Philip III of Spain

Philip III was King of Spain. He was as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death in 1621. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Although known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been negative – an'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a'miserable monarch,' whose'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War through an successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.

After Philip III's older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos' condition had been the influence of the warring factions at the Spanish court. He believed that Carlos' education and upbringing had been badly affected by this, resulting in his lunacy and disobedience, accordingly he set out to pay much greater attention to arrangements for his sons. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga Prince Diego's governor, to continue this role for Philip, chose García de Loaysa as his tutor, they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos. Philip's education was to follow the model for royal princes laid down by Father Juan de Mariana, focusing on the imposition of restraints and encouragement to form the personality of the individual at an early age, aiming to deliver a king, neither tyrannical nor excessively under the influence of his courtiers.

Prince Philip appears to have been liked by his contemporaries:'dynamic, good-natured and earnest,' suitably pious, having a'lively body and a peaceful disposition,' albeit with a weak constitution. The comparison with the memory of the disobedient and insane Carlos was a positive one, although some commented that Prince Philip appeared less intelligent and politically competent than his late brother. Indeed, although Philip was educated in Latin, French and astronomy, appears to have been a competent linguist, recent historians suspect that much of his tutors' focus on Philip's undeniably pleasant and respectful disposition was to avoid reporting that, languages aside, he was not in fact intelligent or academically gifted. Nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – a gentleman of the King's chamber, in his early teens.

Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philip's tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence. By now in poor health himself, King Philip II was becoming concerned over the prince's future, he attempted to establish de Moura as a future, trusted advisor to his son, reinforcing de Loaysa's position by appointing him archbishop; the prince received a conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son, King Philip III. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, on 18 a year after becoming king. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret was considered by contemporaries to be pious – in some cases, excessively pious, too influenced by the Church –'astute and skillful' in her political dealings, although'melancholic' and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court.

Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret, alongside Philip's grandmother/aunt, Empress Maria – the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – formed a powerful, uncompromising Catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life, they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip acquired other religious advisors. Father Juan de Santa Maria – confessor to Philip's daughter, doña Maria, was felt by contemporaries to have an excessive influence over Philip at the end of his life, both he and Luis de Aliaga, Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618. Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was criticised for her influence over the King's actions.

The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of ro

Godesberg Memorandum

The Godesberg Memorandum is a document issued by Adolf Hitler in the early hours of 24 September 1938 concerning the Sudetenland and amounting to an ultimatum addressed to the government of Czechoslovakia. It was named after Bad Godesberg, where Hitler had met Neville Chamberlain for long talks on 23 September continuing into the next day. At the time of the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Sudetenland was a German-speaking part of the Empire which fell to the new state of Czechoslovakia, itself dominated by the Czechs. Many Sudeten Germans wished to become part of the new German-speaking state of German Austria, they hoped to join Austria. However, the Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 confirmed the inclusion of the German-speaking territories within Czechoslovakia. By the beginning of 1938 most Sudetens aspired to be integrated into Nazi Germany, fast advancing in economic success and international prestige. Following an active propaganda campaign, Adolf Hitler began publicly to demand the "return" to Germany of a large part of the Sudetenland containing some three million German speakers.

In March 1938 France and the Soviet Union gave guarantees of military support to Czechoslovakia if Hitler began to use military force to seize the Sudetenland, but on 24 March Neville Chamberlain refused a French request to give the same pledge. In early September 1938, Chamberlain sent Lord Runciman to attempt to negotiate a settlement of the crisis between the Germans and the Czechs. On 7 September the Sudetens, led by Konrad Henlein, broke off the talks with Runciman, on 12 September Hitler publicly advised the Sudetens to stand firm for union with Germany. On 15 September Chamberlain flew to Berchtesgaden to meet Hitler, who demanded self determination for the Sudetenland. Upon his return to London after his Berchtesgaden summit, Chamberlain told his Cabinet that Hitler's aims were "strictly limited" to the Sudetenland, he felt it was quite possible to avoid war provided everyone played their part, he had discussions with the French, in which he agreed with them a joint proposal to all parties for the gradual transfer to Germany of the areas which had a majority of Sudeten Germans.

Chamberlain returned to Germany, meeting Hitler on 22 September at Bad Godesberg to propose this solution. In presenting their peace plan for the transfer of the Sudetenland, the British delegation was most unpleasantly surprised to hear Hitler reject the terms he had himself presented at Berchtesgaden as now unacceptable. Hitler now demanded an immediate transfer, including occupation of the Sudetenland by German forces, he issued the "Godesberg Memorandum" to clarify his public position. In his Memorandum Hitler proposed a plebiscite, without identifying the exact area for it, provided for the plebiscite areas to be occupied by both German and Czech forces, pending the outcome of voting. German forces should enter the Sudetenland by 1 October. Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be ceded to Germany no than September 28, 1938 with no negotiations between Prague and Berlin and no international commission to oversee the transfer; this was seen as a signal that Hitler had decided to put an end to Chamberlain’s peace-making efforts.

The arrangements for the transfer were to be decided bilaterally between the Germans and the Czechs and by no one else. The "memorandum" stated an ultimatum for Czech acceptance of it, expiring at 2 pm on 28 September 1938. If the Czech government would not agree to Hitler's demands by Germany would take the Sudetenland by force. Chamberlain protested about being presented with an ultimatum, to which Hitler replied that the document was entitled “Memorandum”, so could not be called an ultimatum; the Czechs announced on 28 September that they rejected the Memorandum, the French ordered the mobilization of 600,000 men. The Royal Navy was mobilized the same day. Although Hitler was angry at the rejection of his memorandum, he feared a war against both Britain and France, he did not order an invasion on 28 September, having instead agreed to Chamberlain's proposal for a further meeting the next day, now at Munich, between four heads of government, Chamberlain for Britain, Hitler for Germany, Prime Minister Daladier for France and Mussolini for Italy, with no Czech or Soviet participation.

On 1 October, a pact was signed which provided for possession of the Sudeten Province to be transferred to Germany, with Britain and France seeking to sweeten this bitter pill for the Czechs by guaranteeing the new borders of Czechoslovakia. There was a separate agreement between the British and the Germans that stated that all future disputes between them would be the subject of negotiation. On 1 October, German troops marched into the Sudetenland, incorporated into Germany; some 115,000 Sudeten Czechs and 30,000 Sudeten Germans, including Social Democrats and Jews, fled to what was left of Czechoslovakia. By 1 March 1939, the number of refugees, as reported by the Institute for Refugee Assistance, stood at 150,000. 10 September 1938 — In a speech at Nuremberg, Hermann Göring calls the Czechs a "miserable pygmy race" who are "harassing the human race". That evening President of Czechoslovakia, broadcasts an appeal for calm. 15 September — Chamberlain arrives in Berchtesgaden to begin negotiations with Hitler 17 September — Chamberlain returns to London to confer with his cabinet.

22 September — Chamberlain arrives in Bad Godesberg for further talks with Hitler over the crisis. Hitler demands a German occupation of all German Sudeten t

Weirdmageddon 3: Take Back The Falls

"Weirdmageddon 3: Take Back The Falls" is the series finale of the American animated television series Gravity Falls, created by Alex Hirsch. The episode was written by Shion Takeuchi, Mark Rizzo, Josh Weinstein, Jeff Rowe, Hirsch, directed by Stephen Sandoval; the series follows twelve-year-old twins Dipper and Mabel Pines, who stay for the summer with their great uncle Grunkle Stan in a tourist trap called the Mystery Shack, set within the fictional town of Gravity Falls, Oregon. In this episode, Stan's brother Ford discovers the extent of Bill Cipher's plans, while the Mystery Shack crew forms a plan to fight back and reclaim the town. A final confrontation with Bill leads to greatest sacrifice. "Weirdmageddon 3: Take Back The Falls" was first broadcast on February 15, 2016 on Disney XD, was watched by 2.47 million households in the United States. It became the most watched telecast in the history of Disney XD, beating "A Tale of Two Stans", another episode of Gravity Falls. Dipper, Mabel and Wendy return to the Mystery Shack to find Stan, a handful of town residents, several of the paranormal creatures they have befriended taking shelter there.

The unicorn hair Ford lined the base of the Shack with protects them from Bill's powers. Stan believes they should wait it out. Old Man McGucket leads the survivors to transform the Shack into a giant mech, they drive to the Fearamid and defeat Bill's allies. Bill himself comes out to fight. Dipper and Mabel lead a small group aboard the Fearamid, they find a keystone in Bill's throne that, once dislodged, restores the petrified humans including Ford. Ford spray-paints a Zodiac wheel on the ground, having seen the image described as a means to trap Bill in artifacts from earlier civilizations; the wheel requires ten specific people, indicated by symbols on it that Ford only had deduced the meaning of, to stand on it and hold hands in a ring. Stan refuses to join until Ford both apologizes for allowing Bill a foothold on this world and thanking him for rescuing him. Ford reluctantly does so, but as Stan joins the wheel, Ford corrects Stan's grammar under his breath, Stan and Ford get into a fight.

Before they can be broken up, Bill appears, his eye having regenerated and having defeated the Shacktron after finding its Achilles' heel. Bill burns the Zodiac wheel, secures Dipper, Mabel and Ford, turns the others into banners as to keep them from interfering. Bill threatens to kill Dipper and Mabel unless Ford allows him into his mind to find out how to escape Gravity Falls. Mabel sprays paint into Bill's eye. Bill gives chase. Left alone and Ford have a heart-to-heart talk. Although there is a way to defeat the demon by erasing him from someone's mind using the memory gun, Ford believes the only way to save the kids is to allow Bill into his mind, since his own memories cannot be erased because of a metal plate in his head. Dipper and Mabel lead Bill in a chase around the Fearamid but are caught. Bill returns them to the throne room and again threatens to kill them. Ford agrees to allow Bill into his mind. Bill leaves his physical body, which petrifies, enters a white void with one door. Bill is shocked to find himself in a replica of Stan's Mystery Shack den.

Stan's mindscape self reveals that he and Ford swapped places to trick Bill into entering a mind susceptible to the memory gun's effects, expresses his willingness to sacrifice his memories to save the world and his family. In the real world, Ford reluctantly fires the memory-erasing gun at Stan. Bill starts to burn and is punched into oblivion by Stan’s mindscape self, while the rest of Stan's mindscape is consumed in blue flames. With Bill erased from existence, the portal to the other dimension closes, drawing in all of Bill's demon cronies. Once closed, the town and its population revert to their pre-apocalyptic states. Stan's family and Soos take him back to the nearly-destroyed Mystery Shack, hoping the sight of the building will help bring back his memories. Mabel finds her scrapbook and shows Stan all the fun they had over the summer bringing back Stan's memories. Over the next week, Sprott the farmer and the Valentino family deal with remaining supernatural phenomena. Many of the townsfolk join with Dipper and Mabel's friends to celebrate the twins' 13th birthday at the Shack.

Ford offers to sail around the world for a year with Stan, a dream they had together as boys, but Stan states that he would have to close the Shack, which disappoints the townspeople since it draws tourists to their town. Stan happily names Soos the new manager of the Shack. Stan, Soos, Wendy and Grenda all see off Dipper and Mabel as their bus for home pulls up. Wendy gives him an envelope to open on the ride home; the bus pulls away as the group waves goodbye. As the twins think back on their time in Gravity Falls, flash-forwards show Soos running the Shack with his girlfriend Melody, as well as Stan and Ford at sea; when the bus passes the town's limits, Dipper opens Wendy's letter to find their friends' and great uncles' signatures, promising to see them next summer. The credits of the show include a montage of twins' summer and eventual arrival in Piedmont, California. In a live-action post-credits scene, the stone body