The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements, in certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold. The numerical definition of voltage depends on context. Two factors considered in classifying a voltage as high voltage are the possibility of causing a spark in air, the definitions may refer to the voltage between two conductors of a system, or between any conductor and ground. In electric power engineering, high voltage is usually considered any voltage over approximately 35,000 volts. This is a based on the design of apparatus and insulation. This is in the context of building wiring and the safety of electrical apparatus, in the United States 2011 National Electrical Code is the standard regulating most electrical installations. There are no definitions relating to high voltage, the NEC® covers voltages 600 volts and less and that over 600 volts.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association defines high voltage as over 100kV to 230kV, electricians may only be licensed for particular voltage classes, in some jurisdictions. The general public may consider household mains circuits, which carry the highest voltages they normally encounter, the definition of extra high voltage again depends on context. In electric power engineering, EHV equipment carries more than 345,000 volts between conductors. In electronics systems, a supply that provides greater than 275,000 volts is called an EHV Power Supply. The accelerating voltage for a cathode ray tube may be described as extra-high voltage or extra-high tension. This type of supply ranges from >5 kV to about 50 kV, in automotive engineering, high voltage is defined as voltage in range 30–1000 Vac or 60–1500 Vdc. In digital electronics, a high voltage usually refers to that representing a logic 1 in positive logic and it is not used to indicate a hazardous voltage and levels between ICs to TTL/CMOS standards and their modern derivatives are well below hazardous levels.
The highest in mainstream use were 15V for original CMOS and 5V for TTL but modern devices use 3. 3V, with 1. 8V or lower used in many applications. Voltages greater than 50 V applied across dry unbroken human skin can cause heart fibrillation if they produce electric currents in body tissues that happen to pass through the chest area, the voltage at which there is the danger of electrocution depends on the electrical conductivity of dry human skin. Living human tissue can be protected from damage by the characteristics of dry skin up to around 50 volts
A chainsaw is a portable, mechanical saw which cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain that runs along a guide bar. It is used in such as tree felling, bucking, cutting firebreaks in wildland fire suppression. Chainsaws with specially designed bar and chain combinations have been developed as tools for use in chainsaw art, specialized chainsaws are used for cutting concrete. Chainsaws are sometimes used for cutting ice, for example for ice sculpture, someone who uses a saw is a sawyer. The origin is debated, but a tool was made around 1830 by the German orthopaedist Bernhard Heine. This instrument, the osteotome, had links of a chain carrying small cutting teeth with the set at an angle. As the name implies, this was used to cut bone, the chain hand saw, a fine serrated link chain which cut on the concave side, was invented around 1783-1785. It was illustrated in Aitkens Principles of Midwifery or Puerperal Medicine, Jeffray claimed to have conceived the idea of the chain saw independently about that time but it was 1790 before he was able to have it produced.
In 1806, Jeffray published Cases of the Excision of Carious Joints by H. Park, in this communication he translated Moreaus paper of 1803. Park and Moreau described successful excision of diseased joints, particularly the knee, Jeffray explained that the chain saw would allow a smaller wound and protect the adjacent neurovascular bundle. While a heroic concept, symphysiotomy had too many complications for most obstetricians but Jeffrays ideas became accepted, mechanised versions of the chain saw were developed but in the 19th Century, it was superseded in surgery by the Gigli twisted wire saw. For much of the 19th century, the saw was a useful surgical instrument. The earliest patent for an endless chain saw was granted to Samuel J. Bens of San Francisco on January 17,1905. His intent being to fell giant redwoods, the first portable chainsaw was developed and patented in 1918 by Canadian millwright James Shand. After he allowed his rights to lapse in 1930 his invention was developed by what became the German company Festo in 1933.
The company now operates as Festool producing portable power tools, in 1927, Emil Lerp, the founder of Dolmar, developed the worlds first gasoline-powered chainsaw and mass-produced them. World War II interrupted the supply of German chain saws to North America, so new manufacturers sprang up including Industrial Engineering Ltd in 1947, Ltd and part of Outboard Marine Corporation, the oldest manufacturer of chainsaws in North America. McCulloch in North America started to produce chainsaws in 1948, the early models were heavy, two-person devices with long bars
Subaru is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation, the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012. Subaru cars are known for the use of a boxer engine layout in most vehicles above 1500 cc, most Subaru models have used the Symmetrical All Wheel Drive drive-train layout since 1972. The lone exception is the BRZ, introduced in 2012, which uses the boxer engine, Subaru offers turbocharged versions of their passenger cars, such as the Impreza WRX and the Legacy 2. 5GT. The 2. 5XT trims of the Outback and Forester include a turbocharged engine, in Western markets, the Subaru brand has traditionally been popular among a dedicated core of buyers. Marketing is targeted towards specific niches centered on those who desire the companys signature drive train, in particular the outdoors enthusiast and affordable sports car markets. Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or The Seven Sisters, Fuji Heavy Industries started out as The Aircraft Research Laboratory in 1915, headed by Chikuhei Nakajima.
In 1932, the company was reorganized as Nakajima Aircraft Company, Ltd, at the end of the Second World War Nakajima Aircraft was again reorganized, this time as Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd. In 1946, the created the Fuji Rabbit motor scooter with spare aircraft parts from the war. In 1950, Fuji Sangyo was divided into 12 smaller corporations according to the Japanese Governments 1950 Corporate Credit Rearrangement Act, between 1953 and 1955, four of these corporations and a newly formed corporation decided to merge to form Fuji Heavy Industries. Kenji Kita, CEO of Fuji Heavy Industries at the time, wanted the new company to be involved in car manufacturing, mr. Kita canvassed the company for suggestions about naming the P1, but none of the proposals was appealing enough. In the end he gave the company a Japanese name that he had been cherishing in his heart, the first Subaru car was named the Subaru 1500. Only twenty were manufactured owing to supply issues. Subsequently, the designed and manufactured dozens of vehicles including the 1500, the tiny air-cooled 360, the Sambar.
Nissan would utilize FHIs bus manufacturing capability and expertise for their Nissan Diesel line of buses, in turn many Subaru vehicles, even today, use parts from the Nissan manufacturing keiretsu. The Subaru automatic transmission, known as the 4EAT, is used in the first generation Nissan Pathfinder. While under this arrangement with Nissan, Subaru introduced the R-2, the Rex and the Leone, the BRAT, the Legacy, the Impreza, upon Nissans acquisition by Renault, its stake in FHI was sold to General Motors in 1999. Troy Clarke, of General Motors served as representative to Fuji Heavy Industries on their corporate board, during that time, Subaru introduced the Baja, and the Tribeca. The Subaru Forester was sold as a Chevrolet Forester in India in exchange for the Opel Zafira being sold as a Subaru Traviq in Japan, the Chevrolet Borrego concept was presented in 2002, a crossover coupe/pickup truck being derived from the Japanese-market Legacy Turbo platform
Gasoline /ˈɡæsəliːn/, known as petrol /ˈpɛtrəl/ outside North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the distillation of petroleum. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of oil yields about 19 US gallons of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery. The characteristic of a gasoline blend to resist igniting too early is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating, gasoline contains ethanol as an alternative fuel, for economic or environmental reasons. Gasoline, as used worldwide in the vast number of combustion engines used in transport and industry, has a significant impact on the environment. Gasoline may enter the environment uncombusted, as liquid and as vapors, from leakage and handling during production and delivery, from tanks, from spills. As an example of efforts to control leakage, many storage tanks are required to have extensive measures in place to detect.
Gasoline contains benzene and other known carcinogens, Gasoline inhalation can produce an intense high, however the practice is thought to cause severe organ damage, including mental retardation. The first automotive combustion engines, so-called Otto engines, were developed in the last quarter of the 19th century in Germany, the fuel was a relatively volatile hydrocarbon obtained from coal gas. With a boiling point near 85 °C, it was suited for early carburetors. The development of a spray nozzle carburetor enabled the use of less volatile fuels, further improvements in engine efficiency were attempted at higher compression ratios, but early attempts were blocked by knocking. In the 1920s, antiknock compounds were introduced by Thomas Midgley Jr. and Boyd and this innovation started a cycle of improvements in fuel efficiency that coincided with the large-scale development of oil refining to provide more products in the boiling range of gasoline. In the 1950s oil refineries started to focus on high octane fuels, the 1970s witnessed greater attention to the environmental consequences of burning gasoline.
These considerations led to the out of TEL and its replacement by other antiknock compounds. Subsequently, low-sulfur gasoline was introduced, in part to preserve the catalysts in modern exhaust systems, Gasoline is the term that is used in North America to refer to the most popular automobile fuel. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first use to 1863, when it was spelled gasolene and it was never a trademark, although it may have been derived from older trademarks such as Cazeline and Gazeline. Variant spellings of gasoline had been used to refer to raw petroleum since the 16th century, Petrol is the preferred term in most Commonwealth countries
An engine-generator or portable generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine mounted together to form a single piece of equipment. This combination is called an engine-generator set or a gen-set. In many contexts, the engine is taken for granted and the unit is simply called a generator. Engine-generators are available in a range of power ratings. Regardless of the size, generators may run on gasoline, natural gas, bio-diesel, sewage gas or hydrogen. Most of the units are built to use gasoline as a fuel. Some engines may operate on diesel and gas simultaneously, many engine-generators use a reciprocating engine, with fuels mentioned above. This can be an engine, such as most coal-powered fossil-fuel power plants use. Some engine-generators use a turbine as the engine, such as the gas turbines used in peaking power plants. The generator voltage and power ratings are selected to suit the load that will be connected, engine-driven generators fueled on natural gas fuel often form the heart of small-scale combined heat and power installations.
There are only a few portable three-phase generator models available in the US, most of the portable units available are single-phase generators and most of the three-phase generators manufactured are large industrial type generators. In other countries where power is more common in households, portable generators are available from a few kW. Portable engine-generators may require an external power conditioner to safely operate some types of electronic equipment, small portable generators may use an inverter. Inverter models can run at slower RPMs to generate the power that is necessary, thus reducing the noise of the engine, inverter generators are best to power sensitive electronic devices such as computers and lights that use a ballast. The mid-size stationary engine-generator pictured here is a 100 kVA set which produces 415 V at around 110 A and it is powered by a 6. 7-liter turbocharged Perkins Phaser 1000 Series engine, and consumes approximately 27 liters of fuel an hour, on a 400-liter tank.
Diesel engines in the UK can run on red diesel and rotate at 1,500 or 3,000 rpm and this produces power at 50 Hz, which is the frequency used in Europe. In areas where the frequency is 60 Hz, generators rotate at 1,800 rpm or another divisor of 3600, many generators produce enough kilowatts to power anything from a business to a full-sized hospital. These units are particularly useful in providing backup power solutions for companies which have serious economic costs associated with a shutdown caused by an power outage
An ignition magneto, or high tension magneto, is a magneto that provides current for the ignition system of a spark-ignition engine, such as a petrol engine. It produces pulses of voltage for the spark plugs. The older term tension means voltage, the use of ignition magnetos is now confined mainly to engines where there is no other available electrical supply, for example in lawnmowers and chainsaws. It is used in aviation piston engines even though an electrical supply is usually available. In this case the magnetos self-powered operation is considered to offer increased reliability, firing the gap of a spark plug, particularly in the combustion chamber of a high-compression engine, requires a greater voltage than can be achieved by a simple magneto. The high-tension magneto combines an alternating current magneto generator and a transformer, a high current at low voltage is generated by the magneto, transformed to a high voltage by the transformer. Magneto ignition was introduced on the 1899 Daimler Phönix and this was followed by Benz, Turcat-Mery, and Nesseldorf, and soon was used on most cars up until about 1918 in both low voltage and high voltage magnetos.
In the type known as a magneto, the engine rotates a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet. In the inductor magneto, the magnet is rotated and the coil remains stationary, as the magnet moves with respect to the coil, the magnetic flux linkage of the coil changes. This induces an EMF in the coil, which in turn causes a current to flow. One or more times per revolution, just as the pole moves away from the coil and the magnetic flux begins to decrease. This causes the field in the primary coil to collapse rapidly. As the field collapses rapidly there is a voltage induced across the primary coil. As the points begin to open, point spacing is such that the voltage across the primary coil would arc across the points. The capacitors function is similar to that of a snubber as found in a flyback converter, a second coil, with many more turns than the primary, is wound on the same iron core to form an electrical transformer. The ratio of turns in the winding to the number of turns in the primary winding, is called the turns ratio.
Voltage across the primary results in a proportional voltage being induced across the secondary winding of the coil. The turns ratio between the primary and secondary coil is selected so that the voltage across the secondary reaches a high value
F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, Porsches current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman,911, Panamera and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called Dr. Ing. h. c, F. Porsche GmbH in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart. Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a Volkswagen. This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time, the Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen,52,000 produced. Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that ultimately led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II.
However, not all work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the stages of the war. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British, Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, and Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, during his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsches son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his fathers release in August 1947, the first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria. The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry, many regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company.
After the production of 356 was taken over by the fathers Dr. Ing. h. c. In 1952, Porsche constructed a plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie, the main road in front of Werk 1. The 356 was road certified in 1948, Porsches company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free Peoples State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital. The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, on 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. The 356, had several stages, A, B, and C, while in production
A truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size and configuration, smaller varieties may be similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles. Trucks and cars have an ancestor, the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s, the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine, that year some of Benzs trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history.
A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors, trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904,700 heavy trucks were built in the United States,1000 in 1907,6000 in 1910, after World War I, several advances were made, pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes,4,6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market, although it had been invented in 1890, the diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, it took longer for diesel engines to be accepted. The word truck might come from a back-formation of truckle, meaning small wheel or pulley, from Middle English trokell, another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning iron hoop.
In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos, meaning wheel, from trekhein, the first known usage of truck was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads and its expanded application to motor-powered load carrier has been in usage since 1930, shortened from motor truck, which dates back to 1901
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design, petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward, the functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better, Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency.
With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine. The more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective, herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a jerk pump to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch. Fuel injection was in commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Another early use of direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke and they are often started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene.
Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB601, the BMW801, German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Later versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines utilizing fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei. Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic systems in Alfa Romeo 6C2500 with Ala spessa body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system, all diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902, the first post-World War I example of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925
A motorcycle is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes, long travel, cruising, sport including racing. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club, in 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp, in developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, according to the United States Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars. The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction, there are three major types of motorcycle, off-road, and dual purpose.
Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes, there is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture, the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Daimler Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen and it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle.
The first commercial design for a cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle. He exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884, the vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888. The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a valve lever. No braking system was fitted, the vehicle was stopped by raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever, the driver was seated between the front wheels. It wasnt, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing, many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, and credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the worlds first motorcycle
Nikolaus August Otto was the German engineer who successfully developed the compressed charge internal combustion engine which ran on petroleum gas and led to the modern internal combustion engine. Nikolaus August Otto was born on June 14,1832 in Holzhausen an der Haide and he was the youngest of six children. After six years of performance he moved to the high school in Langenschwalbach until 1848. He did not complete his studies but was cited for good performance and his main interest in school had been in science and technology but nevertheless he graduated after three years as a business apprentice in a small merchandise company. After completing his apprenticeship he moved to Frankfurt where he worked for Philipp Jakob Lindheimer as a salesman of colonial goods, first was IC Alpeter and in 1860 for Carl Mertens. He traveled throughout Western Germany and sold colonial goods - coffee, rice, in late autumn of 1860 Otto and his brother learned of a novel gas engine that Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir had built in Paris.
The brothers built a copy of the Lenoir engine and applied for a patent in Jan 1861 for a liquid fueled engine based on the Lenoir engine with the Prussian Ministry of Commerce but it was rejected. Otto was aware of the concept of compressed fuel charge and tried to make an engine using this principle in 1861 and it ran just a few minutes before breaking. Ottos brother gave up on the resulting in Otto looking for help elsewhere. From 1862 to 1863 Otto experimented with the help of Cologne Mechanic Michael J. Zons in an effort to improve the engine, running low on funds in 1862 Otto worked for Carl Mertens in order to continue work on his engine. Otto was running low on funds so early in 1864 he was seeking investors to fund his research and he found Eugen Langen whose father was a sugar industrialist. Together they entered into a partnership on March 31,1864 and this was the first company in the world focused entirely on the design and production of internal combustion engines. The 1864 Otto & Langen engine was a free piston atmospheric engine and it consumed less than half the gas of the Lenoir and Hugon atmospheric engines and so was a commercial success.
The Lenoir engine was a double acting engine, in essence these engines are a steam engine altered to run on illuminating gas. The engines of Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci in their British Patent no 1625 of 1857, were built and are in a museum, unlike Ottos engine these are two stroke atmospheric engines which are not in any way comparable. Lenoirs engines were the first to be put into production with numbers sold being around 700. The Otto engine which is the predecessor of the engine as specified by the VDI is Ottos fourth design. The term Otto cycle is applied to all compressed charge, four cycle engines, Otto turned his attention to the 4-stroke cycle which he had failed at in 1862