Compound pier

Compound pier or cluster pier is the architectural term given to a clustered column or pier which consists of a centre mass or newel, to which engaged or semi-detached shafts have been attached, in order to perform certain definite structural objects, such as to carry arches of additional orders, or to support the transverse or diagonal ribs of a vault, or the tie-beam of an important roof. In these cases, though performing different functions, the drums of the pier are cut out of one stone. There are, cases where the shafts are detached from the pier and coupled to it by annulets at regular heights, as in the Early English period. A pilier cantonné is one type of compound pier. Compound piers can be found in Romanesque cathedrals. A pilier cantonné is a type of compound pier associated with High Gothic architecture. First used in the construction of the Chartres Cathedral, the pilier cantonné has four colonettes attached to a large central core that support the arcade, aisle vaults and nave-vaulting responds.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Compound Pier". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

The Battle (1934 film)

The Battle is a 1934 Franco–British co-production English language drama film directed by Nicolas Farkas, starring Charles Boyer, Merle Oberon and John Loder. It was adapted from a 1909 French novel by Claude Farrère entitled La bataille. In 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War, a Japanese naval officer gets his wife, played by Merle Oberon, to seduce a British attaché in order to gain secrets from him. Things begin to go wrong; this was first released as a French-language film entitled La bataille with many of the same cast members, but with Oberon's part played by the French actress Annabella. In the United States, the English film was released in August 1935 under the title Thunder in the East; the English version was revived in 1943 under a new title, Hara-Kiri, changes were made that transformed the film into an anti-Japanese wartime propaganda film. The primary changes were a foreword relating to Pearl Harbour and Japanese perfidy, as well as an epilogue about the cowardice of hara-kiri. Charles Boyer as Marquis Yorisaka Merle Oberon as Marquise Yorisaka John Loder as Fergan Betty Stockfeld as Betty Hockley Valéry Inkijinoff as Hirata Miles Mander as Feize Henri Fabert as The Admiral The Battle Cook, Pam.

Gainsborough Pictures. Cassell, 1997; the Battle on IMDb Unifrance "The Battle"