Peppermint is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now spread and cultivated in many regions of the world, it is found in the wild with its parent species. Although the genus Mentha comprises more than 25 species, the most common one used is peppermint. While Western peppermint is derived from Mentha piperita, Chinese peppermint, or “Bohe” is derived from the fresh leaves of Mentha haplocalyx. Mentha piperita and Mentha haplocalyx are both recognized as plant sources of menthol and menthone and are among the oldest herbs used for both culinary and medicinal products. Peppermint was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus from specimens, collected in England, it is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant that grows to be 30–90 cm tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading and bear fibrous roots; the leaves can be 4–9 cm long and 1.5–4 cm broad. They are dark green with reddish veins, they have an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.
The leaves and stems are slightly fuzzy. The flowers are 6 -- 8 mm long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm diameter. Flowering season lasts from mid- to late summer; the chromosome number is variable, with 2n counts of 66, 72, 84, 120 recorded. Peppermint is a fast-growing plant. Peppermint occurs in moist habitats, including stream sides and drainage ditches. Being a hybrid, it is sterile, producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively, spreading by its runners. If placed, it can grow anywhere. Outside of its native range, areas where peppermint was grown for oil have an abundance of feral plants, it is considered invasive in Australia, the Galápagos Islands, New Zealand, the United States in the Great Lakes region, noted since 1843. Peppermint grows best in moist, shaded locations, expands by underground rhizomes. Young shoots are dibbled into the ground about 1.5 feet apart. They grow and cover the ground with runners if it is permanently moist. For the home gardener, it is grown in containers to restrict rapid spreading.
It grows best with a good supply of water, without being water-logged, planted in areas with part-sun to shade. The leaves and flowering tops are used; the wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose, with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. They may be allowed to lie and wilt a little before distillation, or they may be taken directly to the still. A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use: Mentha × piperita'Candymint'. Stems reddish. Mentha × piperita'Chocolate Mint'. Flowers open from bottom up. Mentha × piperita'Citrata'. Includes a number of varieties including Eau De Cologne Mint, Grapefruit Mint, Lemon Mint, Orange Mint. Leaves aromatic, hairless. Mentha × piperita'Crispa'. Leaves wrinkled. Mentha × piperita'Lavender Mint'. Mentha × piperita'Lime Mint'. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita'Variegata'. Leaves mottled pale yellow. Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole Zefir Bulgarian population #2 Clone 11-6-22 Clone 80-121-33 Mitcham Digne 38 Mitcham Ribecourt 19 Todd's#x2019 Todd's Mitcham, a verticillium wilt-resistant cultivar produced from a breeding and test program of atomic gardening at Brookhaven National Laboratory from the mid-1950s In 2014, world production of peppermint was 92,296 tonnes, led by Morocco with 92% of the world total reported by FAOSTAT of the United Nations.
Argentina accounted for 8% of the world total. In the United States and Washington produce most of the country's peppermint, the leaves of which are processed for the essential oil to produce flavorings for chewing gum and toothpaste. Peppermint has a high menthol content; the oil contains menthone and carboxyl esters menthyl acetate. Dried peppermint has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and 1,8-cineol. Peppermint oil contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone and pinene. Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside. Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides pulegone and menthone, it is known to repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, has uses in organic gardening. The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint was analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS; the main constituents were menthone. Further components were -menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene and beta-caryophyllene.
Peppermint oil is under preliminary research for its potential as a short-term treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, has supposed uses in traditional medicine for minor ailments. Peppermint oil and leaves have a cooling effect when used topically for muscle pain, nerve pain, relief from itching, or as a fragrance. High oral doses of peppermint oil can mimic heartburn. Fresh
Leandro Martín González Pírez is an Argentine football centre back who plays for Club Tijuana of Liga MX. González Pírez played his first professional game for River Plate coming on as a 90th-minute substitute in a 2–1 win over Newell's Old Boys, for the 2011 Clausura, he was loaned out twice while with River Plate to Belgian club Gent and to Argentine club Arsenal de Sarandí. González Pírez signed with Atletico Tigre in 2015, appearing in thirty games in his sole season with the club, he moved to Estudiantes from Atletico Tigre, earning fourteen caps with that club. On 26 January 2017, González Pírez signed with Atlanta United FC from Estudiantes. On 10 September 2017, he scored the first goal at Mercedes-Benz Stadium during a 3–0 win over FC Dallas. On 10 January 2020, Gonzalez Pirez completed a transfer to Club Tijuana of Liga MX for an undisclosed fee. González Pírez has featured for Argentina at the under-20 levels, he was part of the squad for the 2009 South American Under-17 Football Championship, scoring once as Argentina lost in the final to Brazil.
He was called up for the 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup held in Nigeria, where he made three appearances. In 2011, he was part of the Argentina team for the 2011 South American Youth Championship and 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup; as of match played on 10 March 2019 River Plate Primera B Nacional: 2011–12Atlanta United MLS Cup: 2018 U. S. Open Cup: 2019 MLS Eastern Conference: 2018 Campeones Cup: 2019 MLS All-Star: 2019 Leandro González Pirez – FIFA competition record Leandro González Pírez at ESPN FC Leandro Martín González Pires – Argentine Primera statistics at Fútbol XXI at the Wayback Machine Leandro González Pírez at Soccerway
Prevx is a discontinued anti-malware utility. There are separate on-demand versions, it can remove low-risk adware for free, but the user has to purchase and enter a license key if it is more serious. Scanning can take anywhere from less than two minutes to five minutes. Tony Zaitoun, of About.com, liked the utility except that he had some confusion about configuring the interface and that key protection was disabled by default. The issue referenced has since been corrected. Editors' Choice by PC Magazine Platinum & Standard Checkmark by West Coast Labs Prevx Limited was formed in March 2001 in the UK and registered under the name “Immunify”, changing its name to “TrustCorps” that year and re-branded as “Prevx” in 2003; the founder team was led by Nick Ray as CEO and Paul Stubbs as COO. Positioned as a Host Intrusion Prevention System, the company's initial software product was designed to protect UNIX / Linux servers from advanced malware threats without reliance on malware signatures, thus providing protection from unknown or “Zero-Day” threats.
The software was positioned the last line of defence against threats that had bypassed or overcome firewall, network security and any installed anti-virus or other host-based protection systems. This early product monitored the behaviour of executables in real-time and would block system calls that breached its rules, thus providing protection, it offered protection against buffer overflow attacks and could detect rootkits that attempted to hide themselves in memory or on disk. At the end of 2002, the company received investment from South East Growth Fund and in early 2003 from private investors through an angel network, Hotbed. In 2003, the company rebranded to Prevx and in June 2004 launched its first product for the Windows platform, “Prevx Home - Beta”, offered as a freeware download. Prevx Home 1.0 followed in September 2004. Prevx Home 2.0 launched in October 2004 and incorporated functionality to report the security events it detected to a central database, operated by Prevx, which would allow Prevx to monitor new virus outbreaks and detect and block spyware.
By the end of 2004, 6 months after launching, over 1m copies of Prevx had been downloaded. Subsequent versions included Prevx 3.0, Prevx Edge and Prevx CSI. Prevx stirred up controversy amongst the internet communities when they announced on November 27, 2009 that a recent Windows update was causing a "Black Screen of Death", affecting users of Windows XP, Vista and 7, they claimed. It was discovered that the black screen was caused by a malware infection, unrelated to the Windows update. Prevx apologized for its earlier claims. In 2005, Prevx was acquired in an all share offer by Retento Limited, an investment vehicle owned by serial entrepreneur Mel Morris, who had joined the Prevx board in June 2003 and was an investor in Prevx introduced by Hotbed. Retento was subsequently renamed Prevx Group Limited. In November 2010, Prevx was acquired by US-based Internet security company Webroot; the full conditions of the deal were not released but the announcement was made that Webroot will integrate Prevx's behaviour-based antivirus technology into their existing software and make Mel Morris and chief executive of Prevx Group, the vice president of Webroot's Prevx division.
Webroot has since discontinued the Prevx product line although the technology and concepts continue to underpin Webroot products