In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall, including the unitary authority areas of Plymouth and the Isles of Scilly. The geographical area covered is the largest for any police force in England, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom; the total resident population of the force area is 1.5 million, with around 11 million visitors annually. The force was formed on 1 April 1967 by the amalgamation of the Devon and Exeter Police, Cornwall County Constabulary and Plymouth City Police, these three constabularies were an amalgamation of 23 city and borough police forces that were absorbed between 1856 and 1947. Bodmin Borough Police 1836 to 1865: Three constables were appointed on 1 January 1836 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, they acted as firemen. In 1865 a public inquiry was held on the matter of amalgamating Bodmin Borough Police with the Cornwall Constabulary. Although the proposal was unpopular, amalgamation took place on 21 October 1865.
Falmouth Borough Police 1836 to 1889: Six officers were appointed in 1836 comprising two serjeants-at-mace and three constables. In 1857, the force was led by an officer with the rank of superintendent with two constables in his charge. On 1 April 1889, the Falmouth Borough Police was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by virtue of section 35 of the Local Government Act 1888; the Act made it mandatory for all police forces covering a populace of less than 10,000 to merge with the county police. Helston Borough Police 1851 to 1889: Although Helston was mandated to create an organised police force, it continued to appoint parish officers until the 1850s when the increase in population and crime rate demanded the appointment of a full-time head constable and a handful of part-time constables. A popular pastime among drunken miners in Helston was the attempted strangulation of Head Constable Bishop, who found himself being throttled on many occasions while attempting to make arrests; the force was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary in 1889.
Launceston Borough Police 1846 to 1883: Edward Barrett, for many years the only constable in Launceston, garnered a menacing reputation thanks to the gratuitous use of his ‘black book’ and for the ravenous dog that accompanied him on his patrols. In 1883, the loss of a government grant to the Launceston authorities forced them to reconsider Barratt's position, from that year the Borough of Launceston was policed by the Cornwall Constabulary. Liskeard Borough Police 1853 to 1877: A police force for the cash-strapped Borough of Liskeard did not materialise until 1853 when they resolved to appoint Inspector Humphreys and Constable Spry as the first and only members of the Liskeard Borough Police. In 1877, after repeated condemnation of the force by the HMI, it was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary. Penryn Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The Penryn Borough Police numbered more than two full-time constables, supported by special constables at times of disorder. Along with the Falmouth, Helston and St Ives constabularies, Penryn's lawmen amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by Act of Parliament in 1889.
Penzance Borough Police 1836 to 1947: Formed on 1 January 1836 and consisting of three constables paid from the borough rate. The first chief constable carried the title of ‘Le Yeoman,’ an archaic term taken from Penzance's second charter of 1614. In 1852 the Great Western Railway arrived in Penzance, increasing tourism and the general population considerably; the increase in population brought with it an increase in crime and the Penzance force grew accordingly. During the First World War many constables resigned to join the colours and hundreds of ordinary citizens enrolled as special constables. During the Second World War a large war reserve constabulary was built and formed part of Penzance's civil defence response to air raids, it was a efficient and organised force, ordered to merge with the Cornwall Constabulary on 1 April 1947. St. Ives Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The St Ives authorities could only afford to appoint one constable and this remained the case for the force's 53-year history.
A few years before the St Ives Borough Police amalgamated with the county police, the elderly head constable Mr Bennett had become frail and eccentric. Said to have spent much of his time sat on a stool watching the ships sail into St Ives Bay, Bennett's final and most inauspicious act was the transfer of a prisoner by train to Bodmin. During a stop, the head constable decided to get off and stretch his legs, an activity he became so preoccupied with that the train, his prisoner, left without him. Truro Borough Police 1836 to 1921: An ad hoc force for Truro existed between 1836 and 1838 when it was resolved to appoint a superintendent and constables proper. "I’ll have you under the clock!" was on oft uttered warning to miscreants by the borough constables – a reference to the police cells situated under the town hall clock on Boscawen Street. In 1877 Truro was granted city status and the police force was renamed accordingly to Truro City Police; the long and varied history of the Truro City Police concluded on 28 February 1921 when the constables were forcibly merged with the Cornwall Constabulary.
Cornwall County Constabulary 1856 to 1967: Esteemed members of the Cornish judiciary met at Bodmin in November 1856 to discuss the formation of the Cornwall Constabulary and decided on a force numbering 178 constables under Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert. The building of the force, conducted by Gilbert, two superintendents and a sergeant major, was a troubled process. Gilbert set impossibly high standards for recruits and many did not meet the requirements. By the summer of 1857, the force was only at half-strength, drawing criticism from the Bo
The silver-studded blue is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. This eye-catching butterfly has bright blue wings rimmed in black with white edges and silver spots on its hindwings, lending it the name of the silver-studded blue. P. argus can be found across Europe and Asia, but is most studied in the United Kingdom in which the species has experienced a severe decline in population due to habitat loss and fragmentation. P. argus engages in mutualism with ants that contribute to the butterflies’ reproductive fitness by providing protection from predation and parasitism from the point of egg laying to their emergence as adults. P. argus adults emerge in the end of June and beginning of July and engage in flight into the beginning of August. The butterfly is adaptable to different habitats and is found in heathland and limestone grassland. Tending towards a sedentary lifestyle and flying less than twenty meters a day, P. argus maintains a small radius home range. Their habitats lend themselves well to both foraging and egg laying as the host plants are ubiquitous in all three environments they occupy.
Male P. argus have royal blue wings with a black border, wispy fringe, metallic silver spots on the hindwings as well as spurs on their front legs. Females of this species are brown and more subdued in color, but have the metallic spots on the hindwings; the undersides of the male and female butterflies are similar. They are taupe in color, with rings of black spots along the edge of the wing; the caterpillar of P. argus is green with a dark stripe along the length of its body and can reach 1.3 centimeters in length. P. argus exhibit sexual dimorphism. This acts as an important visual cue when searching for suitable mates. Experiments have shown that species that have overlapping habitat distribution and are of similar color have distinct absorbance values within the UV range; this shows that the UV range colors are important for butterflies when recognizing members of its own species. P. argus is found across Asia. In the United Kingdom, the butterfly experienced a severe decline in population during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
P. argus is considered to be endangered and extinct in the Northern United Kingdom and are found in the Southern and Western portions of the United Kingdom. P. argus resides in heathland and limestone grassland. Heathlands are able to meet the needs of P. argus due to burning and other disruptions of mature heaths. With these disruptions, the habitat becomes conducive to habitation by P. argus because of the high cover of E. cinerea and short C. vulgaris, able to form a landscape with the patches of bare ground. This is characteristic of heathland in an early stage of development; this environment is suitable until the point at which the shrubs native to the environment mature and obscure the bare ground and vegetation margins that the butterflies use for oviposition. Mossland, similar in nature to a wet heathland, has soil composed of peat which supports one of the families of host plants of P. argus, Ericaceae. This host plant grows alongside other grasses and rushes. While the main disturbance to heathland is quarrying, mossland faces peat digging which contributes to the transient and shifting nature of this particular habitat.
The hostplants of the first two environments and Leguminosae, are less present in the third environment, limestone grassland. In this environment, the host plants of P. argus are herbaceous Cistaceae as well as Leguminosae. In limestone grassland, the bare ground and vegetation margins instrumental to the life cycle of P. argus are created through grazing by other animals as well as by disruption of the habitat by natural disturbance of the stoney topography of this environment. P. argus use shrubs for roosting, basking, mate location, shelter and for this reason, they tend to be found in higher numbers close to locations that are dense in shrubs. Most of the population gathers around these shrubs during weather, colder and windy; when the weather is warm and the breeze is still, P. argus spends less time in shrub dense habitats and more time in flight and finding host plants in areas rich in calcareous heath. These areas tend to be in exposed hillsides. For this reason, it appears that the habitat of P. argus shifts with weather conditions.
In addition to choice of habitat due to host plants and topography, P. argus density correlates with the densities of nest of the butterflies’ mutualist ants, Lasius niger and Lasius alienus. Adult P. argus tend to be sedentary, only moving around twenty meters every day. For this reason, the butterflies colonize on discrete territory and patches of land; some butterflies, though and move over a kilometer between colonies. This is rare, however. Different types of P. argus larvae choose different host plants. The limestone larvae, preferentially select Helianthemum species over heathers as a host plant, while heathland larvae select heathers over Helianthemum. Adult P. argus eat a combination of leguminous and ericaceous plants, depending on which environment they are in. On heathland, the butterflies tend to feast on Heather and Bell Heather, while on calcareous sites, they eat Lotus corniculatus, Helianthemum nummularium, Hippocrepis comosa. P. argus lays its eggs differently based on its environment.
In heathland, they lay their eggs at the base of Erica tetralix, Cailuna vulgaris, Erica cinerea, Ulex europaeus. In mosslands, the butterflies tend to lay their eggs on
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
An adit is an entrance to an underground mine, horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level. Adits are used to explore for mineral veins. Adits are driven into the side of a hill or mountain, are used when an ore body is located inside the mountain but above the adjacent valley floor or coastal plain. In cases where the mineral vein outcrops at the surface, the adit may follow the lode or vein until it is worked out, in which case the adit is straight; the use of adits for the extraction of ore is called drift mining. Adits can only be driven into a mine. There will be no opportunity to drive an adit to a mine situated on a large flat plain, for instance. If the ground is weak, the cost of shoring up a long adit may outweigh its possible advantages. Access to a mine by adit has many advantages over the vertical access shafts used in shaft mining. Less energy is required to transport heavy equipment into and out of the mine.
It is much easier to bring ore or coal out of the mine. Horizontal travel by means of narrow gauge tramway or cable car is much safer and can move more people and ore than vertical elevators. In the past horses and pit ponies were used. In combination with shafts, adits form an important element in the ventilation of a mine: in simple terms, cool air will enter through an adit, be warmed by the higher temperature underground and will exhaust from vertical shafts, some of which are sunk for this purpose. Most adits are designed to slope upwards from the entrance so that water will flow out of the mine. Mines that have adits can be at least drained of water by gravity alone or power-assisted gravity; the depth to which a mine can be drained by gravity alone is defined by the deepest open adit, known as the "drainage adit". The term mine drainage tunnel is common, at least in the United States. Workings above this level will remain unflooded as long. All mine workings below both the drainage adit and the water table will flood unless mechanical means are used for drainage.
Until the invention of the steam engine this was the main restriction on deep mining. Adits are useful for deeper mines, as water only needs to be raised to the drainage adit rather than to the surface; because of the great reduction in ongoing costs that a drainage adit can provide, they have sometimes been driven for great distances for this purpose. One example is the Milwr tunnel in North Wales, about ten miles long. Other examples are the Great County Adit in Cornwall, a 40-mile -long network of adits that used to drain the whole Gwennap mining area, the 3.9 mile Sutro Tunnel at the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nevada. A side benefit of driving such extensive adits is that unknown ore-bodies can be discovered, helping finance the enormous cost. Adits were used in Cornwall before 1500, were important to the tin and copper mines in Cornwall and Devon because the ore-bearing veins are nearly vertical, thus acting as ingress channels for water. Great County Adit, a system of over 40 miles of adits used for dewatering the over 100 mines in the Gwennap area of Cornwall in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Milwr tunnel, a 10-mile long drainage adit in North Wales. Started in 1897, it still discharges an average of 87 million litres of water per day from the disused Halkyn District United Mines; the Snowy Hydro scheme in the Australian Snowy Mountains created during its construction. These adits are large and used to access the central point from which the hydro tunnels were constructed. Black Trout Adit in Tarnowskie Góry, Poland, it is part of a former silver mine, the adit was used for removing the water out of the mine. It still carries water from old galleries to the nearest river, a part of it is open for tourists, who go 66 feet down the steps in one shaft, have a ride in a boat and go up the stairs in another shaft. Blue Hawk Mine near Kelowna, BC, Canada. NORCAT's Underground Mine Centre, used for underground training and mining technology development in Onaping, ON, Canada. Sutro Tunnel for drainage and exploitation of the Comstock Lode in Nevada. A "drift" is a more general term for any near-horizontal underground passage in a mine.
Unlike an adit, a drift need not break out to the surface. Drift mining is the use of drifts to extract ore - in this case the drifts follow the vein. A "level" is a horizontal passage that branches off from a shaft and is used for access to the parts of the mine where the ore is being removed. In mines where the lodes have significant vertical extent there can be many numbered levels, one below the other, they can be connected by short vertical shafts known as "winzes". A level that reaches the surface, on a hillside or in a valley, for instance, is called an "adit level". "Sough" is a term used in the lead mining areas of Derbyshire. The main purpose of a sough is to drain water from the mine. Glossary of coal mining terminology Earl, Bryan. Cornish Mining: The Techniques of Metal Mining in the West of England and Present. St Austell: Cornish Hillside Publications. ISBN 0-9519419-3-3
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Newquay is a town in the south west of England, in the United Kingdom. It is a civil parish, seaside resort, regional centre for aerospace industries, future spaceport and a fishing port on the North Atlantic coast of Cornwall 12 miles north of Truro and 20 miles west of Bodmin; the town is bounded to the south by the River Gannel and its associated salt marsh, to the north-east by the Porth Valley. The western edge of the town meets the Atlantic at Fistral Bay; the town has been expanding inland since the former fishing village of New Quay began to grow in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing to 20,342 at the 2011 census. Recent estimates suggest that the total for the wider Newquay area would rise to 27,862 by 2018 and 30,341 in 2019. There are some pre-historic burial mounds and an embankment on the area now known as The Barrowfields, 400 m from Trevelgue. There were once up to fifteen barrows. Excavations here have revealed charred cooking pots and a coarse pottery burial urn containing remains of a Bronze Age chieftain, buried here up to 3,500 years ago.
In 1987, evidence of a Bronze Age village was found at Trethellan Farm, a site that overlooks the River Gannel. The first signs of settlement in the Newquay region consist of a late Iron Age hill fort/industrial centre which exploited the nearby abundant resources and the superior natural defences provided by Trevelgue Head, it is claimed that occupation of the site was continuous from the 3rd century BC to the 5th or 6th century AD. The curve of the headland around what is now Newquay Harbour provided natural protection from bad weather and a small fishing village grew up in the area; when the village was first occupied is unknown but it is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, although a parcel of land was recorded at Treninnick, now part of suburban Newquay. Treninnick was part of the manor of Coswarth and consisted of one virgate with five sheep. Crantock is the only other recognisable name in the Newquay area recorded in Domesday. By the 15th century, a village referred to as “Keye” existed around the present harbour, near “Tewynblustri”.
"Towan" means dune or sand hill in Cornish. Some sources have suggested in the past that it meant boats, but this claim is not supported by modern authorities and is dismissed by Padel in his dictionary of Cornish place names; the name Towan Blystra, although quoted as the Cornish equivalent of Newquay, was the name of a separate settlement some 200m away from the harbour. There is no record of ‘Newquay’ as a name being rendered in Cornish; the anchorage was exposed to winds from the north east and in 1439 the local burgesses applied to Edmund Lacey, Bishop of Exeter for leave and funds raised through the mechanism of an indulgence, to build a "New quay" from which the town derives its name. The new quay itself did not appear until the early 17th century; the first national British census of 1801 recorded around 1,300 inhabitants in the settlement. The construction of the current harbour started in 1832.. A mansion called the Tower was built for the Molesworth family in 1835: it included a castellated tower and a private chapel as they were practising Roman Catholics and no church for that denomination existed in the area.
The Tower became the golf club house. After the arrival of passenger trains in 1876, the village around the port of Newquay started to grow more quickly. Several major hotels were built around the turn of the 19th century, including the Victoria in East Street, the Atlantic and the Headland, while many others were created around this period by converting former large houses, built by wealthy visitors as holiday homes along Narrowcliff; until the end of the 19th century, the port was famous for pilchards and there is a "Huer's Hut" above the harbour from which a huer would cry "Hevva!" to call out the fishing fleet when pilchard shoals were spotted. The town's present insignia includes four pilchards, while its motto Ro An Mor is Cornish for'from the sea'; the real pilchards now only survive in limited stocks, but a small fleet still catches the local edible crabs and lobsters. The arms of the former urban district council of Newquay were Or on a saltire Azure four herrings respectant Argent.
Three churches were built early in the twentieth century, including the present day parish church of St Michael the Archangel, consecrated in 1911. Growth of the town eastwards soon reached the area around the railway station: Station Road became Cliff Road around 1930, the houses beyond, along Narrowcliff, were converted into hotels. Narrowcliff was known for a while as Narrowcliff Promenade, Narrowcliff Road. On some pre-war maps it is spelt Narrowcliffe. At the time of the First World War the last buildings at the edge of the town were a little further along present-day Narrowcliff, including the Hotel Edgcumbe. Post-war development saw new houses and streets built in the Chester Road area, accompanied by ribbon development along the country lane which led to St Columb Minor, some 2 miles away; this thoroughfare was modernised and named Henver Road some time in the 1930s. Development continued in this direction until the Second World War, by which time much of Henver Road had houses on both sides, with considerable infilling taki