Titchfield Abbey is a medieval abbey and country house, located in the village of Titchfield near Fareham in Hampshire, England. The abbey was founded in 1222 for an austere order of priests; the abbey was a minor house of its order, became neither wealthy nor influential during its three centuries of monastic life. The abbey was closed in 1537 by Henry VIII of England during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the building was converted into a mansion by Thomas Wriothesley, a powerful courtier. In the sixteenth century the mansion was home to Henry Wriothesley, a patron of William Shakespeare. In 1781 the mansion was abandoned and demolished; the remains were purchased by the government in the early twentieth century and are now a Scheduled Ancient Monument under the care of English Heritage. The builder of the abbey was Bishop Peter des Roches of Winchester, a powerful politician and government official who founded several religious houses, including Netley Abbey in Hampshire, Halesowen Abbey in Worcestershire and La Clarté-Dieu in his native France.
In 1222 the first inhabitants of the new monastery, under the leadership of Abbot Richard, arrived from Halesowen Abbey. They were not monks, instead they were canons regular belonging to the Premonstratensian order, they lived communally, following a strict interpretation of the Rule of St Augustine, but in addition to engaging in a life of study and prayer within their abbeys, they had a pastoral mission and served as parish priests ministering to the spiritual needs of the laity. The order was well known for the austerity of the lives led by its members, something that made it — as with the Cistercians — popular with wealthy benefactors in the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Bishop Peter held one of the richest bishoprics in the mediaeval church and so was in a position to be generous in the endowment of his new abbey, he not only gave the manor of Titchfield itself but extensive lands dotted around Hampshire, this property was expanded by major grants from local aristocrats and King Henry III, with the result that Titchfield was placed on a firm financial footing from the beginning.
With stone hard to come by in the county of Hampshire, the abbey was built using stone brought in from neighbouring Dorset, the Isle of Wight and as far afield as Caen in France. The abbey buildings were centred around the church, comparatively small and lacking in grandeur, it was cruciform in plan with a narrow, aisle-less nave, a short eastern arm, six side chapels in the transepts and a tower with bells. It was in some ways a rather old fashioned design and deliberately austere reflecting the strict doctrines of the order at the period of construction. Though it was restored once after nearly falling to ruin, unlike many of their fellows the canons of Titchfield never succumbed to the desire to create an elaborate new church in the middle ages and kept their original building until the end of monastic life at the abbey. North of the church stood a cloister surrounded on three sides by the domestic buildings of the house, including the chapter house, kitchen, library, food storage rooms and quarters for the abbot.
Though not large, the surviving ruins show that the abbey buildings were of high quality with fine masonry and carving. As the Middle Ages progressed considerable investment was made to upgrade the domestic buildings to meet rising living standards, it is probable that by the mid fourteenth century they were rather luxurious, as evidenced by the elaborate polychrome floor tiles still seen today all over the site; the central core of the monastery was surrounded by a walled precinct containing gardens, orchards, guesthouses, stables, a farmyard and industrial buildings. Entrance to the abbey was controlled by several gatehouses; the internal affairs of the abbey seem to have been quiet. It was well run over its history and maintained a good reputation for the life led by its canons; as with other Premonstratensian houses, Titchfield Abbey was visited once a year by the father-abbot from the parent house. The abbey remained tolerably solvent for most of its existence, however, in common with many religious houses and secular lords it experienced severe financial difficulties in the latter half of the 14th century and the early 15th century due to the economic and social crisis resulting from the effects of the Black Death.
The scale of the disaster can be judged by the fact that on the Titchfield estates in the plague years of 1348-1349 close to 60% of the tenants died, together with a vast number of animals, when the plague returned in 1361-1362 the agricultural population took another massive hit. When John Poole, abbot of the mother house of Halesowen Abbey inspected Titchfield in summer 1420 he found the coffers empty, the abbey's accounts in the red and the barns and storehouses nearly empty of food and fodder. Despite this, in the following years the canons managed to retrieve the situation and in the last years of its existence Titchfield was again prosperous. Inspections by senior abbots of the order from 1478 to 1502 noted that Titchfield was ex
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke called William the Marshal, was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman. He served five English kings – Henry II, his sons the "Young King" Henry, Richard I, John's son Henry III. Knighted in 1166, he spent his younger years as a knight errant and a successful tournament competitor. In 1189, he became the de facto Earl of Pembroke through his marriage to Isabel de Clare, though the title of earl would not be granted until 1199 during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. In 1216, he was appointed protector for the nine-year-old Henry III, regent of the kingdom. Before him, his father's family held a hereditary title of Marshal to the king, which by his father's time had become recognized as a chief or master Marshalcy, involving management over other Marshals and functionaries. William became known as'the Marshal', although by his time much of the function was delegated to more specialized representatives; because he was an Earl, known as the Marshal, the term "Earl Marshal" was used and this became an established hereditary title in the English Peerage.
William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to support the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy". When King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle in 1152, according to William's biographer, he used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept his promise to surrender the castle. John, used the time allotted to reinforce the castle and to alert Matilda's forces; when Stephen ordered John to surrender or William would be hanged, John replied that he should go ahead saying, "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Subsequently, a pretence was made to launch William from a pierrière towards the castle. Stephen could not bring himself to harm young William. William remained a crown hostage for many months, was released following the peace resulting from the terms agreed at Winchester on 6 November 1153, by which the civil war was ended.
As a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, had to make his own way in life. Around the age of twelve, when his father's career was faltering, he was sent to the Château de Tancarville in Normandy to be brought up in the household of William de Tancarville, a great magnate and cousin of young William's mother. Here he began his training as a knight; this would have included biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, some exposure to French romance literature to confer precepts of chivalry upon the future knight. In Tancarville's household he is likely to have learned important and lasting practical lessons in the politics of courtly life. According to his thirteenth-century biography, L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, Marshal had enemies at Tancarville's court who plotted against him — men threatened by his close relationship with the magnate, he was knighted in 1166 on campaign in Upper Normandy being invaded from Flanders. His first experience in battle received mixed reviews.
According to L'Histoire, everyone who witnessed the young knight in combat agreed that he had acquitted himself well. However, as medieval historian David Crouch remarks, "War in the twelfth century was not fought wholly for honour. Profit was there to be made..." In this regard Marshal was not so successful, as he was unable to parlay his combat victories into profit from either ransom or seized booty. L'Histoire relates that the Earl of Essex, expecting the customary tribute from his valorous knight after the battle, jokingly remarked: "Oh? But Marshal, what are you saying? You had forty or sixty of them — yet you refuse me so small a thing!"In 1167 he was taken by William de Tancarville to his first tournament, where he found his true métier. Quitting the Tancarville household he served in the household of his mother's brother, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168 his uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy de Lusignan. William was injured and captured in the same skirmish, but Queen Eleanor, whom they were escorting, and, the target of the ambush, was able to escape.
It is known that William received a wound to his thigh and that someone in his captor's household took pity on the young knight. He received a loaf of bread in which were concealed several lengths of clean linen bandages with which to dress his wounds; this act of kindness by an unknown person saved Marshal's life as infection setting into the wound could have killed him. After a period of time he was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, impressed by tales of his bravery, he would remain a member of Queen Eleanor's household for the next two years attending a few tournaments during this time as well. In 1170, Marshal was appointed as Young King Henry's tutor-in-arms by the Young King's father, Henry II. During the Young King-led Revolt of 1173-1174, little is known of Marshal's specific activities besides his loyalty to the Young King. After the failed rebellion, Young King Henry and his mesnie, including Marshal, traveled with Henry II for eighteen months, before asking for, receiving, permission to travel to Europe to participate in knightly tournaments.
Marshal followed the Young King, from 1176-1182 both Marshal and the Young King gained prestige from winning tournaments. Tournaments were dangerous deadly, staged battles in which money and valuable prize
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Catholic Church. An archdeacon is responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, the principal subdivision of the diocese; the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as "A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese." The office has been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the "bishop's eye". In the Latin Catholic Church, the post of archdeacon an ordained deacon, was once one of great importance as a senior official of a diocese; the duties are now performed by officials such as auxiliary or coadjutor bishops, the vicar general, the episcopal vicars.
The title remains. The term "archdeacon" appears for the first time in Optatus of Mileve's history of Donatism of about 370, in which he applies it to someone who lived at the beginning of that century. From the office of the diaconus episcopi, a deacon whom the bishop selected to administer the church's finances under the bishop's personal direction, the office of archdeacon developed, as certain functions were reserved to him by law; these functions included not only financial administration but the discipline of the clergy, examination of candidates for priesthood. From the 8th century, there was in the West a further development of the authority of the archdeacon, who now enjoyed a jurisdiction independent of the bishop. Large dioceses had several archdeaconries, in each of which the archdeacon, had an authority comparable to that of the bishop, they were appointed not by the bishop but by the cathedral chapter or the king. However, from the 13th century, efforts were made to limit their authority.
This was effected in part by the institution of the new office of vicar general, who would be a priest rather than a deacon. In 1553, the Council of Trent removed the independent powers of archdeacons. Those, in charge of different parts of the diocese ceased to be appointed. Only the archdeacon associated with the cathedral chapter continued to exist as an empty title, with duties entirely limited to liturgical functions; the title of archdeacon is still conferred on a canon of various cathedral chapters, the word "archdeacon" has been defined in relation to the Latin Catholic Church as "a title of honour conferred only on a member of a cathedral chapter". However, Eastern Catholic Churches still utilize archdeacons. Archdeacons serve the church within a diocese by taking particular responsibility for buildings, including church buildings, the welfare of clergy and their families and the implementation of diocesan policy for the sake of the Gospel within an archdeaconry. An archdeaconry is a territorial division of a diocese.
This type of dual role has only existed in the Bishop suffragan of Ludlow. An archdeacon is styled The Venerable instead of the usual clerical style of The Reverend. In the Church of England the position of an archdeacon can only be held by a priest, ordained for at least six years. In the Church of England, the legal act by which a priest becomes an archdeacon is called a collation. If that archdeaconry is annexed to a canonry of the cathedral, the archdeacon will be installed at that cathedral. In some other Anglican churches archdeacons can be deacons instead of priests; the Anglican ordinal presupposes that the functions of archdeacons include those of examining candidates for ordination and presenting them to the ordaining bishop. In some parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be consecrated as bishops, the position of archdeacon is the most senior office a female cleric can hold: this being the current situation, for example, in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. "lay archdeacons" have been appointed, most notably in the case of the former Anglican Communion Observer to the United Nations, Archdeacon Taimalelagi Fagamalama Tuatagoloa-Leota, who retained her title after having served as Archdeacon of Samoa.
In the Eastern Christian churches, an archdeacon is the senior deacon within a diocese and has responsibility for serving at hierarchical services. He has responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the service by directing the clergy and servers as appropriate; as such, he travels with the ruling bishop to various parts of the diocese, will sometimes act as his secretary and cell attendant, ensuring that he is able to balance his monastic life with his hierarchical duties. The archdeacon wears the double orarion, twice the length of the usual orarion, wraps under the right arm as well as hanging from the left shoulder. An archdeacon may come from either the married clergy. A protodeacon w
Ralph Neville was a medieval clergyman and politician who served as Bishop of Chichester and Lord Chancellor of England. Neville first appears in the historical record in 1207 in the service of King John of England, remained in royal service throughout the rest of his life. By 1213 Neville had custody of the Great Seal of England, although he was not named chancellor, the office responsible for the seal, until 1226, he was rewarded with the bishopric of Chichester in 1222. Although he was briefly Archbishop-elect of Canterbury and Bishop-elect of Winchester, both elections were set aside, or quashed, he held neither office; as keeper of the seal, subsequently as chancellor, Neville was noted for his impartiality, he oversaw a number of changes in the way the chancery operated. Neville was deprived of the Great Seal in 1238 after quarrelling with the king, but continued to hold the title of chancellor until his death, he died in his London palace, built on a street renamed Chancery Lane owing to his connection with the chancery.
Neville, illegitimate, had at least three brothers: Nicholas de Neville, a canon at Chichester Cathedral. The identity of their father is unknown, but another sibling was Roger, who held land in Lincolnshire. Robert became Chancellor of the Exchequer, Nicholas a baron of the Exchequer. Ralph Neville was related to Hugh de Neville, King John of England's chief forester. Neville was a royal clerk to King John in the spring of 1207, in December of that year was at Marlborough Castle on royal business. Earlier references to a Ralph Neville who in 1207 delivered items to Hugh de Neville, or the Ralph Neville, the same Hugh de Neville's chaplain, may be to the future bishop, but the evidence is inconclusive. Hugh de Neville and Neville subsequently worked together, corresponded on both business and personal affairs. Both men claimed the other as a kinsman. Neville's activities during the years after 1207 are unknown, owing to the lack of royal records, but in December 1213 he was given custody of the Great Seal of the kingdom.
He was Dean of Lichfield by 11 April 1214. Neville was appointed to the royal chancery in about 1214 through the patronage of Peter des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester and one of the king's favourites. From March to October 1214, Neville was in France with the king. After the king returned to England after 1214, Neville remained in royal service until at least May 1216, although without custody of the Great Seal, his activities during the final period of John's reign prior to the king's sudden death in October 1216 are unknown. Neville was keeper of the royal seal under the new king, Henry III from about 6 November 1218, he had been at the royal court since May 1218, was given custody of the seal as soon as it was made up. One of the first documents subsequently sealed was a declaration that no charters or other rights would be granted in perpetuity until Henry attained his majority. Neville was vice-chancellor of England under the chancellorship of Richard Marsh, elected as Bishop of Durham in 1217 and spent most of his time attending to ecclesiastical affairs in his northern diocese.
In fact, if not in name, Neville was responsible for all the duties of the chancellorship, he exercised most of the power of that office, although Marsh continued to hold the title of chancellor until his death in 1226. When instability threatened the royal government in May and June 1219 Neville was ordered by Pandulf, the papal legate, to remain in London with the Great Seal while a royal council was held at Gloucester; the council resulted in royal government coming under the control of Hubert de Burgh the Justiciar and Peter des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester. Neville received a papal dispensation for his illegitimacy on 25 January 1220, on the recommendation of the king, Stephen Langton the Archbishop of Canterbury, other bishops, the papal legate Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, all of whom testified to his good reputation and character. In late October he was named chancellor of the see of Chichester, but was elected Bishop of Chichester on about 1 November 1222, he was given control of the temporalities of the bishopric on 3 November 1222, was consecrated on 21 April 1224.
In April 1223 Neville was ordered by Pope Honorius III to cease using the Great Seal on the command of the justiciar or other members of the minority council, but instead to do so only at the king's command ending the royal minority. But it did not end until December 1223, then, as the king had not yet been declared of age, the ban on grants without a fixed time limit remained in force. Neville was named Lord Chancellor of England on 17 May 1226; the appointment was made by the great council during the minority of King Henry III, Neville obtained a grant of the office for life. Unlike Hubert de Burgh, who lost his offices when Henry III attained his majority and took control of the government, Neville remained chancellor with only slight disagreements until 1238, although a confirmation of the lifetime nature of his tenure was made in 1232. Under Neville, the first signs that the chancery was becoming a department of the government, rather than just a royal department, part of the royal household, began to emerge.
The contemporary writer Matthew Paris praised Neville for his actions as chancellor, claiming that he treated all and was transparent in discharging his duties, important, as the chancellor's office controlled access to the king. Neville oversaw a number of changes in chan
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de-facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians and the Salians. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740; the final emperors were from the House of Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved after the defeat at Austerlitz by emperor Francis II, who continued to rule as Austrian emperor; the Holy Roman Emperor was perceived to rule by divine right, though he contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among other Catholic monarchs.
In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith; until the Reformation, the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. After the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, the electors voted in their own political interest. From the time of Constantine I, the Roman emperors had, with few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity; the reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church.
Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period; the ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. From the western perspective, the interregnum in the Roman Empire spanned the 8th centuries; the title of Emperor was revived in 800, when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope; as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration.
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924; the comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers; the King of the Germans would be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, his successor, Ferdinand I adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558; the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term sacrum in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans"; when Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, that of German Emperor on the other; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e. the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor".
Henry III of England
Henry III known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons, his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church. Following the revolt, Henry ruled England rather than governing through senior ministers.
He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities, he extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England crippling their ability to do business, as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money, he was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. By 1258, Henry's rule was unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts.
A coalition of his barons probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony; the baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued. In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry mobilised an army; the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth.
Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death. Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207, he was the eldest son of King Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life, he was looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, had close ties to his mother. Henry had four legitimate younger brothers and sisters – Richard, Joan and Eleanor – and various older illegitimate siblings. In 1212 his education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester. Little is known about Henry's appearance. Henry grew up to show flashes of a fierce temper, but as historian David Carpenter describes, he had an "amiable, easy-going, sympathetic" personality.
He was unaffected and honest, showed his emotions easily being moved to tears by religious sermons. At the start of the 13th century, the Kingdom of England formed part of the Angevin Empire spreading across Western Europe. Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who had built up this vast network of lands stretching from Scotland and Wales, through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou in north-west France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the south-west. For many years the French Crown was weak, enabling first Henry II, his sons Richard and John, to dominate France. In 1204, John lost Normandy, Brittany and Anjou to Philip II of France, leaving English power on the continent limited to Gascony and Poitou. John raised taxes to pay for military campaigns to regain his lands, but unrest grew among many of the English