The Philadelphia Mint was created from the need to establish a national identity and the needs of commerce in the United States. This led the Founding Fathers of the United States to make an establishment of a continental national mint, a main priority after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States; the Coinage Act of 1792 was entered into law on April 2. It proclaimed the creation of the United States Mint. Philadelphia at that time was the nation's capital; the Mint Act instituted a decimal system based on a dollar unit. David Rittenhouse, an American scientist, was appointed the first director of the mint by President George Washington. Two lots were purchased by Rittenhouse on July 18, 1792, at Seventh Street and 631 Filbert Street in Philadelphia for $4,266.67. The next day, demolition of an abandoned whiskey distillery on the property began. Foundation work began on July 31, by September 7, the first building was ready for installation of the smelting furnace; the smelt house was the first public building.
A three-story brick structure facing Seventh Street was constructed a few months later. Measuring nearly 37 ft wide on the street, it only extended back 33 ft; the gold and silver for the mint were contained in basement vaults. The first floor housed deposit and weighing rooms, along with the press room, where striking coins took place. Mint official offices were on the second floor, the assay office was located on the third floor. A photograph of the Seventh Street building taken around 1908 show that by the year 1792 and the words "Ye Olde Mint" had been painted onto the facade. Between the smelt house and the building on Seventh Street, a mill house was built. Horses in the basement turned a rolling mill located on the first floor. In January 1816, the smelt and mill houses were destroyed by a fire; the smelt house was never repaired and all smelting was done elsewhere. The mill house, destroyed, was soon replaced with a large brick building, it included a new steam engine in the basement to power the machinery.
Until 1833, these three buildings provided the United States with hard currency. Operations moved to the second Philadelphia mint in 1833, the land housing the first mint was sold. In the late 19th or early 20th century, the property was sold to Frank Stewart, who approached the city, asking them to preserve or relocate the historic buildings. With no governmental help, the first mint was demolished between 1907 and 1911. Now, only a small plaque remains to memorialize the spot. On July 4, 1829, a cornerstone was laid for the building at the intersection of Chestnut and Juniper Streets, it was designed by William Strickland. The second Philadelphia Mint, the "Grecian Temple", was constructed of white marble with classic Greek-style columns on front and back. Measuring 150 ft wide in front by 204 ft deep, it was a huge improvement over the first facility, in space as well as image. Opening in January 1833, its production was constrained by the outdated machinery salvaged from the first mint. Franklin Peale was sent to Europe to study advanced coinmaking technologies which were brought back and implemented, increasing productivity and quality.
Sold in 1902, the second mint was demolished. The cornerstone buried in 1829 was unearthed and contained a candy jar with a petrified cork stoppering it. Inside the jar were three coins, a few newspapers, a scroll with information on the first mint and the creation of the second; the site has been occupied since 1914 by 1339 Chestnut Street. The third Philadelphia Mint was built at 1700 Spring Garden Street and opened in 1901, it was designed by William Martin Aiken, Architect for the Treasury, but it was constructed under James Knox Taylor. It was a block from the United States Smelting Company, at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. In one year alone, the mint produced 501 million coins, as well as 90 million coins for foreign countries. A massive structure nearly a full city block, it was an instant landmark, characterized by a Roman temple facade. Visitors enjoyed seven themed glass mosaics designed by Louis C. Tiffany in a gold-backed vaulted ceiling; the mosaics depicted ancient Roman coinmaking methods.
This mint still stands intact, much of the interior is intact, as well. It was acquired by the Community College of Philadelphia in 1973. A tribute page has been created. Two blocks from the site of the first mint, the fourth and current Philadelphia Mint opened its doors in 1969, it was designed by Philadelphia architect Vincent G. Kling, who would help design Five Penn Center, Centre Square, the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts, it was the world's largest mint when it was built and held that distinction as of October 2017. The Philadelphia Mint can produce up to one million coins in 30 minutes, it took three years for the original mint to produce that many. The mint produces medals and awards for military and civil services. Engraving of all dies and strikers only occurs here. Uncirculated coins minted here have the "P" mint mark, while circulated coins from before 1980 carried no mint mark except the Jefferson nickels minted from 1942–1945 and the 1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar coins. Since 1980, all coins minted.
Tours can be taken. This takes place via an enclosed catwalk above the minting facility
The International Socca Federation is an organization which sets up the Socca World Cup. It sets up as a separate, independent governing body for small-sided football – 6 a side – in order to look after the interests of the sport separately to the existing governing bodies; the ISF was formed in late 2017, by leading providers of small-sided football across Europe and the rest of the world. The ISF aims to bring together experts from across the globe, it was launched at a ceremony in Birmingham in February 2018, with guests of honour including World Cup Referee Mark Clattenburg. As an inclusive organisation, the ability to register to the ISF is open to anyone who wants to run the national 6 a side team in their country, subject to an approval process. There were 51 countries invited to the launch in Birmingham, UK; the governance structure announced. From Pakistan, Shahzeb Mehmood Trunkwala of World Group was elected as Honorary Vice President, along with English solicitor and charity founder Tim Ollerenshaw The International Socca Federation began to make senior managerial appointments after February's meeting, with Greek Businessman Thanos Papadopoulos – founder of Libero S & T - taking over a CEO and German events mogul Christoph Köchy being Head Of Sponsorship They will be joined by other experienced staff, such as Stuart Winton, tournament director.
He has been considered one of the finest referees in socca, having offciated at prestigious events such as Star Sixes at the O2 Arena. The International Socca Federation has signed up some of the football figures to be ambassadors; the head of these is Brazilian World Cup winner Ronaldhino, who has experience of socca, having played in exhibition games in Pakistan in summer 2017. Many of the players who played in these games have signed up to be ambassadors, such as Robert Pires and Ryan Giggs - who has given his shirt to Leisure Leagues - one of the partners in the Federation; the 2019 Socca World Cup took place in Crete from 12-20 October. The first Socca World Cup took place in Portugal at the purpose built Trunkwala Stadium; the matches kicked off on 23 September 2018, when Canada took on Cape Verde and ran all the way through to 29 September, culminating in Germany's 1-0 win over Poland. In match, refereed by Mark Clattenburg; the tournament received coverage throughout the world, including high profile endorsements from the likes of Lukas Podolski and the Neymar foundation.
The second edition took place in Maribor, Slovenia on 5–September 2019. Slovenian side ARKO Kljucarovci beat last year's champions Dynamik Torun after extra time 4:2; the first Socca Champions League took place on 18–21 October 2018 in Porec, Croatia. Dynamik Torun emerged as champions, beating another team from Poland Kluge Team Plock 2:1 in the final
Professor Marie Therese Jane Cassidy is a pathologist and academic. From 2004 to 2018 she was State Pathologist of Ireland, she is Professor of Forensic Medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland and Trinity College, Dublin. Marie Cassidy was born in Rutherglen, Scotland, in 1951, the granddaughter of emigrants from Donegal, she is married with two children. Cassidy studied medicine at the University of Glasgow, graduating in January 1978, she became a member of the Royal College of Pathologists in 1985 and a forensic pathologist the same year, making her the first female full-time forensic pathologist in the United Kingdom. She held a professorship of forensic medicine at the University of Glasgow before moving to Ireland in 1998 to take up the position of Deputy State Pathologist, she was appointed to the position of State Pathologist in January 2004, succeeding Professor John Harbison to become the first female State Pathologist in Ireland. She is Professor of Forensic Medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland and Trinity College, Dublin.
Cassidy has worked as a consultant for the United Nations, helping to identify the remains of victims of war crimes in Bosnia. Cassidy announced her intended retirement as State Pathologist of Ireland on 7 September 2018, she has acted as a consultant to the television crime series Taggart. A character in the book The Human Body is based on her, she advised Irish crime writer Alex Barclay. Pathology Forensic pathology List of pathologists