A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, it is within that sense that charters were granted, that sense is retained in modern usage of the term; the word entered the English language from the Old French charte, via Latin charta, from Greek χάρτης. It has come to be synonymous with a document that sets out a grant of privileges; the term is used for a special case to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules and statutes from a state school. Charter is sometimes used as a synonym for "tool" or "lease", as in the "charter" of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is an original member. Anglo-Saxon charters are documents from the early medieval period in Britain which make a grant of land or record a privilege.
They are written on parchment, in Latin but with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, which correspond to modern parish boundaries. The earliest surviving charters were drawn up in the 670s; the British Empire used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth. These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, corporate colonies. A charter colony by definition is a "colony chartered to an individual, trading company, etc. by the British crown." Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant. A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs.
Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. This event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. In project management, a project charter or project definition is a statement of the scope and participants in a project, it provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project. In medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities; the date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was "founded", regardless of when the locality began to be settled. At one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are now used instead.
A charter of "Inspeximus" is a royal charter, by which an earlier charter or series of charters relating to a particular foundation was recited and incorporated into a new charter in order to confirm and renew its validity under present authority. Where the original documents are lost, an inspeximus charter may sometimes preserve their texts and lists of witnesses. Articles of Incorporation Atlantic Charter Charter Roll Charter school Chartered company Earth Charter Freedom Charter Fueros General incorporation law Magna Carta Medieval Bulgarian royal charters Papal Bull United Nations Charter
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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A self-styled order or pseudo-chivalric order is an organisation which claims to be a chivalric order, but is not recognised as legitimate by countries or international bodies. Most self-styled orders arose in or after the mid-18th century, many have been created recently. Most endure no more than a few decades. Many countries do not regulate the wearing of decorations, remain neutral as to whether any particular order is legitimate or not. Other countries explicitly regulate. For example in Sweden, decisions about medals and orders worn on a military uniform has been delegated to the General Staff; the criteria of France provide an illustrative example of those nations which take a more regulatory approach: only decorations recognised by the Chancery of the Legion of Honour may be worn publicly, permission must be sought and granted to wear any foreign awards or decorations. Dynastic orders are prohibited unless the dynasty in question is recognised as sovereign. Failure to comply is punishable by law.
A non-exhaustive list of collectively authorised orders is published by the French government. Another example is the United Kingdom, where legitimacy of any particular order is determined by the Monarch – some societies have permission from the Monarch to award medals, but these are to be worn on the right side of the chest. No UK citizen may wear a foreign award without the Sovereign's permission. Moreover, the government is explicit that permission for foreign awards conferred by private societies or institutions will not be granted; the private organisation International Commission for Orders of Chivalry maintains a set of principles to evaluate whether a chivalric order is genuine. The ICOC is not recognised by any international treaty, their definition is explicitly rejected by many countries; the ICOC was created as a temporary committee of the International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in August 1960, though it has been transformed into a permanent and independent international body.
The ICOC argues that a chivalric order must have a fount of honour as either its founder or its principal patron in order to be considered genuine. A fount of honour is a person who held sovereignty either at or before the moment when the order was established; the ICOC considers that holding sovereignty before the founding of an order is considered effective in creation of a genuine chivalric order only if the former sovereign had not abdicated his sovereignty before the foundation of the order but, had been deposed or had otherwise lost power. In the ICOC's view, some organisations create a false fons honorum in order to satisfy this requirement and give themselves apparent legitimacy; the ICOC maintains a register. Certain organisations which may appear to have a chivalric character distinguish themselves from self-styled orders of chivalry, orders legitimized by countries, those viewed as genuine by international bodies. After the medieval era, the exclusive right to confer nobility, titles and membership in Europe's state-recognized orders of chivalry was arrogated by sovereigns, exceptions being recorded in such annals as the Almanach de Gotha for dynastic orders granted by royal consorts or pretenders.
Self-styled orders may share certain other characteristics: They long ago were suppressed by the Holy See, protector of mediaeval Western military religious orders in the Holy Land or on the Iberian Peninsula. Since the 18th century, freemasonry has incorporated symbols and rituals of several medieval military orders in a number of Masonic bodies, notably the "Red Cross of Constantine", the "Order of Malta", the "Order of the Temple", the latter two featuring prominently in the York Rite of Freemasonry. Ordres et contre-ordres de chevalerie by Arnaud Chaffanjon, Mercure de France Paris 1982. Faux Chevaliers vrais gogos by Patrice Chairoff, Jean Cyrile Godefroy Paris 1985; the knightly twilight by Robert Gayre of Gayre, Lochore Enterprises Valletta 1973. Orders of knighthood and the Holy See by Peter Bander van Duren and Archbishop H. E. Cardinale, Buckinghamshire 1985. World Orders of Knighthood and Merit by Guy Stair Sainty and Rafal Heydel-Mankoo, Burke's Peerage 2006. Ephemeral Decorations, Gillingham, H. E.
New York, 1935. American Numismatical Society: Numismatic Notes and Mongraphs 66. Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard, Knights of Fantasy: an overview and critique of the self-styled'Orders' called'of Saint John' or'of Malta', in Denmark and other Nordic countries, Turku 2002, ISBN 951-29-2265-7 History of Orders of Chivalry: A Survey International Commission for Orders of Chivalry Legitimacy and Orders of Knighthood, by François V
A chapter is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings. The name derives from the habit of convening monks or canons for the reading of a chapter of the Bible or a heading of the order's rule; the 6th-century St Benedict directed that his monks begin their daily assemblies with such readings and over time expressions such as "coming together for the chapter" found their meaning transferred from the text to the meeting itself and to the body gathering for it. The place of such meetings became known as the "chapter house" or "room". A cathedral chapter is the body of advisors assisting the bishop of a diocese at his cathedral church; these were a development of the presbyteries made up of the priests and other church officials of cathedral cities in the early church. In the Catholic Church, they are now only established by papal decree. Cathedral chapters are sometimes charged with election of the bishop's replacement and with the government of the diocese during vacancies of his office.
They are made up of canon priests. "Numbered" chapters are made up of a fixed number of prebendaries, while "unnumbered" chapters vary in number according to the direction of the bishop. The chapters were led by the cathedral's archdeacon but, since the 11th century, have been directed by a dean or provost. In the Catholic Church, the chapter appoints its own treasurer and sacristan and—since the Council of Trent—canon theologian and canon penitentiary; the same council approved of other local offices, which might include precentors, almoners, portarii, primicerii, or custodes. Canons are sometimes given the functions of punctator and hebdomadarius as well. In the Church of England, the chapter includes lay members, a chancellor who oversees its educational functions, a precentor who oversees its musical services; some Church of England cathedrals have "lesser" and "greater" chapters with separate functions. A collegiate chapter is a similar body of canons who oversee a collegiate church other than a cathedral.
A general chapter is a general assembly of monks composed of representatives from all the monasteries of an order or congregation. The equivalent meetings of provincial representatives of Franciscan orders is called a Chapter of Mats. A chapter of faults is a gathering for public correction of infractions against community rules and for self-criticism separate from standard confession; the assembled body of knights of a military or knightly order was referred as a "chapter”. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chapter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 855. Fanning, William. "Chapter". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Baynes, T. S. ed.. "Chapter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 398. Cripps, H. W.. A Practical Treatise on the Law Relating to the Church and Clergy. K. M. Macmorran. Pp. 127–146
Order of chivalry
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights founded during or inspired by the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades, paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry. During the 15th century, orders of chivalry, or dynastic orders of knighthood, began to be created in a more courtly fashion that could be created ad hoc; these orders would retain the notion of being a society or association of individuals, some of them were purely honorific, consisting of nothing but the badge. In fact, the badges themselves came to be known informally as orders; these institutions in turn gave rise to the modern-day orders of merit of states. In Dell'origine dei Cavalieri, the Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino distinguished knights and their respective societies in three main categories: "Knights of the Cross", comparable to the modern term military orders "Knights of Spur", i.e. invested by the Pope or other sovereign, thus somewhat comparable to dynastic orders of knighthood, or by feudal lords and knights elderly "Knights of Necklace", i.e. purely ornamentalOver time, the above division became no longer sufficient, heraldic science distinguished orders into: hereditary, military and fees.
The Secretariat of the State of the Holy See - medieval pioneer - distinguishes orders in the following manner: State orders: "orders of merit" of a nation state, rewarding military or civil merit of its citizens based on the sovereignty of their states Pontifical equestrian orders, conferred by the Pope Sovereign orders: the only extant one in this category is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an international sovereign entity Dynastic orders of a sovereign royal dynasty, either an active "dynastic state actor", otherwise a "non-national dynastic order", as the head of a reigning royal house operating under iure collationis approved by Papal bulls in the case of older origins In a more generous distribution proposed in The Knights in the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Late Medieval Europe, the Canadian heraldist D'Arcy Boulton classifies chivalric orders as follows: Monarchical orders Confraternal orders Fraternal orders Votive orders Cliental pseudo-orders Honorific ordersBased on Boulton, this article distinguishes: Chivalric orders by time of foundation: Medieval chivalric orders: foundation of the order during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance Modern chivalric orders: foundation after 1789 Chivalric orders by religion: Catholic chivalric orders: membership for members of the Catholic Church Orthodox chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Orthodox churches Protestant chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Protestant churches Chivalric orders by purpose: Monarchical chivalric orders: foundation by a monarch, a fount of honour.
Order of Saint George, founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325 Order of the Band, founded by Alfonso XI of Castile in ca. 1330 Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III of England in 1348 Order of the Star, founded by John II of France in 1351 Order of the Knot, founded by Louis I of Naples in 1352. Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, founded by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1362. Order of the Ermine, founded by Duke of Brittany in 1381: First order to accept Women. Order of the Ship, founded by Charles III of Naples on 1 December 1381 Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund von Luxembourg in 1408. Order of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430 Order of the Tower and Sword, founded by Afonso V of Portugal in 1459 Order of Saint Michael, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469Post-medieval foundations of chivalric orders:Order of Saint Stephen Order of the Holy Spirit Blood of Jesus Christ Order of the Thistle Order of Saint Louis Order of the Seraphim Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Order of St. Patrick Order of Saint Joseph Monarchical orders whose monarch no longer reigns but continues to bestow the order:Order of the Golden Fleece Order of the Holy Spirit Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje Order of Skanderbeg Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception Order of the Crown Order of Carol I Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa Order of Saint Michael of the Wing Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of the Eagle of Georgia Order of Queen Tamara Order of the Crown of Georgia Royal Order of the Crown of Hawai'i Confraternal orders are orders of chivalry with the presidency attached to a nobleman: Princely orders were founded by noblemen of higher rank.
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Military order (religious society)
A military order is a chivalric order with military elements. Western military orders were established as Catholic religious societies. Most members titled knights were laymen. Prominent examples include the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar, as well as the Teutonic Knights in the Baltics; the Knights Templar, the largest and most influential of the military orders, was suppressed in the early fourteenth century. However, some persisted longer in their original functions, only evolving into purely honorific and/or ceremonial chivalric orders with charitable aims in modern times, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, both of which are still conferred as Papal orders of knighthood. Notably, the Teutonic Order became monastic except a limited associated confraternity of honorary Knights. In 1053, for the Battle of Civitate, the Knights of Saint Peter was founded as a militia by Pope Leo IX to counter the Normans. In response to the Islamic conquests of the former Byzantine Empire, numerous Catholic military orders were set up following the First Crusade.
The founding of such orders suited the Catholic church's plan of channeling the devotion of the European nobility toward achieving the Church's temporal goals, it complemented the Peace and Truce of God. The foundation of the Knights Templar in 1118 provided the first in a series of organized military forces for the purpose of opposing Islamic conquests in the Holy Land and in the Iberian Peninsula — see the Reconquista — as well as Islamic invaders and pagan tribes in Eastern Europe which were perceived as threats to the Church's supremacy; the first secularized military order was the Order of Saint George, founded in 1326 by King Charles I of Hungary, through which he made all the Hungarian nobility swear loyalty to him. Shortly thereafter, the Order of the "Knights of the Band" was founded in 1332 by King Alfonso XI of Castile. Both orders existed only for about a century; the original features of the military orders were the combination of religious and military ways of life. Some of them, like the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights of Saint Thomas had charitable purposes and cared for the sick and poor.
However, they were not purely male institutions, as nuns could attach themselves as convents of the orders. One significant feature of the military orders was that clerical brothers could be subordinate to non-ordained brethren. In 1818, the orientalist Joseph von Hammer compared the Catholic military orders, in particular the Knights Templar, to certain Islamic models such as the Muslim sect of Assassins. In 1820, José Antonio Conde suggested they were modeled on the ribat, a fortified religious institution which brought together a religious or hospital way of life with fighting the enemies of Islam; however popular such views may have become, others have criticized this view, suggesting there were no such ribats around Outremer until after the military orders had been founded. The role and function of the military orders extended beyond their military exploits in the Holy Land and the Baltics. In fact, they had staff throughout Western Europe; the majority were laymen. They provided a conduit for cultural and technical innovation, such as the introduction of fulling into England by the Knights Hospitaller, the banking facilities of the Knights Templar.
These are military orders listed chronologically according to their dates of foundation and extinction, sometimes approximate due to scarce sources, and/or repeated suppressions by Papal or royal authorities. Presently active institutions are listed in consideration with their legitimacy according to the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry, they are divided into international and national according to their adherence and enrollment, disregarding the extent of eventual gradual geographical distribution outside of their region of concern. Chivalric and/or military orders. Confraternity of Belchite, "experimental" confraternity of knights founded in 1122 by King Alfonso the Battler of Aragon Order of Saint Blaise, founded in the 12th century in Armenia to defend the country against the attacks of the Muslims Order of Saint George, world's first secular chivalric order founded in 1326 by King Charles I of Hungary Knights of the Band, early honorific military order founded c. 1330 by King Alfonso XI of Castile Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, military order founded in 1350 by Duke Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, the first called the Order of the True Lover's Knots in memory of a bracelet of hair presented to the founder by a lady, but upon the election of Amadeus VIII to the pontificate in 1439, it changed its name for that of the Annunciation of angel Gabriel Order of the Dove, short-lived and controversial order founded in 1379 by King Juan I of Castile Order of Saint Anthony, Bavarian military order founded in 1382 by Duke Albert I, Duke of Bavaria Military Order of Cross-bearers with the Red Star on a Blue Field, hospitaller and/military order active from the 12th century until suppressed in 1656 by Pope Alexander VII.
Order of Saint Hubert, early honorific military order founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard VII