An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Harvard Graduate School of Design
The Harvard Graduate School of Design is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, design studies; the GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, landscape architects. The school is considered a global academic leader in the design fields; the GSD has the world's oldest landscape architecture program, North America's oldest urban planning program. Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874; the Graduate School of Design was established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture under one graduate school. The market value of the school's endowment for the fiscal year 2016 was $428 million. Charles Eliot Norton brought the first architecture classes to Harvard University in 1874. In 1900, the first urban planning courses were taught at Harvard University, by 1909, urban planning courses taught by James Sturgis Pray were added into Harvard's design curriculum as part of the landscape architecture department.
In 1923, North America's first urban planning degree was established at Harvard. In 1980, the program was temporarily moved to the Harvard Kennedy School of Government until it returned to the GSD in 1984. In 1893, the nation's first professional course in landscape architecture was offered at Harvard University. In 1900, the world's first landscape architecture program was established by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Arthur A. Shurcliff; the School of Landscape Architecture was established in 1913. The three major design professions were united in 1936 to form the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 1937, Walter Gropius joined the GSD faculty as chair of the Department of Architecture and brought modern designers, including Marcel Breuer to help revamp the curriculum. In 1960, Josep Lluís Sert established the nation's first Urban Design program. George Gund Hall, the present iconic home GSD, opened in 1972 and was designed by Australian architect and GSD graduate John Andrews; the school's now defunct Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis is recognized as the research/development environment from which the now-commercialized technology of geographic information systems emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s.
More recent research initiatives include the Design Robotics Group, a unit that investigates new material systems and fabrication technologies in the context of architectural design and construction. The degrees granted in the masters programs include the Master of Architecture, Master in Landscape Architecture, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design, Master in Urban Planning, Master in Design Engineering, Master in Design Studies in more than eight concentrations; the school offers a doctoral degree, Doctor of Design, jointly administers a Doctor of Philosophy degree in architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Master of Architecture Master in Urban Planning Master of Landscape Architecture Master of Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Engineering Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Studies with distinct concentrations:Art and the Public Domain Critical Conservation Energy and Environments History and Philosophy of Design Real Estate and the Built Environment Risk and Resilience Technology Urbanism, Ecology Doctor of Design Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture, Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture As of 2016, the program's ten-year average ranking, places it 1st, overall, on DesignIntelligence's ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Executive Education operates within GSD providing continuing education classes, they are located at 7 Sumner Rd. Advanced Management Development Program in Real Estate is a six-week executive development course; the program is open to established professionals with 15+ years of experience in real estate. Upon graduating from AMDP, participants are full-fledged Harvard University Alumni; as of 2013, AMDP is in its 13th year. The other large program organized by Executive Education is summer Open Enrollment. In 2013, Executive Education held 18 classes throughout the month of July; each class lasts from 1 to 3 days and is eligible for continuing education credits through American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects and/or American Planning Association. Open Enrollment classes are open to everyone; as of 2012–2013, there were 878 students enrolled. 362 students or 42% were enrolled in architecture, 182 students or 21% in landscape architecture, 161 students or 18% in urban planning, 173 students or 20% in doctoral or design studies programs.
65% of students were Americans. The average student is 27 years old. GSD students are represented by the Harvard Graduate Council, the main university-wide student government organization. There are several dozen internal GSD student clubs. In addition to its degree programs, the GSD administers the Loeb Fellowship, numerous research initiatives such as the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure; the school publishes the bi-annual Harvard Design Magazine and other design books and studio work
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (
Therme Vals is the hotel/spa complex in Vals, built over the only thermal springs in the Graubünden canton in Switzerland. Completed in 1996, the project was designed by Peter Zumthor, winner of the 2009 Pritzker Architecture Prize. In the 1960s a German property developer, Karl Kurt Vorlop, built a hotel complex with over 1,000 beds to take advantage of the occurring thermal springs and the source, which provides the water for Valser mineral water, sold throughout Switzerland. After the developer went bankrupt, the village of Vals bought up the five hotels in the development in 1983 and resolved to commission a hydrotherapy centre at the centre of the five hotels, at the source of the thermal springs. In 2012 the hotel and spa owned by the Vals community, was sold to the investor Remo Stoffel. Peter Zumthor was selected as the architect for the spa, despite his limited track record at the time; the facility was built between 1993-1996. The baths were designed to look as if they pre-dated the hotel complex, as if they were a form of cave or quarry-like structure.
This is evident from observing the grass roof structure of the baths, which resemble the foundations of an archaeological site, reveal the form of the various bath rooms which lie below, half buried into the hill-side. Built using locally quarried Valser quartzite slabs, the spa building is made up of 15 different table-like units, 5 metres in height, with cantilevered concrete roof units supported by tie-beams; these units fit together like a giant jigsaw puzzle. The nature of the construction is revealed through close inspection of the roof – the roofs of the units don’t join, with the 8 cm gaps covered by glass to prevent water ingress. Inside, this provides a dichotomy – the concrete makes the roof appear heavy, but the gaps between the units make the roof appear to float. There are 60,000 one meter long sections of stone forming the cladding of the walls. Whilst these appear random, like an ashlar wall, there is a regular order; the cladding stones are of three different heights, but the total of the three is always 15 cm, so it allows for variety in arrangement, whilst facilitating construction.
The architect intended to not include clocks within the spa, as he believed that time should be suspended whilst enjoying the baths, but three months after the baths opened, the architect relented to pressure from the client by the mounting of two small clocks atop brass posts. The music video for the song "Every Time" by American singer Janet Jackson from her album, The Velvet Rope, was filmed in the then-new Therme Vals; the novel "Tout ce qui remue et qui vit" by Swiss Writer Isaac Pante takes place in the Therme Vals. French photographer Dominique Issermann spent three days with French model and actress Laetitia Casta; the result of this photoshoot is available in a book published by Éditions Xavier Barral. Therme Vals home page Therme Vals at archINFORM Spa Switzerland essential visitor information
The Steilneset Memorial is a monument in Vardø, commemorating the trial and execution in 1621 of 91 people for witchcraft. The memorial was designed by artist Louise Bourgeois and architect Peter Zumthor and was opened in 2011, it was Bourgeois' last major work. In the seventeenth century, a series of witch trials occurred in Norway, of which the Vardø witch trials were among the most substantial. Over a hundred people were tried with 77 women and 14 men being burned at the stake; the northern district of Finnmark, within which Vardø lies, experienced the highest rate of accusations of witchcraft of any part of Norway, an unusually high proportion of executions arising from the trials. The trials peaked in 1662–1663; the Steilneset Memorial was jointly commissioned by the town of Vardø, Finnmark County, the Varanger Museum, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, has been associated with the development of the National Tourist Routes in Norway. Norwegian architects designed the public architecture associated with the routes, such as lookouts, under competitive tender, but the memorial was the result of a specific commission.
A collaboration between French-American artist Louise Bourgeois and previous winner of the Pritzker Prize, Swiss architect Peter Zumthor, design commenced in 2006, the monument was opened by Queen Sonja of Norway on 23 June 2011. Bourgeois died in 2010, her contribution to the project, titled The Damned, The Possessed and The Beloved, was her last major installation; the Memorial comprises two separate buildings: a 410-foot-long wooden structure framing a fabric cocoon that contains Zumthor's installation. Zumthor's structure is made from wooden frames, fabricated off-site and assembled to create sixty bays in a long line within which, suspended by cable-stays, is a coated fibreglass membrane that tapers at each end. Inside is a timber walkway, 328 feet long but just five feet wide, along the narrow corridor are 91 randomly placed small windows representing those executed, each one accompanied by an explanatory text based on original sources. Through each window can be seen a single lightbulb, intended to evoke "the lamps in the small curtainless windows of the houses" of the region.
The building that houses Bourgeois' installation stands in stark contrast to its companion. Its square structure is fabricated from weathering steel and 17 panes of tinted glass, forming walls that stop short of the ceiling and floor. Inside, Bourgeois has set a metal chair with flames projecting through its seat; this is reflected "in seven oval mirrors placed on metal columns in a ring around the fiery seat, like judges circling the condemned." Writer Donna Wheeler, reflecting on Bourgeois' sculpture with its fire burning within the solitary chair, observed: "The perpetual flame – that old chestnut of commemoration and reflection – here is devoid of any redemptive quality, illuminating only its own destructive image". Arch daily article on the Memorial, containing numerous images
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree