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Persephone

In Greek mythology, Persephone called Kore, is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. She becomes the queen of the underworld through her abduction by the god of the underworld; the myth of her abduction represents her function as the personification of vegetation, which shoots forth in spring and withdraws into the earth after harvest. Similar myths appear in the Orient, in the cults of male gods like Attis and Osiris, in Minoan Crete. Persephone as a vegetation goddess and her mother Demeter were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, which promised the initiated a more enjoyable prospect after death. In some versions, Persephone is the mother of Zeus' son Dionysus; the origins of her cult are uncertain, but it was based on old agrarian cults of agricultural communities. Persephone was worshipped along with Demeter and with the same mysteries. To her alone were dedicated the mysteries celebrated at Athens in the month of Anthesterion. In Classical Greek art, Persephone is invariably portrayed robed carrying a sheaf of grain.

She may appear as a mystical divinity with a sceptre and a little box, but she was represented in the process of being carried off by Hades. Her name has numerous historical variants; these include Persephatta. In Latin her name is rendered Proserpina, she was identified by the Romans as the Italic goddess Libera. In a Linear B Mycenaean Greek inscription on a tablet found at Pylos dated 1400–1200 BC, John Chadwick reconstructed the name of a goddess, *Preswa who could be identified with Persa, daughter of Oceanus and found speculative the further identification with the first element of Persephone. Persephonē is her name in the Ionic Greek of epic literature; the Homeric form of her name is Persephoneia. In other dialects, she was known under variant names: Persephassa, Persephatta, or Korē. Plato calls her Pherepapha in his Cratylus, "because she is wise and touches that, in motion". There are the forms Periphona and Phersephassa; the existence of so many different forms shows how difficult it was for the Greeks to pronounce the word in their own language and suggests that the name may have a Pre-Greek origin.

Persephatta is considered to mean "female thresher of grain". A popular folk etymology is from φέρειν φόνον, pherein phonon, "to bring death"; the epithets of Persephone reveal her double function as vegetation goddess. The surnames given to her by the poets refer to her character as Queen of the lower world and the dead, or her symbolic meaning of the power that shoots forth and withdraws into the earth, her common name as a vegetation goddess is Kore, in Arcadia she was worshipped under the title Despoina, "the mistress", a old chthonic divinity. Plutarch writes that Persephone was identified with the spring season and Cicero calls her the seed of the fruits of the fields. In the Eleusinian Mysteries, her return from the underworld each spring is a symbol of immortality, hence she was represented on sarcophagi. In the religions of the Orphics and the Platonists, Kore is described as the all-pervading goddess of nature who both produces and destroys everything, she is therefore mentioned along with or identified as other such divinities including Isis, Rhea, Ge, Pandora and Hecate.

The Orphic Persephone is said to have become by Zeus the mother of Dionysus, Iacchus and the little-attested Melinoe. Persephone held an ancient role as the dread queen of the Underworld, within which tradition it was forbidden to speak her name; this tradition comes from her conflation with the old chthonic divinity Despoina, whose real name could not be revealed to anyone except those initiated into her mysteries. As goddess of death, she was called a daughter of Zeus and Demeter, the river that formed the boundary between Earth and the underworld. In Homer's epics, she appears always together with Hades and the Underworld sharing with Hades control over the dead. In the reformulation of Greek mythology expressed in the Orphic Hymns and Melinoe are separately called children of Zeus and Persephone. Groves sacred to her stood at the western extremity of the earth on the frontiers of the lower world, which itself was called "house of Persephone", her central myth served as the context for the secret rites of regeneration at Eleusis, which promised immortality to initiates.

In a Classical period text ascribed to Empedocles, c. 490–430 BC, describing a correspondence among four deities and the classical elements, the name Nestis for water refers to Persephone: "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."Of the four deities of Empedocles' elements, it is the name of Persephone alone, taboo—Nestis is a euphemistic cult title—for she was the terrible Queen of the Dead, whose name was not safe to speak aloud, euphemistically named as Kore or "the Maiden", a vestige of her archaic role as the deity ruling the underworld. Nestis means "the Fasting One" in ancient Greek; as a goddess of the underworld

Martin Ernst von Schlieffen

Martin Ernst von Schlieffen was a German general, politician and garden architect. Schlieffen was the son of the Prussian officer and landowner, Hans Michael von Schlieffen and his wife Anna Helena von Petersdorff, he was a member of the Schlieffen family. In 1745 he joined the Prussian army, he served in the garrison regiment in Berlin, until the regiment was divided into smaller garrisons in Eberswalde and Templin. In 1749 he was transferred to the Guards in Potsdam, with King Frederick II. Through reading, he educated himself as a writer. In 1755 he got a lung infection and was dismissed from the Prussian military, was not re-employed in 1757 after his recovery. In 1757 he joined the Hessian military, by 1763 had become a general, he had served time as adjutant-general to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1772 he was promoted to Lieutenant-General by Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel, made Minister of State of Hesse, he was made a knight of the Order of the Golden Lion. Schlieffen became the most important adviser of Landgraves Frederick II and William IX.

In 1776 he accompanied to London the troops, lent to England by the Hessian Landgrave for the war in North America. In 1789 he entered the service of Prussia again under Frederick William II, he was soon awarded the Order of the Black Eagle. In the following years, he undertook several diplomatic missions at abroad. In 1790 he commanded the troops marching into Lüttich. In 1792 he resigned from the army, he withdrew to his estate at Windhausen, but lived some of the time in Mecklenburg. For his retirement home at Windhausen, he built Schloss Windhausen, as well as the Germanic Gardens next to it, he devoted himself to scientific studies and was a prolific writer, for which he received membership in the Prussian and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. He was a friend of Friedrich Schiller; the author wrote a family history of the von Schlieffens, as well as an autobiography. In the Kingdom of Westphalia, he was made a Baron on 2 April 1813 and was three times awarded the Order of the Crown of Westphalia.

He died at the age of 92 years. Ernst Friedländer: "Schlieffen, Martin Ernst von". In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 31, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, p. 516 f. Eduard Brauns: Wander- und Reiseführer durch Nordhessen und Waldeck. A. Bernecker Verlag, Melsungen 1971 Walther Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus: Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie. K. G. Saur Verlag, Munich 1998, Vol. 8, p. 667 Jochen Lengemann: Biographisches Handbuch der Reichsstände des Königreichs Westphalen und der Ständeversammlung des Großherzogtums Frankfurt. Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-458-16185-6, p. 182 Anton Balthasar König: "Martin Ernst von Schlieffen". In: Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militairpersonen. Vol. III

Trust No One (DevilDriver album)

Trust No One is the seventh studio album from American groove metal band DevilDriver. The album was released on May 2016, via Napalm Records; this is the first Devildriver album since guitarist Jeff Kendrick and drummer John Boecklin departed and were replaced by Neal Tiemann and Austin D'Amond, respectively. During the writing process, DevilDriver recruited a new bassist in Diego Ibarra who performed and contributed to the bass parts of the album in addition to Tiemann and long-time guitarist Mike Spreitzer. All lyrics by all music by Mike Spreitzer, Neal Tiemann and Austin D'Amond. Dez Fafara: Vocals Austin D'Amond: Drums, Percussion Neal Tiemann: Guitars, Bass Mike Spreitzer: Guitars, Programming Diego Ibarra: Bass Mark Lewis: Producer