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Personality psychology

Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces, its areas of focus include: construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes investigation of individual psychological differences investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, emotions and behaviors in various situations. The word personality originates from the Latin persona, which means "mask". Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, social adjustments, behaviors exhibited over time that influences one's expectations, self-perceptions and attitudes. Personality predicts human reactions to other people and stress. Gordon Allport described two major ways to study personality: the idiographic.

Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual; the study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional perspective, humanistic, behaviorist and social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Research in this area is empirically driven — such as dimensional models, based on multivariate statistics such as factor analysis — or emphasizes theory development, such as that of the psychodynamic theory. There is a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.

Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art and philosophy to draw general conclusions; the following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: Freedom versus determinism – This is the question whether humans have control over their own behavior and understand the motives behind it or if their behavior is causally determined by forces beyond their control. Behavior is categorized as being either unconscious, environmental or biological by various theories. Heredity versus environment – Personality is thought to be determined either by genetics and biology, or by environment and experiences. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloninger, who pioneered the Temperament and Character model.

Uniqueness versus universality – This question discusses the extent of each human's individuality or similarity in nature. Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasize the importance of universal principles, such as reinforcement and self-efficacy. Active versus reactive – This question explores whether humans act through individual initiative or through outside stimuli. Traditional behavioral theorists believed that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active in their role. Most modern theorists agree that both are important, with aggregate behavior being determined by traits and situational factors being the primary predictor of behavior in the short term. Optimistic versus pessimistic – Personality theories differ with regard to whether humans are integral in the changing of their own personalities.

Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are more optimistic than those that do not. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories expanding as more psychologists explore the theory. For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people and extroverts. According to trait theories and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle; the idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung in his 1921 book Psychologische Typen and William Marston. Building on the writings and observations of Jung during World War II, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine C. Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.

This model was used by David Keirsey with a different understanding from Jung and Myers. In the former Soviet Union, Lithuanian Aušra Augustinavičiūtė independently derived a model of personality type from Jung's called socionics. Theories could also

Oscar Peterson Plays George Gershwin

Oscar Peterson Plays George Gershwin is a 1952 album by pianist Oscar Peterson of popular songs written by George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin. In 1956, Columbia released a series of individual "clef series" 45rpms under the same title with 4 selected tracks from the original LP record. Verve Records reissued the album in 1985 under the title "Oscar Peterson - The George Gershwin Songbook" in Germany through PolyGram. "The Man I Love" "Fascinating Rhythm "It Ain't Necessarily So" "Somebody Loves Me "Strike Up The Band" "I've Got a Crush On You" "I Was Doing All Right" "S'Wonderful" "Oh, Lady be Good!" "I Got Rhythm" "A Foggy Day" "Love Walked In" Ray Brown – double bass Barney Kesselguitar Oscar Peterson – piano

Maelström (film)

Maelström is a 2000 Canadian romantic drama film written and directed by Denis Villeneuve. It stars Marie-Josée Croze as a depressed young businesswoman who becomes romantically involved with the son of a man she killed in a hit and run accident. Employing fantasy and comedic elements, Maelström is narrated by a talking fish. Villeneuve conceived of the story, basing it on his interest in car accidents and modelling the protagonist after various women he knew, he cast Croze a novice actress, in the lead role. Filming took place in Montreal with animatronics to depict the fish narrator; the film premiered at the Montréal World Film Festival in August 2000 and received positive reviews, with some detractors. It won five Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture, the FIPRESCI Prize at the 51st Berlin International Film Festival. While being gutted alive by a fishmonger, a dying fish chooses to share a story that took place in Quebec during the autumn of 1999. A 25-year-old businesswoman named Bibiane Champagne, head of three clothing boutiques, has an abortion.

She is interviewed by a journalist about her success and being the daughter of a famous person named Flo Fabert. Bibiane claims business is good, but her partner, her brother Philippe, accosts her for numerous failures, she is supported by her friend, but struggles with drugs and alcohol. One night, while driving, Bibiane accidentally hits a 53-year-old Norwegian Canadian fishmonger, Annstein Karson, subsequently flees the scene. Injured, Annstein stumbles back to his apartment. While at a restaurant and Bibiane order octopus but discover it is stale; the restaurant investigates the poor quality of octopus and realize the usual octopus trapper, Annstein, is missing, find him dead. Bibiane reads confirmation of the death in a newspaper, considers turning herself in, she decides to dispose of the evidence, driving her car into a river. She survives, interprets her survival as a sign that she deserves to recover her life; the fishmonger's son Evian, a diver, inspecting Manicouagan River, learns Annstein was cremated.

This went against his plans for burial at sea. He encounters Bibiane by chance and she poses as his late father's neighbour. Evian falls in love with her, she takes him away from a planned flight to have sex at her apartment, he learns the plane crashed in Baie-Comeau with no survivors, realizes Bibiane killed his father. Conflicted about his love for his father's killer, a stranger in a bar tells him to marry her and never tell anyone. Bibiane helps Evian sort through Annstein's possessions, she accompanies Evian to Lofoten to dispose of the ashes; the fish narrator decides to conclude his story by revealing the meaning of life, but is promptly killed mid-sentence. Director Denis Villeneuve conceived of a story, that would revolve around a car accident: It's more a film about responsibility and. Car crashes are the most dramatic events closest to us. That's why I'm interested in them... The film is a dark tale. One of its subjects is mythology. There's a strange narrator telling the story from a fantasy world.

It's a hyper-realistic film, but it goes close to fantasy at some points. For Bibiane, Villeneuve modeled the character after numerous women he knew, one of whom he described as a "mythomaniac", like Bibiane, he began making notes on the story in spring 1998, while finishing his film August 32nd on Earth, but set it aside as "too difficult", given its detached heroine. He began working on the Maelström screenplay again that year, due to his persistent visions of the story, he began pitching the screenplay, said some readers told him it gave them nightmares, that it was "too dark and heavy", though Villeneuve regarded it as nearly comedic. Downplaying the dark subject matter, he described the story as "a playful call to be responsible and to be careful". In his efforts for "balance" in respect to the abortion scene, Villeneuve said he was pro-choice but the operation "should never be taken lightly"; the inspiration for the narration was a trout which gave him food poisoning. This led him to choose a fish as the storyteller, which he liked because it would add "a purely fictional element" to an otherwise realistic story.

He had contemplated the alternative of a talking dog, based on a puppy his family had adopted, but preferred the metaphor of "a fish out of water". In his story, the fish is being gutted and dies only to resurrect and resume narration. Villeneuve explained this, saying, "For me it was the kind of image, like all the storytellers from the beginning of humanity trying to tell a story, the same story over and over again. I think it's an image, like my relationship with cinema, and I think there's a link between storytelling and death". In summer 1999, casting began. Villeneuve sought "someone with a specific energy" for the lead, during casting met novice actress Marie-Josée Croze for the first time, he chose her with no pressure from the financiers to choose a better-known star. Jean-Nicholas Verrault was cast with experience in television, while Stephanie Morgenstern was known for appearing in the 1997 The Sweet Hereafter. Principal photography started in Montreal in September 1999; the fish narrator was portrayed via animatronics.

Maelström premiered at the Montreal World Film Festival on 29 August 2000, before opening the Perspective Canada section

Waves (Terje Rypdal album)

Waves is the seventh album by Norwegian jazz guitarist Terje Rypdal recorded in 1977 and released on the ECM label. The Allmusic review by Michael P. Dawson awarded the album 4 stars stating "This contains some of Rypdal's jazziest music". All compositions by Terje Rypdal except as indicated"Per Ulv" - 8:37 "Karusell" - 8:12 "Stenskoven" - 3:49 "Waves" - 5:42 "The Dain Curse" - 8:45 "Charisma" - 6:15Recorded at Talent Studio in Oslo, Norway in September 1977 Terje Rypdal — electric guitar, synthesizer, RMI keyboard computer Palle Mikkelborgtrumpet, tack piano, RMI keyboard computer, ring modulator Sveinung Hovensjø — 6 & 4 string electric bass Jon Christensendrums, percussion

Marya Roxx

Marya Roxx is an Estonian hard rock/metal singer-songwriter residing in Los Angeles. She is a former member of Estonian girl band Vanilla Ninja; when the girl band Vanilla Ninja was founded in 2003, Kivi was selected as one of the solo singers and the bass player. She recorded two albums with Vanilla Ninja and Traces Of Sadness, she left the group in mid-2004. She has a daughter, Dora-Liisa, son, Angus Martin with husband and former Vanilla Ninja manager Renee Meriste. Roxx teamed up with producer Kevin Shirley to record her debut album'Payback Time', it features musicians Paul Crook as a guitarist, Scott Metaxas on bass, Derek Sherinian on keyboards and Brian Tichy as the drummer. 21?! EP was released from this recording in 2008, it contains four songs, "'21?!'", "Oh Yeah", "Rebel", "Nothing Going On" recorded by Swedish band Clawfinger. Marya wrote her solo album in Malibu with producer called Kevin Shirley aka "Caveman." In May 2009, she performed as the warm-up act on the European tour of pop/rock artist LaFee.

Roxx's band for her last performances was former Anthrax guitarist Paul Crook, Scott Metaxas and Jim Roe. Her debut album, "Payback Time" was published on 5 October 2010. On January 2006 Marya's debut "Could You" was a success for her in many countries like Germany and Finland. 2008: Payback Time 2015: Land of Dreams "21?! Best Hard Rock Song Mavric Awards 2009 and "Rebel" Best Punk Song Mavric Awards 2009). European Tour 2009 UK Tour 2009 Time To Run 2010 Tour Rebel Wave 2010 Tour Official Marya Roxx website Official Marya Roxx MySpace

2001–02 Plymouth Argyle F.C. season

The 2001–02 season was the 107th season in the history of Plymouth Argyle Football Club, their 77th in the Football League, 5th in the fourth tier of the English football league system. Their 12th-place finish in the 2000–01 season meant it was their fourth successive season playing in the Third Division; the club began the 2001–02 season in the Football League Third Division, following a disappointing 12th-place finish the previous year. There were signs of change at the club and they finished the season as champions, breaking numerous club records in the process, including a record haul of 102 points, they achieved 31 wins, 9 draws, 6 defeats, from 46 games. Their leading goalscorer was Graham Coughlan with 11 goals in all competitions – an outstanding achievement for a centre-back; the club reached the Second Round of the FA Cup, drawing 1–1 at home with Bristol Rovers before losing the replay 3–2. They entered the League Cup at the First Round stage and were eliminated away to Watford 1–0.

They competed in the Football League Trophy where they bowed out in the First Round after a 2–1 defeat away to Cheltenham Town. Notable players to begin their careers with the Pilgrims this season included Coughlan, Marino Keith, Jason Bent. Legend Win Draw Loss Pld = Matches played. All players are listed by position and surname; the following players have been named in the most starting line-ups. This line-up may differ from the list of players with most appearances. In Out In Out