Jet Ski is the brand name of a personal water craft manufactured by Kawasaki, a Japanese company. The term is used generically to refer to any type of personal watercraft used for recreation, it is used as a verb to describe the use of any type of PWC. A runabout style PWC carries 1–3 people seated in a configuration like a typical bicycle or motorcycle. "Jet Ski" is registered trademark of Kawasaki. The stand-up Kawasaki Jet Ski was the first "commercially successful" personal watercraft in America, having been released in 1972; the Kawasaki Jet Ski was the only commercial successful PWC for 16 years, from the introduction of the WSAA in October 1972 through the re-introduction of the sit-down, runabout style Bombardier Sea-Doo in 1988. With the introduction of the Jet Ski, Kawasaki, in cooperation with aftermarket companies and enthusiasts, helped in creating the United States Jet Ski Boating Association. In 1982 the name was changed to the International Jet Sports Boating Association. At the start, only JS440 stand-ups were raced.
After Kawasaki introduced the runabout style X2 in 1986 it gained its own class to be renamed the "Sport Class". Kawasaki introduces the first production stand-up PWC in October 1972; the WSAA and follow-on WSAB were powered by modified 400cc 2-stroke twin cylinder engines. The WSAA was designed with a flat hull and the WSAB came with a concave design; the design concepts distinctive of these original craft were a enclosed impeller for safety and self-righting, self-circling features. Without a lanyard the self circling allowed the rider to swim back to the idling craft after falling off. Kawasaki called them "Water Jet" and "Power Skis" before they settled on the name "Jet Ski"; the 1976 JS400 was popular among thrill seeking recreational racers. The 1977 JS440 offered more performance, it was one of Kawasaki's longest selling models. In 1982, Kawasaki responded to market demand for more performance with the JS550; the 550 featured a newly designed high capacity mixed flow pump driven by more powerful 531cc engine.
The 550 introduced an automatic rev limiter to prevent engine damage. Kawasaki continued to improve the JS550 well into the 1990s. In 1986, Kawasaki added the JS300 to their model line-up, a single cylinder 294cc two-stroke engine featuring automatic fuel /oil mixing, they added the 650 X2, their first "sit-down" Jet Ski, originator of the Sport Class for PWC racing. Kawasaki introduces the redesigned JS650-A, it featured an higher capacity axial flow pump and a powerful 635cc two-stroke twin engine in a modified V-hull design for increased maneuverability and stability. In 1992, the company introduced a stand-up JS750-A; the engine was a twin cylinder 743cc two-stroke with automatic oil injection. The redesigned hull was lighter weight and more maneuverable; the 750 introduced underwater exhaust for quieter operation to the stand-up kawasaki. The 750 SXi is introduced, became the first stand-up Jet Ski with dual carburetors. Kawasaki releases a commemorative edition JS550-C; the high performance JS750-C is released featuring a lower center of gravity due to its hand-laminated fiberglass hull.
Kawasaki introduces the SX-R 800, which increased displacement to 781cc, in the form of an in-line twin 2-stroke engine generating 80hp. The SX-R moved to a fiberglass reinforced plastic hull and top deck. Due to US EPA restrictions, Kawasaki releases their final two-stroke stand-up, the last year of the JS800 SX-R, to recognize the 37-year history of the stand-up JetSki; the model designation was JS800ABF, with an MSRP of $7899.00. On October 6, 2016 Kawasaki reintroduced the stand-up Jet Ski; the 8 ft. 9 in. 550+ lb. SX-R 1500 shared little with its predecessors. Powered by a 160HP inline 4-cylinder four-stroke engine, the SX-R was described by one author as "on steroids" and having "lost some of the playfulness of early standup models", it holds 6.1 gallons of fuel, measures 104.5" 30.1" wide and 33.1" high. Kawasaki produced various models of the Jet Ski starting in 1972, beginning with the JS400 and leading up to the current JS1500; the 800 SX-R was introduced for the 2003 model year, remained unchanged until it was discontinued in 2011.
Common name: 800 SX-R Displacement: 781cc, Inline 2-Cylinder, 2-Stroke Bore x stroke: 82 x 74mm Compression ratio: 7.2:1 Rated Power Output: 80 hp, 59.7 kW Dual carb with reed valves Premix ratio, gas/oil: 50:1 Max fuel consumption: 7.7 Range at full throttle: 0.6 hrs Spark plug: BR8ES Solid RPM Limiter: 8,000 rpm Fuel capacity: 4.5 Length: 90.6 Width: 28.7 Height: 28.9 Weight, dry: 369.9 Displacement to weight ratio: 2.11 Max speed: 47 Impeller: Stainless steel 3 blade In 1990 Yamaha introduced the Super Jet. It was designed in consultation with Clayton Jacobson II, it is still with various updates throughout the model years. In 1994-1995 Yamaha introduced the FX-1. In 2004 Bombardier introduced the SeaDoo 3D, it had an ill-fated life and was only sold as 2005-2007 model years. Various manufacturers produce a range of aftermarket competition hulls for stand-up PWCs. Official website
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human psychology. Recreational activities are done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"; the term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of "refreshment or curing of a sick person", derived turn from Latin. Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, sleep, social duties, leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, increased commercialization of recreational offerings.
While one perception is that leisure is just "spare time", time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. This direction of thought has been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, a reward in itself, "leisure life" reflects the values and character of a nation. Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, the term for children's recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities, it has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant.
A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to "recharge the battery" so that work performance is improved. Work, an activity performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at an individual level, over time recreational activity may become work, vice versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, at another a recreation, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped by individual interests but by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, useful for society or detrimental.
A significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. A list of typical activities could be endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, fine dining, sports and travel; some recreational activities - such as gambling, recreational drug use, or delinquent activities - may violate societal norms and laws. Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation and organization, whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy. S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs. A recreation center is a place for recreational activities administered by a municipal government agency.
Swimming, weightlifting and kids' play areas are common. Many recreational activities are organized by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, commercial enterprises. Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, Walt Disney World. Recreation has many health benefits, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect; the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification is the nationally recognized credentialing organization for the profession of Therapeutic Recreation. Professionals in the field of Therapeutic Recreation who are certified by the NCTRC are called "Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists"; the job title "Recreation Therapist" is identified in the U. S. Dept of Labor's Occupation Outlook; such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, psychiatric facilities for youth and adults, in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases.
Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, the risk of osteoporosis and of cancer, most in men that of colon and prostate, in women that of the breast. Extreme adventure recreation carries its own ha
Lake Havasu City, Arizona
Lake Havasu City is a city in Mohave County, United States. According to 2010 census, the population of the city was 52,527 people, it is served by Lake Havasu City Airport. Lake Havasu City is geographically isolated from the other cities in Mohave County and is the southernmost community of the Las Vegas–Henderson, NV–AZ combined statistical area; the community first started as an Army Air Corps rest camp, called "Site Six". During World War II on the shores of Lake Havasu. In 1958, American businessman Robert P. McCulloch purchased 3,353 acres of property on the east side of the lake along Pittsburgh Point, the peninsula that would be transformed into "the Island". After four years of planning, McCulloch Properties acquired another 13,000 acres of federal land in the surrounding area. Lake Havasu City was established on September 30, 1963, by a resolution of the Mohave County Board of Supervisors as the Lake Havasu Irrigation and Drainage District, making it a legal entity; the city was incorporated in 1978.
London Bridge crosses a narrow channel. Hoping to attract tourists and prospective buyers of residential lots, McCulloch bought it for US$2.5 million from the City of London when the bridge was replaced in 1968. The bridge was disassembled on contract with Sundt Construction, Tucson and the marked stones were shipped to Lake Havasu City and reassembled by Sundt for another US$7 million; the construction took three years to complete. McCulloch gave an acre of land to London; when Lake Havasu City wanted to use this land for a visitors' center, it leased it back for a quit rent of a Hopi Kachina figure. Since its inauguration on October 5, 1971, London Bridge has become the second-largest tourist attraction in Arizona, after the Grand Canyon. In 2017, a panel of experts partnering with USA Today's 10Best.com chose London Bridge as one of 20 initial nominees for Best Arizona Attraction. 10Best.com readers voted London Bridge as a top 5 favorite. Lake Havasu City is an active event destination for a wide range of people.
During spring months, the community is joined by university students for spring break. In 1995, Lake Havasu City was featured during MTV's Spring Break coverage. For boaters, March to September are the prime months on Lake Havasu; the city is home to the International World Jet Ski Final Races, multiple professional fishing tournaments, custom boat regattas, the Western Winter Blast pyrotechnics convention, Havasu 95 Speedway, the Chilln-n-Swilln Beer Festival annual charity event, the Havasu Triathlon, the Havasu Balloon Festival & Fair. During the winter months, the community is joined by retirees from colder regions of the country and Canada. During this period, multiple events are held on McCulloch Boulevard. During the second weekend of February, McCulloch Boulevard is home to Winterfest, an annual event which draws thousands of visitors and residents for two days of food, activities and products from over 200 vendors from across the United States. Lake Havasu City is located at 34°29′24″N 114°18′32″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.1 square miles, of which, 43.0 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The only surface access to Lake Havasu City is by road via Arizona State Route 95, which meets Interstate 40 to the north of the city and Interstate 10 to the south. C. V. Wood, who designed Disneyland, was hired by Robert McCulloch to lay out Lake Havasu's unique road system. In the early stages of development of the city, McCulloch Properties operated a fleet of secondhand airliners such as the Lockheed Constellation and the Lockheed L-188 Electra to fly prospective property purchasers to the area from California and elsewhere in the USA. Lake Havasu City does not have a public transit system. Lake Havasu Shuttle provides transportation to Las Vegas and Laughlin, Nevada. Havasu Landing Resort and Casino provides a ferry to California. Lake Havasu City has a hot desert climate. In the winter months, daytime highs range from 60 °F to 70 °F.
Lows in winter average between 40 °F to 50 °F. The city has hot summers, with highs remaining between 100 °F and 115 °F. Highs are known to exceed 120 °F during the summer months. Overnight low temperatures stay between 80 °F to 90 °F for the months of August; the highest overnight low temperature recorded in Lake Havasu City was 98 °F on July 22, 2003. Mean annual precipitation is 3.84 inches. The annual mean temperature is 74.6 °F. Lake Havasu City holds the all-time record high temperature in Arizona history with 128 °F recorded on June 29, 1994; this temperature is the highest for a town or city in the Western Hemisphere. On December 31, 2014, snow fell on Lake Havasu City; as of the census of 2000, there were 41,938 people, 17,911 households, 12,716 families residing in the city. The population density was 974.4 people per square mile. There were 23,018 housing units at an average density of 534.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.69% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.51% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races.
7.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 17,911 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
Bombardier Recreational Products
BRP Inc. is a Canadian company making various vehicles. Once part of Bombardier Inc. it was founded in 1942 as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée by Joseph-Armand Bombardier at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. In 2003, Bombardier Inc. sold its Recreational Products Division to a group of investors: Bain Capital, the Bombardier family, the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. The newly formed independent company, named Bombardier Recreational Products, included all the activities started 60 years earlier by its founder; as of October 6, 2009, it had about 5,500 employees. BRP has manufacturing facilities in five countries: Canada, the United States, Mexico and Austria; the company's products are sold in more than 100 countries, some of which have their own direct-sales network. BRP has a long legacy of innovation and has multiple brands: Ski-Doo, Can-Am motorcycles, Sea-Doo, Evinrude Outboard Motors, Rotax; the Ski-Doo personal snowmobile brand is so iconic in Canada, that it was listed in 17th place on the CBC's The Greatest Canadian Invention list in 2007.
Before the start of the company's development of track vehicles, Joseph-Armand Bombardier experimented with propeller-driven snow vehicles. His work with snowplane designs can be traced to before 1920, he abandoned his efforts to develop a snowplane and turned his inventive skills to tracked vehicles. From the start, the company made truck-sized half-track vehicles, with skis in the front and caterpillar tracks in the rear, designed for the worst winter conditions of the flatland Canadian countryside. After producing half-tracks in World War II for the Canadian Army, the company experimented with new forms of track systems and developed an all-tracked, heavy duty vehicle designed for logging and mining operations in extreme wilderness conditions, such as heavy snow or semiliquid muskeg, they produced it under the name Muskeg tractor. Each track is composed of two or more rubber belts joined into a loop; the loops are held together with interior wheel guides and exterior cleats called grousers.
The tracks are driven by a large drive sprocket that engages the grousers in sequence and causes the track to rotate. Two belt tracks were common on muskeg machines. For deep-snow use, wider tracks, employing additional belts, are used for added flotation over the snow; the research for the track base made it possible to produce a small, continuous-rubber track for the light one- or two-person snowmobile the founder of the company had dreamed about during his teen years. This led to the invention of snowmobiles; the company created the snowmobile market, held its own after international competitors entered the market in the late 1960s. From the 1940s through the early 1970s, Bombardier built the most successful snowcat models produced by any snowcat manufacturer; the B12 seated 12 people, the C18 seated 18. Both were similar in design with skis used to steer the vehicle; the B12 and C18 were fast for their day, with speeds over the snow exceeding 30 miles per hour. Most historic and most modern snowcats have a top speed of 20 mph.
The Bombardier B12 and C18 were the precursors to the more modern snow coach used by resorts for transporting tourists. In their day, the B12 and C18 vehicles were used as school buses, mail delivery and emergency vehicles in northern United States and Canada, were best suited to flat land conditions, frozen roadways, or frozen lakes. While more than 3,000 of the Bombardier B12/C18 variants were produced, Bombardier had competitors in both the North American and world markets. Most of the Bombardier production stayed in North American; the front ski design was incapable of being used in deep snow and rough ground conditions, which opened the door for the development of dual-track and quad-track snowcats. The front ski design was not adapted to change for other ground conditions, so while it was successful on flat lands, frozen lakes, snow-covered roads, it could not compete on rough, off-road conditions; the combination of the lack of design flexibility, incompatibility with off-road conditions, the advent of modern snowplowing practices of public roadways beginning in the 1950s, becoming common in remote areas by the 1960s led to the demise of the B12/C18 design.
Today, B12s are still in used in large-scale ice fishing in northern Canada. Notable competitors included the Aktiv Snow Trac ST4 from Sweden and Tucker Sno-Cat from the USA; the Snow Trac was produced unchanged, until 1981, but it was successful, with over 2,000 units sold, it was used all over the globe for exploration and commercial purposes, as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan. Tucker Sno-Cat grew to become one of the world's largest builders of these vehicles, produces a wide range of large commercial and exploration vehicles from its location in Medford, Oregon, USA. Thiokol produced many popular units, notably the Imp, Super Imp, Spryte models, but changed ownership and name several times before going out of business in 2000 as the Logan Machine Company and manufacturer of the LMC brand. Armand dreamed of developing a lightweight snowmobile that could carry one or two people. In the early 1950s, Armand set aside his dream to focus on developing his company's other tracked vehicles.
But by the end of the decade, more efficient engines ha
Vincent Motorcycles was a British manufacturer of motorcycles from 1928 to 1955. The business was established by Philip Vincent who bought an existing manufacturing name HRD renaming it as Vincent HRD, producing his own motorcycles as with bought-in engines. From 1934, two new engines were developed in 1,000 cc capacities. Production grew from 1936, with the most-famous models being developed from the original designs after the War period in the late 1940s; the 1948 Vincent Black Shadow was at the time the world's fastest production motorcycle. The name was changed to Vincent Engineers Ltd. in 1952 after financial losses were experienced when releasing capital to produce a Vincent-engined prototype Indian for the US market during 1949. In 1955 the company discontinued motorcycle production after experiencing further heavy financial losses. Vincent Motorcycles, "the makers of the world's fastest motorcycles", began with the purchase of HRD Motors Ltd less the factory premises, by Philip Vincent in May, 1928.
HRD was founded by the British Royal Flying Corps pilot, Howard Raymond Davies, shot down and captured by the Germans in 1917. Legend has it that it was while a prisoner of war that he conceived the idea of building his own motorcycle, contemplated how he might achieve that, it was not until 1924. Various models were produced powered by J. A. P. Engines. Although HRD motorcycles won races, the company ran at a loss. In January 1928 it went into voluntary liquidation; the company was bought by Ernest Humphries of OK-Supreme Motors for the factory space, the HRD name, tools and remaining components were subsequently offered for sale again. Philip Vincent was advised to start production under an established name, he had built a motorcycle of his own in 1927 and in 1928 had registered a patent for a cantilever rear suspension of his own design. With the backing of his family wealth from cattle ranching in Argentina, Vincent acquired the trademark and remaining components of HRD from Humphries for £450 in 1928.
The company was promptly renamed Vincent HRD Co. Ltd and production moved to Stevenage; the new trademark had The Vincent in small letters above the large "HRD". After World War 2 Britain had an export drive to repay its war debts, the USA was the largest market for motorcycles, so from 1950 the HRD was dropped from the name to avoid any confusion with the "HD" of Harley Davidson, the motorcycle became the Vincent. In 1928 the first Vincent-HRD motorcycle used a JAP single-cylinder engine in a Vincent-designed cantilever frame; the earliest known example extant exists in Australia. Some early bikes used Rudge-Python engines, but after a disastrous 1934 Isle of Man TT, with engine problems and all three entries failing to finish, Phil Vincent and Phil Irving decided to build their own engines. Phil Vincent experimented with three-wheeled vehicles, amphibious vehicles, automobiles. In 1932 the first 3-wheeler, "The Vincent Bantam" appeared, it was a 2.5 cwt delivery van with a steering wheel. The Bantam cost £57-10-0 and the windscreen and hood option cost £5-10-0.
Production ceased in 1936. In late 1931 Phil Irving first joined Vincent as an engineer alongside fellow-engineer E. J. Massey from the original HRD company after working on metallurgy for Velocette, leaving to return to his native Australia in 1949, his first engine design was an OHV 500 cc single-cylinder engine in 1934 called the "Meteor". In 1937 Phil Irving went to work for Velocette but returned to Vincent Motorcycles in 1943. Vincent made munitions, but Vincent engines were trialled in boats and portable pumps during the war, the end of hostilities saw Vincent ready to return to motorcycle production. Vincent developed a efficient opposed-piston two-stroke engine for use in air-dropped lifeboats, although development outlasted the war and it never went into service. Vincent looked to the United States for sales, in 1944 Eugene Aucott opened the first USA dealership in the city of Philadelphia. Others followed; the standard motor was known as the Meteor and the sports motor was the Comet. There was the Comet Special, which used a bronze head.
The Meteor motor produced 26 bhp @ 5300 rpm. An unusual feature of the valve design for these motors was the double valve guides, the attachment of the forked rocker arm to a shoulder between the guides, to eliminate side forces on the valve stem and ensure maximum valve life under racing conditions; the Series-A Comet could do 90 mph. Whilst working in his office at Stevenage in 1936, Phil Irving noticed that two drawings of the Vincent HRD engine lay on top of each other in a "V" formation, he set them out on the drawing board as a v-twin engine in a frame Vincents had made for a record attempt by Eric Fernihough, who no longer required it. When Phil Vincent saw the drawing he was enthusiastic, a few weeks the first Vincent thousand had been made, with Meteor upper engine parts mounted on new crankcases; the Vincent V-twin motorcycle incorporated a number of new and innovative ideas, some of which were more successful than others. The Vincent HRD Series A Rapide was introduced in October 1936.
Its frame was of brazed lug construction, based on the Comet design but extended to accommodate the longer V twin engine. It continued the use of "cantilever" rear suspension, used on all Vincents produce
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte