A petroglyph is an image created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, are associated with prehistoric peoples; the word comes from the Greek prefix petro-, from πέτρα petra meaning "stone", γλύφω glýphō meaning "carve", was coined in French as pétroglyphe. Another form of petroglyph found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone. While these relief carvings are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric or nonliterate cultures; some of these reliefs exploit the rock's natural properties to define an image. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures in the ancient Near East.

Rock reliefs are fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures. Stylistically, a culture's rock relief carvings relate to other types of sculpture from period concerned. Except for Hittite and Persian examples, they are discussed as part of the culture's sculptural practice; the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on horizontal surfaces are found. The term relief excludes relief carvings inside natural or human-made caves, that are common in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are to be included, but smaller boulders described as stele or carved orthostats; the term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are quite different.

Inuksuit are not petroglyphs, they are human-made rock forms found only in the Arctic region. Some petroglyphs might be as old as 40,000 years, petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years. Many petroglyphs are dated to the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, if not earlier, such as Kamyana Mohyla. Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, some cultures continued using them much longer until contact with Western culture was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Siberia, southwestern North America, Australia. Many hypotheses explain the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their location and subject matter; some may be astronomical markers and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of proto-writing.

Petroglyph maps may show trails, symbols communicating time and distances traveled, as well as the local terrain in the form of rivers and other geographic features. A petroglyph that represents a landform or the surrounding terrain is known as a geocontourglyph, they might have been a by-product of other rituals: sites in India, for example, have been identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". Some petroglyph images have deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not-yet-fully understood symbolic or ritual language. Glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to possible religious meanings. Petroglyph styles has regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established, they are not yet well understood.

Petrogylphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles; this could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had "... a common origin, indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation. More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain. Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness induced by the use of natural hallucinogens.

Many of the geometric patterns which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They occur in visual disturbances and ha

Tafresh University

Tafresh University named Tafresh Amir Kabir University of Technology is an educational university located in Tafresh, Iran. Now, about 3,000 students are studying in this university, it was early 1987 that the first step for establishing a university in the city of Tafresh was taken by the university development council. The goal was training professionals and researchers in order to enrich the necessary human resources in need of the country. In May 1987 the construction of Tafresh University was initiated owing to the efforts spent by Dr Heydari. In 1988, Tafresh University began academic activities by admitting 53 students in applied mathematics. At that time Amir Kabir University was the executor, TU was a unit of that institution. With the permission of the development council for higher education, Tafresh University was elevated to an independent university in 2005. Tafresh University was founded to constitute 4 research centres and 17 faculties with 45 academic majors available at undergraduate and graduate levels.

At the time being Tafresh University hosts 2,130 students in 7 academic disciplines. Of those, 1,834 students study in 15 academic majors at the B. Sc. level, 294 students study in 17 academic majors at the M. Sc. level, 12 PhD students study in 2 academic majors at the PhD level. Due to the formulated development programme, the number of disciplines offered by Tafresh University shall increase. Presently, Tafresh university has 70 full-time academic staff members, they comprise the following faculties: Electrical engineering Industrial engineering Mechanical engineering Civil and Geodesy engineering Chemical engineering Mathematics PhysicsThe university offers the following academic majors at the B. Sc. Level: Mechanical engineering – Mechanics of fluids and heat Electrical engineering – Electronics Electrical engineering – Control Electrical engineering – Power Civil engineering – Surveying Civil engineering – Civil Industrial engineering – Industrial technology Chemical engineering Mathematics – Pure MathematicsApplied Mathematics and its applications PhysicsAcademic majors at the M.

Sc. Level are: Civil engineering – Surveying – Photogrammetry Civil engineering – Structure Civil engineering - Soil Mechanics and Foundation Industrial engineering – Management systems Industrial engineering – Industry Electrical engineering – Electronics Electrical engineering – Control Electrical engineering – Power Mechanical engineering – Manufacturing Applied Mathematics – Numerical Analysis Pure Mathematics – Geometry PhysicsFundamental Particles and Field theory Physics – NuclearThe university offers the following academic fields at the PhD level: Electrical engineering - Control Mathematics – Algebraic graph theory Faculty Of Civil Engineering Faculty Of Electrical engineering Faculty Of Chemical Engineering Faculty Of Mechanical Engineering Faculty Of Industrial Engineering Faculty Of Mathematics Faculty Of Physics Higher education in Iran Science in Iran Official Website Of Tafresh University Student administration portal of Tafresh University

Red Jet 4

MV Red Jet 4 is a passenger catamaran ferry operated by Red Funnel on their route from Southampton to Cowes on the Isle of Wight, along with sister ships Red Jet 6 and Red Jet 7. She was built by North West Bay Ships in Tasmania. After her launch on 20 February 2003 the catamaran was placed aboard a heavy lift ship to be transported to Southampton which arrived on 9 May 2003, she was named by Dame Ellen MacArthur on 18 June 2003 and entered service five days later. During those 5 days the ship was used for a number of excursions including following the Round the Island Race. On 11 November 2008 Red Jet 4 was used on a number of sightseeing trips to view Queen Elizabeth 2 before it left Southampton for the final time. Red Jet 4 is featured in the 2008 video game Ship Simulator 2008 with the MV Red Eagle as a sailable ship. On 5 November 2016, while passing Fawley en route to Cowes, Red Jet 4 was in a sidelong collision with a man riding a jet ski; the man was picked up by a companion on another machine.

Red Jet 4 circled to make sure. Red Jet 4 at