Aceh is a province of Indonesia, located at the northern end of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Banda Aceh, it is close to the Nicobar Islands of India and separated from them by the Andaman Sea. Granted a special autonomous status, Aceh is a religiously conservative territory and the only Indonesian province practicing Sharia law officially. There are ten indigenous ethnic groups in this region, the largest being the Acehnese people, accounting for 80% to 90% of the region's population. Aceh is the place where the spread of Islam in Indonesia began, was a key factor of the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia. Islam reached Aceh around 1250 AD. In the early seventeenth century the Sultanate of Aceh was the most wealthy and cultivated state in the Malacca Straits region. Aceh has a history of political independence and resistance to control by outsiders, including the former Dutch colonists and the Indonesian government. Aceh has substantial natural resources of oil and natural gas with some estimates that Aceh gas reserves are one of the largest in the world.
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, which devastated much of the western coast of the province. 170,000 Indonesians were killed or went missing in the disaster. The disaster helped precipitate the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement. Aceh was first known as Aceh Darussalam and later as the Daerah Istimewa Aceh, Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam and Aceh. Past spellings of Aceh include Acheh and Achin. According to several archaeological findings, the first evidence of human habitation in Aceh is from a site near the Tamiang River where shell middens are present. Stone tools and faunal remains were found on the site. Archeologists believe the site was first occupied around 10,000 BC. Not much has been uncovered about the pre-Islamic history of Aceh, however there are several artifacts that linked pre-Islamic era with Buddhism and Dharmic culture came from Srivijaya or Indochina region, as well as pre-Islamic Old Malay custom.
For example, the discovery of severed head of stone sculpture of Avalokiteshvara Boddhisattva, discovered in Aceh. The images of Amitabha Buddhas are adorned his crown. Srivijayan art estimated 9th century CE. Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta. Historic names such as Indrapurba, Indrapurwa and Indrapuri, which refer to Hindu god Indra, gave some hint of Indian influence on this region. However, unlike Jambi and South Sumatra, there are no significant archaeological sites and findings such as temples, that link this region with Hindu-Buddhist culture. Evidence concerning the initial coming and subsequent establishment of Islam in Southeast Asia is thin and inconclusive; the historian Anthony Reid has argued that the region of the Cham people on the south-central coast of Vietnam was one of the earliest Islamic centers in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, as the Cham people fled the Vietnamese, one of the earliest locations that they established a relationship with was Aceh. Furthermore, it is thought.
When Venetian traveller Marco Polo passed by Sumatra on his way home from China in 1292 he found that Peureulak was a Muslim town while nearby'Basma' and'Samara' were not.'Basma' and'Samara' are said to be Pasai and Samudra but evidence is inconclusive. The gravestone of Sultan Malik as-Salih, the first Muslim ruler of Samudra, has been found and is dated AH 696; this is the earliest clear evidence of a Muslim dynasty in the Indonesia-Malay area and more gravestones from the thirteenth century show that this region continued under Muslim rule. Ibn Batutah, a Moroccan traveller, passing through on his way to China in 1345 and 1346, found that the ruler of Samudra was a follower of the Shafi'i school of Islam; the Portuguese apothecary Tome Pires reported in his early 16th-century book Suma Oriental that most of the kings of Sumatra from Aceh through Palembang were Muslim. At Pasai, in what is now the North Aceh Regency, there was a thriving international port. Pires attributed the establishment of Islam in Pasai to the'cunning' of the Muslim merchants.
The ruler of Pasai, had not been able to convert the people of the interior. The Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah in 1511. In 1584–88 the Bishop of Malacca, D. João Ribeiro Gaio, based on information provided by a former captive called Diogo Gil, wrote the "Roteiro das Cousas do Achem" – a description of the Sultanate. During its golden era, in the 17th century, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern Thailand, Johor in Malay Peninsula, Siak in what is today the province of Riau; as was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca, it was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production. After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing the Malacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased the Acehnese rulers' wealth.
During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in the 17th century, Aceh's influence extended to most of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned graduall
Langkawi known as Langkawi, the Jewel of Kedah, is a district and an archipelago of 99 islands in the Andaman Sea some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. The islands are a part of the state of Kedah, adjacent to the Thai border. On 15 July 2008, Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah consented to the change of name to Langkawi Permata Kedah in conjunction with his golden jubilee celebration. By far the largest of the islands is the eponymous Langkawi Island, with a population of some 64,792. Langkawi is an administrative district, with the town of Kuah as its largest town. Langkawi is a duty-free island; the name Langkawi is thought to have existed by the early 15th century, although in the 16th century the island of Langkawi was marked on maps variously as Langa, Langka and Langapura. There are many suggestions for the origin of the name of Langkawi. According to one interpretation, Langkawi means island of the reddish-brown eagle, a Brahminy kite in colloquial Malay; the Malay word for eagle is helang, kawi is a red stone used as a chalk to mark goods.
This interpretation was used to create the landmark sculpture of an eagle as the symbol of Langkawi at Dataran Helang in Kuah. Some believed that Langkawi is the same as or related to the Lanka or Langkapuri mentioned in Indian sources; this ancient name Lanka is found in Indian literature from an early period, although the identification of the original Lanka is not certain. Puri or puram in Sanskrit means a city; the name Langkawi is thought to be related to Langkasuka, an old kingdom thought by some to have links with Kedah. Some thought that Langkawi means "many beautiful islands", langka being a Sanskrit word meaning "beautiful" while wi means "many". In 2008, the then-sultan of Kedah, Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah, conferred the title of Langkawi Permata Kedah upon the island as part of his golden jubilee as an affirmation of Kedah's ownership over the island. Langkawi had long been at the periphery of, but associated with, the domain of the Kedah Sultanate. Legend tells of a great snake ular besar, the custodian of the Langkawi Islands, to which a new king of Kedah must sacrifice a virgin daughter whenever he first ascended the throne, or when a war was declared with another state.
The island of Langkawi was recorded in history by various travelers to the region. It was called Lóngyápútí in the 14th century by the Yuan dynasty traveler Wang Dayuan, when the Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He visited the region, the island was marked as 龍牙交椅, Lóngyájiāoyǐ, in his map. In the 15th century, it was known to the Acehnese as Pulau Lada "Pepper Island" as they came over to plant pepper. In 1691, the French general Augustin de Beaulieu recorded going to the island of "Lancahui" to buy pepper, de Beaulieu was required to obtain a license from Kedah's heir apparent in Perlis before the penghulu or chief of Langkawi would sell pepper to him. Langkawi was home to seafarers, such as the orang laut or sea people from the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, as well as pirates and fishermen, it had been thought to be cursed for a couple of centuries - according to local legend, in the late 18th century, a woman named Mahsuri was wrongfully accused of adultery and put to death, she placed a curse on the island that would last for seven generations.
Not long after Mahsuri's death, in 1821, the Siamese army invaded Kedah, attacked Langkawi. In the first attack, the locals decided to burn down the granary at Padang Matsirat to starve and drive out the Siamese army; the Siamese finally captured the island in May 1822, killed its leaders, many of the islanders were taken as slaves, while others were forced to flee. Before the Siamese invasion, there was an estimated island population of 3–5000, only a small proportion was left after the invasion; the island was recaptured from Siamese rule in a campaign against the Siamese in 1837. In 1840–1841, the Sultan of Kedah, who went into exile after the Siamese attacks, was allowed to return by the Siamese, the population of Langkawi islands recovered afterwards due to settlement of immigrants from Sumatra. However, the Orang Laut who fled after the Siamese attacks did not returned. In 1909, the islands came under British rule under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909; the middle of the channel between Tarutao National Park and Langkawi would become the Siamese border, Tarutao would be part of Siam while all the Langkawi islands to the south would come under British rule.
During the World War II, Siam took control as British Malaya fell to the Japanese. Langkawi had been a haven for pirates. In a series of operations, between December 1945 and March 1946, the British cleared the pirates' land base in Langkawi and Tarutao; the British continued to rule until Malaya gained its independence in 1957. Langkawi remained as a quiet backwater until 1986, when the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad decided to transform it into a major tourist resort, helping to plan many of the islands buildings himself; the curse placed by Mahsuri for seven generations was said to have lifted as the 7th generation descendant of Mahsuri who now lives in Phuket Province was born. The island grew as a tourist destination, by 2012, it had received over 3 million tourists a year. Langkawi, a cluster of 99 islands separated from mainland Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca, is a district o
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Banjarese, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two official scripts in Brunei and is used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay-dominated areas in Indonesia, it used to be the standard script for the Malay language but has since been replaced by a Latin alphabet, called Rumi. Jawi has since been relegated to a script used for religious and some administrative purposes. Jawi can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, its day-to-day usage is maintained in the more-conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. According to Kamus Dewan, "Jawi" is a term synonymous to'Malay'; the term has been used interchangeably with'Malay' in other terms including Bahasa Jawi or Bahasa Yawi, Masuk Jawi, Jawi pekan or Jawi Peranakan. With verb-building circumfixes men-...-kan, menjawikan refers to the act of translating a foreign text into Malay language. The word Tulisan Jawi that means "Jawi script" is another derivative that carries the meaning'Malay script'.
Prior to the onset of Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still established in the region, the Pallava script was used in writing the Malay language. This is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription; the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century. Among the oldest archaeological artefacts inscribed with Arabic script are. Islam was spread from the coasts to the interior of the island and in a top-down process in which rulers were converted and introduced more or less orthodox versions of Islam to their peoples; the conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136 and King Merah Silu of Samudra Pasai in 1267 were among the earliest examples. At the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat.
It is not too far-fetched to say that the Arabic script was accepted by the Malay community together with their acceptance of Islam and they didn't take Long to modify the script and adapt it to suit the spoken Classical Malay – it is written from right to left and has 6 sounds not found in Arabic: ca pa ga nga va and nya. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language, some letters are never joined and some joined obligatorily so; this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The oldest remains of Malay using the Jawi script have been found on the Terengganu Inscription Stone, dated 702 AH, nearly 600 years after the date of the first recorded existence of Arabic script in the region; the inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the "Sri Paduka Tuan" of Terengganu, urging his subjects to "extend and uphold" Islam and providing 10 basic Sharia laws for their guidance.
This has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing, restricted to the nobility and monks in monasteries; the Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class. With the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script. Additionally local religious scholars began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings. Moreover, there were individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of written literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form; this was believed to have lasted right up to the 19th century. Other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi.
Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several letters other than Jawi letters to suit the languages. Due to their limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script; the script became prominent with the spread of Islam. The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the Quran; the use of Jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua f
Songkhla is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Satun, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Yala. To the south it borders Perlis of Malaysia. In contrast to most other provinces, the capital Songkhla is not the largest city in the province; the much newer city of Hat Yai, with a population of 359,813, is larger, with twice the population of Songkhla. This leads to the misconception that Hat Yai is the provincial capital; the province is on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand. The highest elevation is Khao Mai Kaeo at 821 meters. In the north of the province is Songkhla Lake, the largest natural lake in Thailand; this shallow lake covers an area of 1,040 km², has a south-north extent of 78 kilometers. At its mouth on the Gulf of Thailand, near the city of Songkhla, the water becomes brackish. A small population of Irrawaddy Dolphins live in the lake, but are in danger of extinction due to accidental capture by the nets of the local fishing industry. Songkhla Province hosts two national parks.
San Kala Khiri covers 214 km² of mountain highlands on the Thai-Malay border. Khao Nam Khang, is in the boundary mountains. Chinese Communist guerrillas inhabited this region until the 1980s. Within the boundaries of the city of Songkhla is Cape Samila Beach, the most popular beach in the province; the famous mermaid statue can be found here. The two islands Ko Nu and Ko Maew, not far from the beach, are popular landmarks, a preferred fishing ground. According to a local folk tale, a cat and dog were traveling on a Chinese ship, when they attempted to steal a crystal from a merchant. While trying to swim ashore, both the cat and the mouse became the two islands; the crystal turned into the white sandy beach. The name Songkhla is the Thai corruption of Singgora; this refers to a lion-shaped mountain near the city of Songkhla. Songkhla was the seat of an old Malay Kingdom with heavy Srivijayan influence. In ancient times, Songkhla formed the northern extremity of the Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka; the city-state succeeded as the Sultanate of Singgora, it became a tributary of Nakhon Si Thammarat, suffering damage during several attempts to gain independence.
Archaeological excavations on the isthmus between Lake Songkhla and the sea reveal that in the 10th through the 14th century this was a major urbanized area, a center of international maritime trade, in particular with Quanzhou in China. The long Sanskrit name of the state that existed there has been lost; the short vernacular name was Satingpra, coming from the Mon-Khmer sting/steng/stang and the Sanskrit pura. The ruins of the important port city of Satingpra are just few kilometres north of Songkhla city. Since the 18th century, Songkla has been under Thai suzerainty. In 1909, Songkhla was formally annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, negotiated with the British Empire, in which Siam gave up its claim to Kelantan in return for Britain recognizing Siam's right to the provinces north of that. In the 18th century many Chinese immigrants from Guangdong and Fujian, came to the province. Rising to economic wealth, one of them won the bidding for the major tax farm of the province in 1769, establishing the Na Songkhla family as the most wealthy and influential.
In 1777 the family gained political power, when the old governor was dismissed and Luang Inthakhiri became the new governor. In 1786 the old governor started an uprising, put down after four months; the position was thereafter inherited in the family and was held by eight of his descendants until 1901, when Phraya Wichiankhiri was honorably retired as part of the administrative reforms of Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. The family's former home was converted into the Songkhla National Museum in 1953. Songkhla was the scene of heavy fighting when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941 and parts of the city were destroyed. Buddhists make up about three-quarters of the population, most of whom are of native Thai or Thai Chinese descent. About a quarter of the population are Muslim, most of them belong to a Thai-speaking Muslim group, called Sam-Sam. People claiming to be of Malay ethnicity make up a minority among the Muslim populace; the Songkhla Malays are similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.
They speak the Patani Malay language, which differs from Bahasa Malay in vocabulary and pronunciation. Phetkasem Road, running all the way from Bangkok, ends at the border crossing to Malaysia in Sadao. Asian highway 2 and 18 run through the province. Of note is the Tinsulanond Bridge, which crosses Songkhla Lake to connect the narrow land east of the lake at the coast with the main southern part of the province. With a length of 2.6 km it is the longest concrete bridge in Thailand. Built in 1986, the bridge consists of two parts; the southern 1,140 m connects Mueang district with the island Ko Yo, the northern part of 1,800 m to Ban Khao Khiao. Kanchanawanit Road, which runs from Songkhla town, though Hat Yai, all the way to the Malaysian border at Sadao District, is considered the unofficial dividing line separating the Thai south from its deep south, Muslim-majority region; the southern railway operated by the State Railway of Thail
Vehicle registration plates of Malaysia
Malaysian registration plates are displayed at the front and rear of all private and commercial motorised vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. The issuing of the number plates is regulated and administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department or JPJ. Latest number plate being issued can be checked; the following are examples of the formats used. Number plates are issued and are formatted for any motorised vehicle that runs on rubber tyres, including most road-legal private and industrial vehicles, emergency vehicles, selected heavy equipment. With the exception of those issued for taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all vehicle number plates in Malaysia have white characters on black background for both front and rear plates, regardless of the vehicle type. Standards for number plate designs have been defined by the Road Transport Department but are only practiced to an extent. Character size and colour use are more enforced for accurate identification and optimum visibility. However, the dimensions of the plates displaying the license number are more loosely enforced.
While many vehicles display plates in regulation dimensions or are housed in dealer plate frames with standardised dimensions, some license plates are outlined to fit into vastly larger recessed spaces holding the rear license plates, or appear with reduced or custom dimensions where no proper alcoves exist, as practiced on the front fenders and fairings of most motorcycles and the front of sports cars. A compact version of Arial Bold is the typeface preferred by the Road Transport Department and is thus the most used, but other easy-to-read typefaces are acceptable. Common alternative choices include Charles Wright, used on Singaporean, Hong Kongese, British plates, FE-Schrift, used on German plates and is thus popular among Malaysian owners of cars with European marques German brands and models. More obscure custom typefaces have been known to be used on grey import vehicles and aftermarket licence plates. Early Malaysian number plates were made of pressed metal, but were superseded by plastic plates since the 1970s, with characters either printed on or molded in plastic pieces.
Reason for usage of plastics plates are cost metal theft are rampant in Malaysia. However, the biggest disadvantage of using plastic plates are fragile, easy to reproduce which giving advantages to criminals such as car cloning syndicates, missing letters due to adhesive no longer able to stick on the background plate which causing the vehicle unable to identified by law enforcers. Standardised number plates are being discussed by JPJ from 2016 to include RFID chip and made from pressed metal. With the exception of Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi plates, taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all Peninsular Malaysian number plates for private and commercial type motor vehicles with the exceptions of those used by taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats follow a Sxx #### algorithm. S - The state or territory prefix. X - The alphabetical sequences. # - The number sequence. The exceptions in the algorithm are as follows: There can be no leading zeroes in the number sequence; the letters I and O are omitted from the alphabetical sequences due to their similarities with the numbers 1 and 0.
The letters Z is reserved for use on Malaysian military vehicles. The algorithm started with a state prefix and a number sequence which ranged from 1 to 9999. For example, P 1 would be the first registration plate of Penang. Once P 9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the state prefix; when PA 9999 was reached, the number sequence was reset and the alphabetical sequence progressed. After PY 9999 was achieved, a second alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the first alphabetical sequence; when PAY 9999 was reached, the second alphabetical sequence was reset and the first alphabetical sequence progressed. As the most registered number plate series in the country, the W series' traditional 7-character format became the first in Peninsular Malaysia to be exhausted when WYY 9999 was reached on 26 September 2013. To allow further W plates, the algorithm was altered to feature an alphabetical suffix behind the number sequence, resetting at W 1 A; when W 9999 Y was achieved, the second alphabetical sequence emerged between the state prefix and number sequence, leading to WA 1 A.
When WA 9999 Y is met, the first alphabetical sequence will reset and the second alphabetical sequence will advance, giving WB 1 A. When WY 9999 Y is reached, a third new alphabetical sequence will be spliced into the algorithm, between the second alphabetical sequence and number sequence, resulting in WAA 1 A; the series will end. The new format would theoretically allow a vastly larger number of registered plates, better addressing the risk of exhaustion of numbers, but is subject of conflicts with a certain series of Singaporean number plates On 18 May 2016, less than three years into the implementation of the extended W series, the Transport Ministry, on the request of