Sanchia of Provence
Sanchia of Provence was the third daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy. Sanchia was described as "of incomparable beauty". Sanchia's sisters Margaret and Beatrice were the respective wives of Louis IX of France, Henry III of England and Charles I of Sicily. Sanchia was said to have a softer and more winsome type of good looks than either her older sisters and Eleanor, it was Eleanor of Provence who arranged a marriage between her sister Sanchia and her brother-in-law Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, whose first wife Isabel Marshal had died recently. At the time, Sanchia was engaged to Raymond VII of Toulouse, but the weak part he played in the recent fighting was a good enough excuse for breaking the bond. Eleanor and Sanchia's uncle Peter was sent to negotiate the marriage contract in 1242. Another uncle, escorted Sanchia safely to the English court in Gascony. There, they joined Eleanor and Henry, met their new daughter Beatrice; the wedding took place at Westminster on November 23.
Richard, although the wealthiest man in the Kingdom of England and in Europe, was only a prince, not a sovereign. Beatrice of Savoy, mother of the bride, came to England to see her third daughter wedded, but her father Ramon Berenguer IV was detained by state difficulties which his wife solved by getting a loan from Henry III of four thousand marks; the cost of the wedding was chiefly defrayed by a levy imposed on the Jews of the country. It was each of them receiving notice of the size of the donation required. An idea of the extravagance of the festivities may be gleaned from the fact that thirty thousand dishes were prepared for the wedding dinner alone; the marriages of the royal brothers from France and England to the four sisters from Provence improved the relationship between the two countries, which led up to the Treaty of Paris. Sanchia was present, along with all her mother. Richard was elected in 1256 as King of Germany by a majority of the seven electoral princes, with the title of King of the Romans, a preparatory step in being named Holy Roman Emperor by the pope.
In January 1257, the ambassadors bringing the news of Richard's election were received in a long hall where Richard and Sanchia were dining in considerable elegance and state. "Richard rose to hear what the men from Bohemia had to say and at the finish he burst into tears. He would accept the crown, he said, but it was not through greed or ambition, his sole object was to assist in restoring prosperity to the German states. It was clear to the German delegation, to the throng of adherents and servants who swarmed into the hall to listen, that he was happy over the fulfillment of his great wish, it must have been quite apparent that Sanchia was delighted beyond measure. Now she would be a queen as well as her two older and patronizing sisters."Sanchia was crowned Queen of the Romans with her husband on 27 May 1257 at Aachen Cathedral in Germany. She and her husband spent fifteen months traveling in the area near Mainz, they hurriedly traveled back to England. Sanchia grew ill in the autumn of 1260 and died a year with her son Edmund present.
Sanchia had two sons with Richard of Cornwall: Richard of Cornwall. Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, married Margaret de Clare. Childless. Richard had a son, named Richard, by his mistress Joan de Valletort, sometimes mistakenly called son of Sanchia. Sanchia was buried 15 November in Hailes Abbey. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166. Sanders, I. J.. "The Texts of the Peace of Paris, 1259". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 66: 81–97. Doi:10.1093/ehr/lxvi.cclviii.81
Boniface, Count of Savoy
Boniface was Count of Savoy from 1253 to 1263, succeeding his father Amadeus IV. He never thus left no heir. Boniface was born in Chambéry. Since he became Count of Savoy at the age of nine, he required a regency. Throughout the decade before his death, Savoy was governed through a joint regency resembling that devised for his grandfather Tomasso I in 1189, in which authority was shared between his mother, Cécile of Baux, one of his uncles, Thomas II of Piedmont. Boniface's other uncles, Peter II and Philip I disputed this, seeking to divide the County's many properties, but Thomas took it to arbitration per the family treaty of 1234, negotiated by his brother William and won out; the uncles were, however granted compensation in return, receiving more properties within the County. When Thomas died in 1259, Cecile continued as regent in Savoy. Under her regency and Peter continued their previous work of expanding the control and influence of the County of Savoy. Boniface's campaigns in Flanders and Piedmont were not successful.
In September 1262, Rudolf of Geneva offered homage to cousin Boniface after yet another round of the war between Peter and their kin in Geneva. In 1263, Boniface died, to be succeeded by his uncle Peter. Cognasso, Francesco. I Savoia. Milan: Dall'Oglio. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166. Marie José. La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge. Paris: Albin Michel
Margaret of Geneva
Margaret of Geneva, countess of Savoy, was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, Beatrice de Faucigny. She was supposed to become the third wife of Philip II of France. However, when her father was escorting her to France in May 1195, Thomas I of Savoy carried her off. Attracted by her beauty, Count Thomas married her himself, claiming that Philip II was married. Margaret's father fell sick and died after the wedding, her mother died the following year; the children of Marguerite and Thomas I of Savoy were: Amadeus IV of Savoy Helena of Savoy Humbert Thomas, Count of Flanders, count in Piedmont Elisabeth of Savoy Aimone, Lord of Chablais Henry, Lord of Lyon William of Savoy, Bishop of Valence and Dean of Vienne Amadeus of Savoy, Bishop of Maurienne Mary of Savoy Magdalena of Savoy, abbess of Hautecombe Abbey Peter II of Savoy, Earl of Richmond and disputed count of Savoy Philip I of Savoy, archbishop of Lyon Count Palatine of Burgundy by marriage and disputed count of Savoy in 1268 Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury Beatrice of Savoy, wife of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence.
She was married in 1219 and was mother to four queens consort and maternal grandmother of Philip III of France and Edward I of England. Alasia of Savoy, abbess of St Pierre, Lyon Agatha of Savoy, abbess of St Pierre, Lyon Margaret of Savoy, wife of Hartmann I of Kyburg Avita of Savoy Margaret was the ancestress of many royal houses, including the Valois and Bourbons. After her death, she was buried at Hautecombe Abbey in Savoy
Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester is a title, created seven times. The first title was granted during the 12th century in the Peerage of England; the current title is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and was created in 1837. The title was first created for Robert de Beaumont, but he nearly always used his French title of Count of Meulan. Three generations of his descendants, all named Robert, called themselves Earls of Leicester; the Beaumont male line ended with the death of the 4th Earl. His property was split between his two sisters, with Simon IV de Montfort, the son of the eldest sister, acquiring Leicester and the rights to the earldom. However, Simon IV de Montfort was never formally recognized as earl, due to the antipathy between France and England at that time, his second son, Simon V de Montfort, did succeed in taking possession of the earldom and its associated properties. He is the Simon de Montfort who became so prominent during the reign of Henry III, he was killed at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, his lands and titles were forfeited.
In 1267 the title was created a second time and granted to the king's youngest son, Edmund Crouchback. In 1276 he became Earl of Lancaster, the titles became united. Crouchback's son Thomas lost the earldom when he was executed for treason in 1322, but a few years it was restored to his younger brother Henry. Henry's son Henry of Grosmont left only two daughters, his estate was divided between them, the eldest daughter Matilda receiving the earldom, held by her husband William V of Holland. Matilda, soon died, the title passed to John of Gaunt, husband of her younger sister, created Duke of Lancaster. Both the dukedom and the earldom were inherited by John of Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke, both titles ceased to exist when Henry usurped the throne, as the titles "merged into the crown"; the properties associated with the earldom became part of what was called the Duchy of Lancaster. In 1564 the earldom was again created for Robert Dudley. Since Dudley died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The title was again created in 1618 for his nephew. Prior to being granted the earldom Robert Sidney was granted the subsidiary title of Viscount Lisle on 4 May 1605; the Sidneys retained the titles until the death of the seventh Earl in 1743, when the titles again became extinct. The title of earl was recreated for Thomas Coke, but it became extinct when he, died without heirs; the title was again bestowed upon George Townshend, 16th Baron Ferrers of Chartley and 8th Baron Compton, eldest son and heir apparent of George Townshend, 4th Viscount Townshend the first Marquess Townshend. Townshend was a female-line great-great-great-grandson of Lady Lucy Sydney, daughter of the second Earl of the 1618 creation; the earldom became extinct yet again upon the death of his son, the third Marquess and second Earl, in 1855. The Coke family is descended from the noted judge and politician Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice from 1613 to 1616. Through his son Henry Coke, his great-great-great-grandson Thomas Coke was a landowner and patron of arts.
In 1728 he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron Lovel, of Minster Lovel in the County of Oxford, in 1744 he was created Viscount Coke, of Holkham in the County of Norfolk, Earl of Leicester in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Leicester began the construction of Holkham Hall in Norfolk, he married 19th Baroness de Clifford. Their only child Edward Coke, Viscount Coke, predeceased both his parents, without issue. Lord Leicester's titles became extinct on his death in 1759 while the barony of de Clifford fell into abeyance on Lady de Clifford's death in 1775; the Coke estates were passed on to the late Earl's nephew Wenman Coke. Born Wenman Roberts, he was the son of Philip Roberts and Anne, sister of Lord Leicester, assumed the surname of Coke in lieu of Roberts, his son Thomas Coke was noted agriculturalist. Known as "Coke of Norfolk", he sat as a Member of Parliament for many years but is best remembered for his interest in agricultural improvements and is seen as one of the instigators of the British Agricultural Revolution.
In 1837 the titles held by his great-uncle were revived when Coke was raised to the Peerage of the United Kingdom as Viscount Coke and Earl of Leicester, of Holkham in the County of Norfolk. This was despite the fact that the 1784 creation of the earldom held by the Townshend family was still extant. Lord Leicester was succeeded by his eldest son from the second Earl, he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk for sixty years and was made a Knight of the Garter in 1873. On his death in 1909 the titles passed to the third Earl, he was a colonel in the 2nd Battalion of the Scots Guards and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk. He was succeeded by the fourth Earl, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk. When he died the titles passed to his son, the fifth Earl, he was an Extra Equerry to both George VI and Elizabeth II. He was succeeded by his first cousin, the sixth Earl, he was the son of the Hon. Arthur G
Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in German Bundesstadt, French Ville Fédérale, Italian Città Federale. With a population of 142,493, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland; the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons; the official language in Bern is German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German. In 1983, the historic old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on folk etymology, Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, this turned out to be a bear, it has long been considered that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German.
As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin *berna "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s; the earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today′s city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, thought to be one of the 12 oppida of the Helvetii mentioned by Caesar. During the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site; the Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor. In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city; the medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in Upper Burgundy in the 12th century.
According to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a free imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps; the city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare. The Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, it was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were replaced by half-timbered houses and subsequently the sandstone buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town.
Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow due to immigration from the surrounding countryside. Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of parts of its territories, it regained control of the Bernese Oberland in 1802, following the Congress of Vienna of 1814, it newly acquired the Bernese Jura. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the Restoration and until the secession of the canton of Jura in 1979. Bern was made the Federal City within the new Swiss federal state in 1848. A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Bern during World War I when Switzerland was neutral; the city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased to below 130,000 by 2000.
As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate urban agglomeration. Bern lies on the Swiss plateau in the canton of Bern west of the centre of Switzerland and 20 km north of the Bernese Alps; the countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of 864 m and Bantiger with a height of 947 m; the site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at 46°57′08.66″N 7°26′22.50″E. The city was built on a hilly peninsula surrounded by the river Aare, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on uneven ground. An elevation difference of several metres exists betwe
The Castle of Gruyères, located in the medieval town of Gruyères, Fribourg, is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the building was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554, his creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and to the prefects sent by Fribourg. In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it; the castle was bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection; the castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476.
As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it. A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle. An international collection of Fantastic Art is exhibited. Gremaud, Henri. OCLC 123995819 Guex, François. OCLC 180968172 Official web site
The Savoy is a luxury hotel located in the Strand in the City of Westminster in central London, England. Built by the impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte with profits from his Gilbert and Sullivan opera productions, it opened on 6 August 1889, it was the first in the Savoy group of hotels and restaurants owned by Carte's family for over a century. The Savoy was the first luxury hotel in Britain, introducing electric lights throughout the building, electric lifts, bathrooms in most of the lavishly furnished rooms, constant hot and cold running water and many other innovations. Carte hired César Ritz as Auguste Escoffier as chef de cuisine; the hotel became Carte's most successful venture. Its bands, Savoy Orpheans and the Savoy Havana Band, became famous, other entertainers included George Gershwin, Frank Sinatra, Lena Horne and Noël Coward. Other famous guests have included Edward VII, Oscar Wilde, Enrico Caruso, Charlie Chaplin, Babe Ruth, Harry Truman, Joan Crawford, Judy Garland, John Wayne, Laurence Olivier, Marilyn Monroe, Humphrey Bogart, Elizabeth Taylor, Barbra Streisand, Bob Dylan, Bette Midler, The Beatles and many others.
Winston Churchill took his cabinet to lunch at the hotel. The hotel is now managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, it has been called "London's most famous hotel". It has 267 guest rooms and panoramic views of the River Thames across Savoy Place and the Thames Embankment; the hotel is a Grade II listed building. The House of Savoy was the ruling family of Savoy, descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia, who became count in 1032; the name Sabaudia evolved into "Savoy". Count Peter of Savoy was the maternal uncle of Eleanor of Provence, queen-consort of Henry III of England, came with her to London. King Henry III made Peter Earl of Richmond and, in 1246, gave him the land between the Strand and the River Thames, where Peter built the Savoy Palace in 1263. Peter gifted the palace and the manor of the Savoy to the Congregation of Canons of the Great Saint Bernard, the palace became the "Great Hospital of St Bernard de Monte Jovis in Savoy"; the manor was subsequently purchased by Queen Eleanor, who gave the site to her second son, Earl of Lancaster.
Edmund's great-granddaughter, inherited the site. Her husband, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, built a magnificent palace, burned down by Wat Tyler's followers in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. King Richard II was still a child, his uncle John of Gaunt was the power behind the throne, so a main target of the rebels. In about 1505, Henry VII planned a great hospital for "pouer, nedie people", leaving money and instructions for it in his will; the hospital was built in the palace ruins and licensed in 1512. Drawings show that it was a magnificent building, with dining hall and three chapels. Henry VII's hospital suffered from poor management; the sixteenth-century historian Stow noted that the hospital was being misused by "loiterers and strumpets". In 1702, the hospital was dissolved, the hospital buildings were used for other purposes. Part of the old palace was used as a military prison in the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century, the old hospital buildings were demolished, new buildings were erected.
In 1864, a fire burned everything except the Savoy Chapel. The property sat empty until the impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte bought it in 1880, to build the Savoy Theatre for the production of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, of which he was the producer. Having seen the opulence of American hotels during his many visits to the United States, Carte decided to build the first luxury hotel in Britain, to attract a foreign clientele as well as British visitors to London. Opened in 1889, the hotel was designed by architect Thomas Edward Collcutt, who designed the Wigmore Hall. Carte chose the name "Savoy" to commemorate the history of the property, his investors in the venture were, in addition to his relatives, Carl Rosa, George Grossmith, François Cellier, George Edwardes, Augustus Harris and Fanny Ronalds. His friend, the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan, sat on the board of directors; the hotel was built on a plot of land, next to the Savoy Theatre, that Carte purchased to house an electrical generator for the theatre, the first public building in the world to be lit by electricity.
The construction of the hotel took five years and was financed by the profits from the Gilbert and Sullivan partnership from The Mikado. It was the first hotel in the first with electric lifts. Other innovations included private, marble, en-suite bathrooms in the majority of its 268 rooms. At first the Savoy did well; the board of directors instructed Carte to replace the management team, headed by W. Hardwicke as manager and M. Charpentier as chef de cuisine; as manager he engaged César Ritz the founder of the Ritz Hotel. The Savoy under Ritz and his partners soon attracted distinguished and wealthy clientele, headed by the Prince