is Alma. The county was organized the following year. Buffalo County, founded in 1853, is named for the Buffalo River, which flows from Strum to Alma, where it empties into the Mississippi River; the Buffalo River obtained its name from the French voyager Father Louis Hennepin, who named it Riviere des Boeufs in 1680. The first permanent settlement was established in 1839, located in; this settlement was named Holmes' Landing after a family who traded with the Sioux and Chippewa. Buffalo County was settled by Swiss and Norwegian immigrants who were drawn to the area by the growing lumber industry, fertile soils, access to the Mississippi, available land. By 1848, a second community was established called Twelve Mile Bluff, now known as Alma. Agriculture developed during the 1850s on top of the ridges where natural prairies and oak savannas occurred, which made working the land much easier.
With the lack of good roads, settlement remained along the Mississippi River, where farmers could ship their grain on steamboats. The development of the Northern Rail from Winona, allowed for development away from the river, by 1890, farmers were transporting their goods predominantly by rail; the Civil War gave a boost to the local economy with the rising demand for wheat, the main crop of the county. The postwar period brought a large influx of settlers. With the price of wheat falling, farmers turned to dairy farming, by the 1880s, local creameries had started to appear. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 672 square miles are land and 38 square miles are covered by water. Pepin County – north Eau Claire County – northeast Trempealeau County – east Winona County, Minnesota – south Wabasha County, Minnesota – west As of the census of 2000, there were 13,804 people, 5,511 households, 3,780 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile.
There were 6,098 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.69% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 0.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.3% were of German, 22.1% Norwegian and 8.8% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.9 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish and 1.1 % German as their first language. There were 5,511 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.40 males. Alma Buffalo City Fountain City Mondovi Cochrane Nelson Gilmanton Waumandee Anchorage Bohri Savoy Springdale Chauncey H. Cooke, American soldier in the U. S. Civil War National Register of Historic Places listings in Buffalo County, Wisconsin Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Biographical History of La Crosse and Buffalo Counties, Wisconsin. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1892. Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn. History of Buffalo and Pepin Counties Wisconsin. Winona, Minn.: H. C. Cooper, 1919. Kessinger, L. History of Buffalo County, Wisconsin. Alma, Wis.: 1888. Buffalo County government website Buffalo County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation