Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system. The PNS consists of the ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord; the main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries; the peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve, along with the retina; the second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon. Cranial nerve ganglia originated in the CNS. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS.

The autonomic nervous system glands. The connection between CNS and organs allows the system to be in two different functional states: sympathetic and parasympathetic; the peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system is under voluntary control, transmits signals from the brain to end organs such as muscles; the sensory nervous system is part of the somatic nervous system and transmits signals from senses such as taste and touch to the spinal cord and brain. The autonomic nervous system is a'self-regulating' system which influences the function of organs outside voluntary control, such as the heart rate, or the functions of the digestive system; the somatic nervous system includes the sensory nervous system and the somatosensory system and consists of sensory nerves and somatic nerves, many nerves which hold both functions. In the head and neck, cranial nerves carry somatosensory data. There are twelve cranial nerves, ten of which originate from the brainstem, control the functions of the anatomic structures of the head with some exceptions.

One unique cranial nerve is the vagus nerve, which receives sensory information from organs in the thorax and abdomen. The accessory nerve is responsible for innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, neither of which being in the head. For the rest of the body, spinal nerves are responsible for somatosensory information; these arise from the spinal cord. These arise as a web of interconnected nerves roots that arrange to form single nerves; these nerves control the functions of the rest of the body. In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal; these nerve roots are named according to the spinal vertebrata. In the cervical region, the spinal nerve roots come out above the corresponding vertebrae. From the thoracic region to the coccygeal region, the spinal nerve roots come out below the corresponding vertebrae, it is important to note that this method creates a problem when naming the spinal nerve root between C7 and T1.

In the lumbar and sacral region, the spinal nerve roots travel within the dural sac and they travel below the level of L2 as the cauda equina. The first 4 cervical spinal nerves, C1 through C4, split and recombine to produce a variety of nerves that serve the neck and back of head. Spinal nerve C1 is called the suboccipital nerve, which provides motor innervation to muscles at the base of the skull. C2 and C3 form many of the nerves of the neck, providing both motor control; these include the greater occipital nerve, which provides sensation to the back of the head, the lesser occipital nerve, which provides sensation to the area behind the ears, the greater auricular nerve and the lesser auricular nerve. The phrenic nerve is a nerve essential for our survival which arises from nerve roots C3, C4 and C5, it supplies the thoracic diaphragm. If the spinal cord is transected above C3 spontaneous breathing is not possible; the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1, combine to form the brachial plexus, or plexus brachialis, a tangled array of nerves, splitting and recombining, to form the nerves that subserve the upper-limb and upper back.

Although the brachial plexus may appear tangled, it is organized and predictable, with little variation between people. See brachial plexus injuries; the anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is divided into three parts: lumbar plexus sacral plexus pudendal plexus The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary responses to regulate physiological functions; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system are connected with organs that have smooth muscle, such as the heart and other cardiac and endocrine related organs, by ganglionic neurons. The most notable physiological effects from autonomic activity are pupil constriction and dilation, salivation of saliva; the autonomic nervous system is always activated, but is either in the sympathetic or parasympathetic state. Depending on the situation, one state can overshadow the other, resulting in a release of different kinds of neurotransmitters.

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Mony Mony

"Mony Mony" is a 1968 single by American pop rock band Tommy James and the Shondells, which reached No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart and No. 3 in the U. S. Written by Bobby Bloom, Ritchie Cordell, Bo Gentry and Tommy James, the song has appeared in various film and television works such as the Oliver Stone drama Heaven & Earth, it was covered by English singer-songwriter Billy Idol in 1981. Idol's version, which took in more of a rock sound, became an international top 40 hit and additionally revived public interest in the original garage rock single. In 1986 it was covered by Amazulu. "Mony Mony" was credited to Bo Gentry, Ritchie Cordell and Bobby Bloom. The song's title was inspired by Tommy James' view of the "M. O. N. Y." Sign atop the Mutual of New York Building on the New York City skyline from his Manhattan apartment. As James said in a 1995 interview in Hitch magazine: True story: I had the track done before I had a title. I wanted something catchy like "Sloopy" or "Bony Maroney," but everything sounded so stupid.

So Ritchie Cordell and I were writing it in New York City, we were about to throw in the towel when I went out onto the terrace, looked up and saw the Mutual of New York building. I said, "That's gotta be it! Ritchie, come here, you've gotta see this!" It's as if God Himself had said, "Here's the title." I've always thought that if I had looked the other way, it might have been called "Hotel Taft". "Mony Mony" was the only song by the group to reach the top 20 in the United Kingdom. A music video was made featuring the band performing the song amidst psychedelic backgrounds. A decade and a half it would receive some play on MTV; the song has been covered by many artists, including Billy Idol, Status Quo, the Scenics, the Wigs and the Beach Boys, who recorded the song on March 15, 1976. Coincidentally, Idol's 1987 version replaced another Tommy James hit at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100: "I Think We're Alone Now", covered by Tiffany. Vinyl"Mony Mony" - 2:45 "One Two Three and I Fell" - 2:32 British rock artist Billy Idol released a cover version in 1981.

Along with the track "Baby Talk", Idol's version of "Mony Mony" went to #7 on the Billboard dance chart. A live recording of the song became a hit for Idol in 1987 as well, while promoting his then-forthcoming compilation work Vital Idol; the live version was released as a single and went to No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100, coincidentally displacing Tiffany's cover of another Tommy James song, "I Think We're Alone Now", from the top spot. It finished directly behind the Tiffany song at #19 in the 1987 year-end Billboard chart. Idol's version gave rise to an interesting custom; when the song was performed live in concert or played at a club or dance, people would shout a certain formulaic variation of a particular phrase in the two measures following each line, for example, “Hey, say what… get laid get fucked!” Or “Hey, motherfucker… get laid get fucked!” This led to the song being banned at high-school dances across North America, although the custom continues at Idol concerts & sporting events today.

It became so widespread that Idol would commit the lyrics to record in the "Idol/Stevens Mix" of the song on the 2018 remix album Vital Idol: Revitalized. Idol revived interest in the original garage rock song, his original studio version can be found on Idol's Greatest Hits compilation album, a 2001 Capitol Records release. That album has received positive critical reviews, with Idol's cover of the James tune praised; the song was sampled by Australian Seven Network to promote its 1992 "Yeah!" campaign. This sample was used by the Seven-affiliated regional TV network Prime Television."Weird Al" Yankovic wrote a parody of this song from his album Even Worse, entitled "Alimony". It is about a divorced man complaining about his ex-wife taking everything he owns away from him in alimony payments. UK 7" vinyl & 12" vinyl"Mony Mony" "Baby Talk" "Untouchables" "Dancing With Myself" UK 7" vinyl"Mony Mony" "Shakin' All Over" US 12" vinyl"Mony Mony" 6:59 "Mony Mony" 6:50 "Mony Mony 4:00" "Mony Mony" 5:01 UK 12" vinyl"Mony Mony" "Shakin' All Over" "Mony Mony"♰Mixed by – Tom Lord-Alge Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The Burning Giraffe

The Burning Giraffe is a painting by the Spanish surrealist Salvador Dalí. It is in the Kunstmuseum Basel. Dalí painted Burning Giraffe before his exile in the United States, from 1940 to 1948. Although Dalí declared himself apolitical—"I am Dalí, only that"—this painting shows his personal struggle with the battle in his home country. Characteristic are the opened drawers in the blue female figure, which Dalí on a date described as "Femme-coccyx"; this phenomenon can be traced back to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical method, much admired by Dalí. He regarded him as an enormous step forward for civilization, as shown in the following quote: "The only difference between immortal Greece and our era is Sigmund Freud who discovered that the human body, which in Greek times was neoplatonical, is now filled with secret drawers only to be opened through psychoanalysis"; the opened drawers in this expressive, propped up female figure thus refer to the inner, subconscious within man. In Dalí's own words his paintings form "a kind of allegory which serves to illustrate a certain insight, to follow the numerous narcissistic smells which ascend from each of our drawers."The image is set in a twilight atmosphere with deep blue sky.

There are two female figures in one with drawers opening from her side like a chest. They both have undefined phallic shapes protruding from their backs which are supported by crutch-like objects; the hands and face of the nearest figure are stripped down to the muscular tissue beneath the skin. One figure is holding a strip of meat. Both humanures that double as a chest of drawers as well as the crutch-like shapes are common archetypes in Dalí's work. In the distance is a giraffe with its back on fire. Dalí first used the burning giraffe image in his 1930 film L'Âge d'Or, it appears again in 1937 in the painting The Invention of Monsters. Dalí described this image as "the masculine cosmic apocalyptic monster", he believed it to be a premonition of war