The term Sayyid brothers refers to Syed Abdullah Khan and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, who were powerful in the Mughal Empire during the early 18th century. They claimed to belong to the family of Sayyids or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law and cousin Ali who belonged to the Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraish Tribe; the Sayyid Brothers became influential in the Mughal Court after Aurangzeb's death and became king makers during the anarchy following the death of emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. They dethroned Mughal Emperors at their will during the 1710s. Aurangzeb's son Bahadur Shah I defeated his brothers to capture the throne with the help of Sayyid Brothers and Chin Quilich Khan, another influential administrator in the Mughal court. Bahadur Shah I died in 1712, his successor Jahandar Shah was assassinated on the orders of the Sayyid Brothers. In 1713, Jahandar's nephew Farrukhsiyar became the emperor with the brothers' help, his reign marked the ascendancy of the brothers, who monopolised state power and reduced the Emperor to a figurehead.
The brothers conspired to send Nizam-ul-Mulk to Deccan, away from the Mughal Court, to reduce his influence. In 1719, the Brothers blinded and murdered Farrukhsiyar, they arranged for his first cousin, Rafi ud-Darajat, to be the next ruler in February 1719. When Rafi ud-Darajat died of lung disease in June, they made his elder brother, Rafi ud-Daulah, ruler. After Rafi ud-Daulah died of lung disease in September 1719, Muhammad Shah ascended the throne at the age of seventeen with the Sayyid Brothers as his regents until 1720. Muhammad Shah, to take back control of his rule, arranged for the brothers to be killed with the help of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah. Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720, Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722. Syed Hassan Ali Khan and Syed Hussain Ali Khan were two of the numerous sons of Syed Abdullah Khan - Sayyid Mian. During the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1697, Syed Hassan Ali Khan was Faujdar of Sultanpur, Nazarbar in Baglana, was appointed Subahdar of Khandesh in 1698 with an objective of halting Maratha expansion in the region.
He was appointed ruler of Hoshangabad and Nazarbar coupled with Thalner in the Sarkar of the same province. Subsequently he was responsible for Aurangabad during the final campaign of the Mughal Emperor against the Maratha in 1705 and attended the funeral of Aurangzeb in 1707. Hassan's younger brother, Hussain Ali Khan, admitted by every one to have been a man of much greater energy and resolution than his elder brother, had in the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb reign held charge first of Ranthambore, in Ajmer, of Hindaun-Bayana, in Agra; the two Syed brothers, who now come into such prominence, were not mere upstarts, but came from the old military aristocracy. Besides the prestige of Syed lineage and the personal renown acquired by their own valor, they were the sons of Syed Mian, chosen by Aurangzeb as the first Subedar of Bijapur in the Deccan and Subedar of Ajmer, their father, Syed Abdullah Khan titled Syed Miyan, had risen in the service of Ruhullah Khan, Aurangzeb's Mir Bakhshi, on receiving the rank of an imperial Mansabdar, attached himself to the eldest Prince Muazzam.
After Prince Mu'izz ud-Din Jahandar Shah, the eldest of Emperor Bahadur Shah's sons, had been appointed in 1106 H. to the charge of the Multan province, Syed Hassan Ali Khan and his brother followed him there. In an expedition against a refractory Baloch zamindar, the Sayyids were of opinion that the honours of the day were theirs. Prince Mu'izz ud-Din Jahandar Shah thought otherwise, assigned them to his favourite administrator Isa Khan Mian; the Sayyids quit the service in dudgeon and repaired to Lahore, where they lived in comparative poverty, waiting for employment from Munim Khan, the Nazim of that place. When Emperor Aurangzeb died and Prince Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Alam, reached Lahore on his march to Agra to contest the throne, the Sayyids presented themselves, their services were gladly accepted. In the battle of Jajau or Jajowan on the 18th Rabi I, 1119 H. they served in the vanguard and fought valiantly on foot, as was the Sayyid habit in an emergency. A third brother, Syed Nur ud-Din Ali Khan, was left dead on the field, Syed Hussain Ali Khan was wounded.
Though their rank was raised and the elder brother received his father's title of Syed Mian, they were not treated with such favour as their exceptional services seemed to deserve, either by the new Emperor or his vizier. The two Sayyids managed to quarrel with Khanazad Khan, the vizier Munim Khan's second son, though the breach was healed by a visit to them from the vizier in person, there is little doubt that this difference helped to keep them out of employment. Syed Hussain Ali Khan is said to have offended Prince Mu'izz ud-Din Jahandar Shah; the morning after the battle of Jajau, the Prince visited their quarters to condole with them on the death of their brother, Syed Nur ud-Din Ali Khan, in so doing launched out into praises of their valour. Syed Hussain Ali Khan met these overtures in an aggressive manner, saying that what they had done was nothing, many had done as much, their valour would be known when their lord was deserted and alone, the strength of their right arm had seated him on the throne.
Prince Mu'izz ud-Din Jahandar Shah was vexed by this speech, refrained from making any recommendation to his father in their favour. Nay, he did his best to prevent their obtaining lucrative employment, we read of their being obliged to rely upon the Emperor's bounty for their travelling expenses, which were great
Daulat Rao Sindhia
Shrimant Daulat Rao Sindhia was the king of Gwalior state in central India from 1794 until his death in 1827. His reign coincided with struggles for supremacy within the Maratha Confederacy, with Maratha resistance to the consolidation of British hegemony over northern and central India in the early 19th century. Daulatrao played a significant role in the Third Anglo-Maratha wars. Daulatrao was a member of the Sindhia dynasty, succeeded to the Gwalior throne on 12 February 1794 at the age of 15, upon the death of Maharaja Mahadji Shinde. Daulatrao was recognised and formally installed by the Peshwa, 3 March 1794, conferred the titles of Naib Vakil-i-Mutlaq, Amir-al-Umara from Emperor Shah Alam II on 10 May 1794. Gwalior state was part of the Maratha Empire, founded by Shivaji in the 17th century. De facto control of the empire passed from Shivaji's successors to the hereditary chief ministers of the Empire, entitled peshwas and the empire expanded in the 18th century at the expense of the Mughal Empire.
As the empire expanded, commanders of the Maratha armies were given authority to collect chauth in the conquered territories on behalf of the Peshwa. Daulatrao's ancestor Ranoji Sindhia had conquered territories in the Malwa and Gird regions from the Mughals establishing a state, based at Ujjain, but was named after the strategic fortress of Gwalior, his wife Baiza Bai was an intelligent lady of her time. She played an important role in the affairs of the Gwalior state; the Maratha defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat checked the Maratha expansion towards the Northwest, hastened the decentralization of power in the empire to a'pentarchy' made up of the five most powerful Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune, the Sindhias of Gwalior, the Holkars of Indore, the Bhonsles of Nagpur, the Gaekwads of Baroda. Daulatrao's predecessor Mahadji Shinde had, in the aftermath of Panipat, turned Gwalior into a chief military power of the confederacy, developing a well-trained modern army under the command of Benoît de Boigne.
Daulatrao therefore looked upon himself less as a member of the Maratha Confederacy and more as the chief sovereign in India. At this time the death of the young Peshwa, Madhavrao II, the troubles which it occasioned, the demise of Tukojirao Holkar and the rise of the turbulent Yashwantrao Holkar, together with the intrigues of Nana Farnavis, threw the confederacy into confusion and enabled Sindhia to gain the ascendancy, he came under the influence of Sarjerao Ghatge, a dubious character from Maratha point of view, whose daughter he had married. Urged by this adviser, Daulatrao aimed at increasing his dominions at all costs, seized territory from the Maratha Ponwars of Dhar and Dewas; the rising power of Yashwantrao Holkar of Indore, alarmed him. In July 1801, Yashwantrao appeared before Sindhia's capital of Ujjain, after defeating some battalions under John Hessing, extorted a large sum from its inhabitants, but did not ravage the town. In October, Sarjerao Ghatge took revenge by sacking Indore, razing it to the ground, practicing every form of atrocity on its inhabitants.
In 1802, on the festival of Diwali, Yashwantrao Holkar defeated the combined armies of Scindia and Peshwa Bajirao II at Hadapsar, near Pune. The battle took place at Ghorpadi and Hadapsar. From this time dates the gardi-ka-wakt, or'period of unrest', as it is still called, during which the whole of central India was overrun by the armies of Sindhia and Holkar and their attendant predatory Pindari bands, under Amir Khan and others. Benoît de Boigne had retired as commander of Gwalior's army in 1796. On 31 December 1802, the Peshwa signed the Treaty of Bassein, by which the British were recognized as the paramount power in India; the continual evasion shown by Sindhia in all attempts at negotiation brought him into conflict with the British, his power in both western and northern India was brought down by the British victories at Ahmadnagar, Battle of Argaon and Laswari. On 30 December 1803, he signed the Treaty of Surji Anjangaon, by which he was obliged to give up his possessions between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the district of Bharuch, other lands in the south of his dominions.
By the ninth article of the Treaty of Surji Anjangaon he was deprived of the fortresses of Gwalior and Gohad, The discontent produced by the last condition caused a rupture, did result in the plundering of the Resident's camp and detention of the Resident as a prisoner. In 1805, under the new policy of Lord Cornwallis and Gwalior were restored, the Chambal River was made the northern boundary of the state, while certain claims on Rajput states were abolished, the British government at the same time binding itself to enter into no treaties with Udaipur, Kotah, or any chief tributary to Sindhia in Malwa, Mewar, or Marwar. In 1811, Shrimant Daulat Rao conquered the neighboring kingdom of Chanderi. In 1816 Sindhia was called on to assist in the suppression of the Pindaris. For some time it was doubtful what line he would take, but he signed the Treaty of Gwalior in 1817
The Indian subcontinent known as the Asian subcontinent and Indo subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".
It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.
There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.
It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes. More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans.
These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.
The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and no
Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, governed from 1795 to 1818. He was installed as a puppet by the Maratha nobles under the reign of Chhatrapati Pratapsingh, whose growing power prompted him to flee his capital Pune and sign the Treaty of Bassein with the British; this resulted in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, in which the British emerged victorious and re-installed him as the titular Peshwa. In 1817, Baji Rao II joined the Third Anglo-Maratha War against the British, after they favoured the Gaekwad nobles in a revenue-sharing dispute. After suffering several battle defeats, the Peshwa surrendered to the British, agreed to retire in return for an estate at Bithoor and an annual pension. Baji Rao was the son of his wife Anandibai. Raghunathrao had defected to the English, causing the First Anglo-Maratha War, which ended with the Treaty of Salbai. Baji Rao was born in 1775, when both his parents were kept in imprisonment by the Peshwa's cabinet; until the age of 19, he along with his brothers were kept in confinement and denied basic rights of education.
Raghunathrao's successor as Peshwa, Madhavrao II, committed suicide in 1795, died without an heir. A power struggle ensued among the Maratha nobles for control of the Confederacy; the powerful general Daulat Rao Scindia and minister Nana Fadnavis installed Baji Rao II as a puppet Peshwa. Baji Rao II had to carry the unfortunate legacy of his parents who, despite being from the same Brahmin family, were suspected of being involved in the murder of the young fifth Peshwa Narayanrao in 1774 AD; as such, being the son of suspected murderers, he was looked down upon by his ministers, by his subjects. His every action was viewed with prejudice and it is said that though regarded as a good administrator and builder of modern-day Pune, he was labeled as incapable and a coward Peshwa. Pandita Ramabai has criticized him in her writings for marrying, at the age of 60, a girl, only 9 or 10 years old. After the death of Fadnavis in 1800, Daulat Rao Scindia took complete control over the Peshwa's government.
As Scindia started eliminating his rivals within the government, Peshwa Baji Rao II became concerned about his own safety. He turned to British resident Colonel William Palmer for help. General Arthur Wellesley was in the southern parts of Maratha territory at that time, having concluded a campaign against Dhondia Wagh. However, Baji Rao was reluctant to sign a treaty with the British. In 1802, Scindia's rival chief Yashwant Rao Holkar marched towards Pune, he proclaimed allegiance to the Peshwa, sent assurances that he only wanted to free Pune of Scindia's control. But Baji Rao was apprehensive since he had earlier ordered the killing of Yashwant Rao's brother Vithoji Rao Holkar, he sought help from Scindia, away from Pune at that time. Scindia dispatched an army that arrived in Pune on 22 October 1802. Holkar defeated the joint forces of Scindia in the Battle of Hadapsar on 25 October. On the morning of 25 October, before the battle, Baji Rao had sent preliminary terms for a treaty to the British.
After the Holkar victory in the battle, he fled to Vasai, where he sought assistance from the British in Bombay. Holkar set up an ad-hoc council headed by Baji Rao's adoptive brother Amrut Rao, ran the Peshwa's government in Amrut Rao's name. Baji Rao II concluded the Treaty of Bassein in December 1802, in which the British agreed to reinstate Baji Rao II as Peshwa, in return for allowing into Maratha territory a force of 6,000 infantry troops complete with guns, officered by the British, paying for its maintenance and accepting the stationing of a permanent British political agent at Pune. Holkar and Sindhia resisted the British intrusion in Maratha affairs, which resulted in the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805; the British triumphed, the Marathas were forced to accept losses of territories due to internal rivalries between Holkars and Scindias, treachery committed in all the battles by Scindia's French and other European officers, who handled the imported guns within the Maratha army - the Marathas failing to train their own men in sufficient numbers to handle imported guns.
The raids of the Pindaris, irregular horsemen who resided in the Maratha territories, into British territory led to the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817-1818, which ended in the defeat of the Bhosles and other Maratha feudatories. In the mid-1810s, the British had intervened in a financial dispute over revenue-sharing between the Peshwa and Gaekwads of Baroda. On 13 June 1817, the Company forced Baji Rao II to sign an agreement renouncing claims on Gaekwad's revenues and ceding large swaths of territory to the British; this treaty of Pune formally ended the Peshwa's titular overlordship over other Maratha chiefs, thus ending the Maratha confederacy. On 5 November 1817, the British Resident at Pune was attacked by Baji Rao II's army led by his Attorney Mor Dixit. Bajirao II could have won this battle had he not halted the progress of his forces by succumbing to the request of British Resident Elphinstone for a ceasefire. Baji Rao watched the battle that ensued between his troops and the British from a hill now called Parvati.
This battle on 5 November 1817, referred to as the Battle of Khadki, resulted in Peshwa's defeat. Afterward, his troops moved to Garpir on the outskirts towards present-day Solapur Road to block the British troops coming from Jalna, but the treason of one of Baji Rao's chiefs, Sardar Ghorpade Sondurkar, led to his force withdrawing. Subsequently, Baji Rao captured Chakan Fort from the British troops. Meanwhile, the British placed Pune under Colonel Burr, while a British force led by General
Shivaji Bhonsle was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence and building forts, forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations, he revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.
In Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth; the Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth. Shivaji was named after the goddess Shivai. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general, his mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri. At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur and Golkonda. Shahaji changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small army. Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, religious, his studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
He was interested in religious teachings, sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints. Shahaji, meanwhile had married Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur, he moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji. Many of Shivaji's comrades, a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career. Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained without success to Shahaji. In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, conquered from the nayaks who had taken control after the demise of the Vijayanagara Empire.
He was asked to settle the area. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji, his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained, he married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. As early as 1645, the teenage Shivaji expressed his concept in a letter. In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him; the Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor. On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adilshah's position in Karnataka. During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and consolidated his gains. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident.
Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, seized from him the valley of Javali. Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender; the two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.
The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him, o
Bombay State was a large Indian state created at the time of India's Independence, with other regions being added to it in the succeeding years. Bombay Presidency was merged with the princely states of the Baroda, Western India and Gujarat and Deccan States (which included parts of the present-day Indian states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. On 1 November 1956, Bombay State was re-organized under the States Reorganisation Act on linguistic lines, absorbing various territories including the Saurashtra and Kutch States, which ceased to exist. On 1 May 1960, Bombay State was dissolved and split on linguistic lines into the two states of Gujarat, with Gujarati speaking population and Maharashtra, with Marathi speaking population During the British Raj, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency. In 1937, the Bombay Presidency became a province of British India. After India gained independence in 1947, Bombay Presidency became part of India, Sind province became part of Pakistan.
The territory retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. It included princely states such as Kolhapur in Deccan, Baroda and the Dangs in Gujarat, under the political influence of the former Bombay Presidency; as a result of the States Reorganisation Act on 1 November 1956, the Kannada-speaking districts of Belgaum, Bijapur and North Canara were transferred from Bombay State to Mysore State. But the State of Bombay was enlarged, expanding eastward to incorporate the Marathi-speaking Marathwada region of Hyderabad State, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region of southern Madhya Pradesh, Gujarati-speaking Saurashtra and Kutch states; the Bombay state was being referred to by the local inhabitants as "Maha Dwibhashi Rajya", meaning, "the great bilingual state". In 1956, the States Reorganisation Committee, against the will of Jawaharlal Nehru, recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra-Gujarat with Bombay as its capital, whereas in Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.
In the 1957 elections, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed these proposals, insisted that Bombay be declared the capital of Maharashtra. Bombay State was dissolved with the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states on 1 May 1960. Following protests of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat following Mahagujarat Movement. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, numerous princely states enclosed between them. Bombay State had three Chief Ministers after the independence of India: Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher was the first Chief Minister of Bombay Morarji Desai Yashwantrao Chavan In 1960, the designation of the "Governor of Bombay" was transmuted as the Governor of Maharashtra.
Sources: Raj Bhavan and Greater Bombay District Gazetteer Graphical Political integration of India Samyukta Maharashtra movement for a separate Marathi state Mahagujarat Movement for separate Gujarati state. Indulal Yagnik
Battle of Khadki
The Battle of Kirkee known as Battle of Khadki or Ganesh Khind, took place at modern day Khadki, India on 5 November 1817 between the forces of the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire under the leadership of Baji Rao II. The Company forces achieved a decisive victory, Kirkee became a military cantonment under the British rule; the Third Battle of Panipat, proved disastrous for the Maratha Empire/Confederacy. Maratha Sardars took advantage of the reduced strength and command of Peshwas over Maharashtra and the Maratha Empire started to decline; the Peshwas were in high debts and were not receiving any income from taxes. They were not in a good position to fight with British forces. After death of Madhavrao Peshwa, the Maratha empire fell into a state of constant decline; the Maratha Army consisted of Huzurat or Sarkari Fouz and had the following Generals when the battle began. Marathas: Bapu Gokhale, assisted by Anandrao Babar, Vithalrao Vinchurkar, assisted by Rajwade, Govindrao Ghorpade Mudholkar, Tryambakrao Rethrekar, Shaikh Miraj, Bahirji Shitole-Deshmukh, Mor Dixit, assisted by Sardar Kokre, Sardar Appa Desai Nipankar, assisted by Sardar Pandhare, Sardar Naropant Apte, Sardar Yashwantrao Ghorpade Sondurkar, Sardar Wamanrao Raaste, Sardar Chintamanrao Patwardhan, assisted by Bapu Narayan Bhave Ramdurgkar, Sardar Mutalik on behalf of Pant Pratinidhi, Sardar Naik Anjurkar, Sardar Purandare, Sardar Nagarkar, assisted by Moreshwar Kanitkar, Raghoji salve.
All these sardars had infantry. The army's Artillery was led by his nephew; the East India Company's army was led by Col. Burr, who marched to Kirkee on 1 Nov. and Capt. Ford, who marched towards on 4 Nov. Bapu Gokhale commanded a total force of 28,000 men with 20 guns; the British force numbered only 3,000, of whom 2,000 were 1,000 infantry, with 8 guns. A detachment commanded by Lt. Col. Burr advanced from Dapodi village near confluence of Pavana and Mula rivers, his detachment was placed in Poona for the protection of the Peshwa. Before the battle, the Peshwa's commander, Moropant Dixit, had tried to bring Captain Ford onto his side, but these overtures were refused. First, Vinchurkar`s gun infantry targeted British Resident Elphinstones house by firing from other side of river. After he left, Kokre's cavalry burnt all the bungalows of the British in the vicinity; the residency was left and was at once sacked and burned, Mr. Elphinstone retired to join the troops at Kirkee. A message to advance was sent to Colonel Burr.
Amazed by the advance of troops whom they believed had been bribed or panic-struck, the Maratha skirmishers fell back, the Maratha army anxious from the ill-omened breaking of their standard, began to lose heart. Gokhla rode from rank to rank cheering and taunting, opened the attack pushing forward his cavalry so as to nearly to surround the British. In their eagerness to attack a Portuguese battalion, which had come up under cover to enclosures, some of the English sepoys became separated from the rest of the line. Gokhla seized the opportunity for a charge with 6000 chosen horsemen. Colonel Burr who saw the movement recalled his men and ordered them to stand firm and keep their fire; the cavalry charge proved ineffectual. The charge was broken by a deep morass in front of the English; as the horsemen floundered in disorder the British troops fired on them with deadly effect. Only a few of the Maratha horses pressed on to the bayonets, the rest fled; the failure of their great cavalry charge disconcerted the Marathas.
They began to drive off their guns, the infantry retired, and, on the advance of the British line, the field was cleared. Next morning the arrival of the light battalion and auxiliary horse from Sirur prevented Gokhla from renewing the attack; the European loss was sixty-eight and the Maratha loss 500 wounded. A few battles were fought against the Bhosale faction at Sitabardi in Nagpur and against the Pindaris; the Peshwa, the chief executive of the Maratha Confederacy, was militarily defeated in the Battle near Ashirgad. The next skirmish occurred after 5 November at Yerawda where Sardar Yashwant Ghorpade's forces were lured away by the British by bribing; this paved the way for battalions coming from Ghodnadi and Jalna and gunners of Panshes artillery to join the British, resulting in the Peshwa fleeing Pune. The East India Company took over the Shaniwarwada, the seat of the Peshwa, on 17 November 1817. By 1818, the Peshwa had surrendered to the East India Company. After the battle, the East India Company troops crossed the river at a place called Yelloura ford, still unidentified.
It is speculated that the place was where the bund of Bund Garden exists today. "Yelloura" is a corruption of Yerawda of today. This corroborates well with the mention of a nearby hill in Blacker's account; the morass which played a crucial role in the battle is unidentified as of today. It is expected to have existed in the Range Hills Colony, the Military Station Depot of Khadki or near the Symbiosis Institute of Management or towards the College of Agriculture. Another meaning of word "morass" is "a complicated or confused situation", so it does not refer to a physical feature, it may just describe the result of the charge. An account of the battle by Grant Duff is well known to historians. Grant Duff observed the battle from a position on the hills of Bhamburda; this location is to have been on the hill that faces